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BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 

OLD NORTH STATE" EDITION 

THIS EDITION IS STRICTLY 
LIMITED TO SEVEN HUNDRED 
AND FIFTY REGISTERED AND 
NUMBERED SETS, OF WHICH 
THIS IS SET NUMBER e*-%* 




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@ iograpfjital Q istor^ 
of Q ort|) Q aroUna 



From Colonial Times 
to the Present 




Editor-in-Chiej^ 

Samuel A^ Ashe 



VOLUME V 



Charles L. Van Noppen 

PUBLISHER 

Greensboro, N. C. 
MCM VI 




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Advisory Board vii 

Contents ix 

Portraits xiii 

G)NTRIBUTORS XV 

^Allen, Eleazar I 

Belo, Alfred H 8 

Blue, John 14 

Boyd, Adam 18 

Bruton, John Fletcher 23 

Butler, John 29 

Buxton, Jarvis 38 

Buxton, Ralph P 41 

Buxton, John Cameron 46 

Carr, Lewis Albert 53 

Carteret, Peter 59 

Catch MAID, George 63 

Cleveland, Benjamin 69 

Clinton, Richard . . • 74 

Cox, Orlando R 79 

Dickson, William 85 

Fanning, David 90 

Forney, Peter 98 

Forsyth, Benjamin 102 



X CONTENTS 



Gore, Joshua Walker 107 

Gray, Julius Alexander no 

Hall, John 117 

Hamilton, John 121 

Hassell, Gushing Biggs 124 

Hassell, Sylvester 129 

Hawkins, Philemon, Sr 135 

Hawkins, Philemon, Jr. 139 

Hawkins, Benjamin 144 

Hawkins, William 154 

Hawkins, John D 160 

Hawkins, Alexander Boyd 164 

Hawkins, William J 169 

Jackson, Andrew 174 

Jenkins, John 183 

Johnston, Gabriel 187 

King, William R 194 

McAden, Rufus Yancey 198 

Maffitt, John Newland 203 

McIvER, Charles Duncan 212 

McIvER, John McMillan 230 

Mangum, Willie Person 236 

Mangum, Willie Person, Jr 258 

Mangum, Priestley Hinton, Sr 263 

Metts, James Isaac 267 

Moore, Bartholomew Figures 275 

Morgan, Samuel Tate 287 

Pearson, Richmond M 295 

PiTTMAN, Thomas Merritt 310 

Polk, Thomas 316 

Poteat, William Lxduis 321 



CONTENTS xi 



Pratt, Joseph Hyde •. 327 

Reinhardt, Robert Smith 333 

Rex, John 339 

Ricks, Robert Henry 342 

Royster, Frank Sheppard 345 

RuFFiN, Thomas 350 

RuFFiN, Thomas, Jr. 360 

Skinner, William 367 

Stanly, Edward 370 

Starkey, John 379 

Stockard, Henry Jerome 383 

Sumner, Jethro 395 

Taylor, John Lxjuis 402 

Thompson, George Warren 407 

Van Noppen, Leonard Charles 412 

Walker, Henderson 422 

Watkins, William Henry 426 

Weeks, Stephen Beauregard 433 

Whitehead, Marcellus 442 

Whitehead, John 446 

Whitehead, Richard Henry 449 

Whitehead, William Henry 452 

Williamson, Hugh 458 

Williams, Benjamin 467 

Wilkes, John . 473 

WiNBORNE, Benjamin Brodie 480 

WiTHERSPOON, John 487 

Wright, Richard Harvey 493 




McIvER, Charles D Frontispiece 

Belo, Alfred H facing 8 

Blue, John *' 14 

Bruton, John F *' 23 

Buxton, Jarvis " 38 

Buxton, Ralph P *' 41 

Buxton, John Cameron *' 46 

Carr, Lewis Albert " 53 

Cox, Orlando R " 79 

Gore, Joshua Walker " 107 

Gray, Julius Alexander " no 

Hassell, Gushing Biggs " 124 

Hassell, Sylvester " 129 

Hawkins, Philemon, Jr " 139 

Hawkins, Benjamin " 144 

Hawkins, William '* 154 

Hawkins, John D ** 160 

Hawkins, Alexander Boyd " 164 

Hawkins, William J " 169 

McAden, Rufus Yancey " 198 

McIvER, John McMillan *' 230 

Mangum, Willie Person " 236 

Mangum, Willie Person, Jr " 258 



xiv PORTRAITS 



Mangum, Priestley Hinton, Sr, facing 263 

Metts, James Isaac " 267 

Moore, Bartholomew Figures " 275 

Morgan, Samuel Tate " 287 

Pearson, Richmond M " 295 

Pittman, Thomas Merritt "310 

Poteat, William Louis "321 

Pratt, Joseph Hyde " 327 

Reinhardt, Robert Smith " 333 

Ricks, Robert Henry " 342 

RoYSTER, Frank Sheppard " 345 

RuFFiN, Thomas " 350 

Stockard, Henry Jerome " 383 

Thompson, George Warren " 407 

Van Noppen, Leonard Charles " 412 

Watkins, William Henry " 426 

Weeks, Stephen Beauregard " 433 

Whitehead, Marcellus " 442 

Whitehead, John " 446 

Whitehead, Richard Henry " 449 

Whitehead, William Henry " 452 

Wilkes, John " 473 

WiNBORNE, Benjamin Brodie " 480 

Wright, Richard Harvey " 493 




Samuel A. Ashe Theo. F. Kluttz 

Richard H. Battle, A.B.,LL.D.Patrick R.Law, A.B.,B.D.,D.D. 

G. Samuel Bradshaw, A.M. M. L. Lawrence 



John C. Buxton 
Joseph P. Caldwell 
J. B. Carlyle, A.m. 
Collier Cobb, A.M. 
R. D. W. Connor, Ph.B. 



James H. Myrover 
Frank Nash 

Louis Julien Picot, M.D. 
Thomas M. Pittman 
Edward W. Sikes, Ph D. 



Robert P. Dick, A.M.,LL.D. William C. Smith, A.B. 



Benjamin F. Dixon 

Al Fairbrother 

Robert B. Glenn 

J. G. dE R. Hamilton, A.M. 

Marshall De L. Haywood 

George Howe, Ph.D. 



James H. Southgate, A.B. 
Leonard C. Van Noppen, A.M. 
Francis P. Venable, Ph.D. 
Stephen B. Weeks, Ph.D.,LL.D. 
George Stockton Wills, A.M. 
Robert W. Winborne, A.B. 



Thos.H.Hume,A.M.,D.D.,LL.D.Francis D. Winston, A.B. 
James McNeill Johnson William A. Withers, A.M. 





ELEAZAR ALLEN 

[HE subject of this sketch, Eleazar Allen, for 
some fifteen years, during a most interesting 
period of the development of the Province of 
North Carolina, played an important part in 
public affairs. Not only, as stated on his tomb- 
stone, "did God endow him with an admirable 
imderstanding, and his parents with a liberal education, of both 
of which he made the most excellent use," but by his family con- 
nections and his public employment he exerted a strong influence 
on the course of events. 

He was born in Massachusetts in 1692, of English parentage. 
His grandfather. Reverend John Allen, of Norfolk, England, was 
educated at Cambridge, where he took B.A. in 161 5, and M.A. 
in 1 619. In 1637 he came to America and organized the church 
at Dedham, Massachusetts, which he served as minister until his 
death in 1671. One of his sons. Doctor Daniel Allen, graduated 
at Harvard in 1675, was librarian of the college, and took the 
degree of M.A. in 1678. He married Mary Anna Bendall, and 
had by her, among other children, the subject of this sketch. 
After the death of Doctor Allen his widow married Samuel 
Lynde. In her will Mrs. Lynde makes a bequest "unto my lov- 
ing son, Eleazar, of Carolina." It is interesting to note also that 
a sister of the subject of this sketch, Katherine Allen, married 
Josiah Willard, and bequests were likewise made by Mrs. Lynde 



NORTH CAROLINA 



to her Willard grandchildren. Circumstances led the footsteps 
of young Allen to Charleston, South Carolina, where he became 
a merchant, and there at some time prior to 1722 he married 
Sarah Rhett, the eldest daughter of Colonel William Rhett, who 
was born June, 1697. Another daughter of Colonel Rhett mar- 
ried "King" Roger Moore of the Cape Fear, and a niece of Mrs. 
Allen married Thomas Franklin, an officer of the British Navy, 
and another niece married William Dry of the Cape Fear. 

In 1723 Colonel Maurice Moore determined on making the set- 
tlement of the Cape Fear, and sought to interest his connections 
in South Carolina, as well as those in the Albemarle region, in this 
enterprise. Roger Moore and his family were among the first to 
move, and Mr. Allen agreed to join them in their new home. In 
1725 he obtained a grant for land on the Cape Fear adjoining the 
Orton plantation, where Roger Moore built, and there later he 
made his residence, calling his plantation Lilliput. 

It appears, however, that Mr. Allen, about that time, returned 
to Massachusetts and graduated at Harvard in 1726. He was 
then about thirty-four years of age; and possibly it may have 
happened that he had left Harvard in his youth without graduat- 
ing, and he now returned merely to finish his course, perfect him- 
self in some lines, and obtain his degree. Coming back to 
Charleston, he was for some time Clerk of the Assembly of the 
Province of South Carolina, and he remained in his old home 
until 1734. It was expected, however, that he would take up his 
residence on the Cape Fear earlier, and in August, 1730, when 
Burrington was appointed Governor of North Carolina, he rec- 
ommended Allen to be one of his Council ; and he was appointed, 
but he remained in South Carolina and was not sworn in as a 
Councillor until November 2, 1734. Governor Johnston arrived 
at the Cape Fear on October 27th ; on November 6th Governor 
Burrington met the General Assembly at Edenton, and most of 
the Council were in attendance at that place. On November 2d, 
Halton, Allen and Roger Moore, being at Brunswick, formed a 
Council, and Governor Johnston exhibited his commission and 
began his administration. On the 6th of March following Gov- 



ELEAZAR ALLEN 



emor Johnston appointed Allen Receiver-General of the Province 
in the place of John Hamerton, who was then absent from the 
Province; and a fortnight later he appointed him an assistant 
Judge of the Court of Oyer and Terminer, and directed that the 
first term of that Court should be held at Newton on the following 
13th of May; and he also appointed Allen one of the Justices of 
New Hanover Precinct. Mr. Allen's business qualifications, as 
well, perhaps, as his fine education, at once gave him prom- 
inence in public matters ; and at the first meeting of the General 
Assembly, he and Secretary Nathaniel Rice were appointed a 
committee of the Council to draw up an address to the Governor ; 
and the General Assembly recommended to the Governor and 
Council his appointment as Treasurer of New Hanover Precinct 
in the place of John Baptista Ashe, who had recently died, and 
the appointment was made. 

The matter of the dividing line between North and South Caro- 
lina had long been unsettled. Originally the Lords Proprietors 
intended to establish a number of counties in Carolina, each with 
its local government, but all under a general Parliament. At the 
very first there were established, with undefined limits, the coun- 
ties of Albemarle, Clarendon and Craven. At length, about 
1689, when Ludwell was appointed Governor, his commission 
gave him authority "over that part of our Province lying north 
and east of Cape Fear." Then Bath County was established with 
undefined southern limits, and Clarendon County ceased to ex- 
ist, probably in 1667 when the Cape Fear was deserted and re- 
lapsed into an unoccupied wilderness. When Carteret Precinct 
was established, it extended south to the limits of North Caro- 
lina. The South Carolina authorities claimed the Cape Fear 
River as the boundary, and in 1692, under this claim, a settlement 
had been projected, if not actually made, on the Cape Fear River, 
and a grant of 40,000 acres to Landgrave Smith had been located 
about where the town of Brunswick was afterwards built ; and in 
subsequent years other South Carolina grants were located on 
the Cape Fear agreeably to this claim on the part of the South 
Carolina authorities. But Burrington, who was interested in the 



NORTH CAROLINA 



settlement of the Cape Fear and had two plantations on that 
river, when he went to England in 1729, on the purchase of Caro- 
lina by the Crown, to push his claim for appointment as first 
Royal Governor, exerted himself to have the limits of the Prov- 
ince extended further to the southward. In 1732, learning that 
some South Carolina patents were being located on the north side 
of the Wackamaw River, on lands formerly occupied by the Con- 
garee Indians, he advertised in the newspaper at Charleston that 
that section was in North Carolina. Burrington's instructions 
were that "the line should begin at the sea thirty miles distant 
from the Cape Fear, and should run at the same distance from 
that river to its head, and thence a due west course, unless 
Wackamaw lie within thirty miles of the Cape Fear River ; then 
Wackamaw was to be the boundary." A question arose whether 
that meant the mouth of Wackamaw, or any part of that stream. 
In consequence of the representations made by Burrington and 
his strenuous endeavors to advance the interests of North Caro- 
lina, it was ordered that each province should appoint commission- 
ers to agree upon a proper line subject to the King's approval. 
Eleazar Allen was appointed one of the commissioners on the 
part of North Carolina, and the commissioners met at his house 
at Lilliput on the 23d of April, 1735, and agreed that a due west 
line should be run from Cape Fear along the seacoast for thirty 
miles, and then proceed northwest to the 35th degree of north 
latitude, etc. 

One week later the commissioners began to run the line, and 
the thirty miles carried them to ten poles from the mouth of Little 
River. In September they ran the line seventy miles to the north- 
west. In 1737 the line was extended in the same direction twenty- 
two miles; and from there in 1764 it was extended due west to 
Waxhaw Creek. This line was very much more favorable to 
North Carolina than any that had been previously proposed. In- 
deed the South Carolinians had contended for a boundary that 
would have thrown into their province the greater part of west- 
em Carolina. It is apparent, therefore, that Mr. Allen and his 
associates on that occasion rendered the Province excellent service. 



ELEAZAR ALLEN 



Indeed he was well qualified to discharge the duties that devolved 
upon him in this and other employments of a public nature, for he 
was without doubt a man of superior parts and fine attainments. 
That the Cape Fear could even at that early date boast a society 
not surpassed in refinement elsewhere in America is a matter 
highly interesting and creditable. Not only were many of the 
first settlers men of wealth and ability, but there was a diffusion 
of education that imparted to the settlement a notable character ; 
and Mr. Allen himself was an example of this culture. His 
library, according to the inventory before us, contained some 300 
English and Latin volumes, including the standard works of that 
era : the classics, poetry, history, travels and works of fiction, as 
well as of a religious nature. Besides, there were fifty volumes 
in French: history, travels, science, poetry, and French transla- 
tions of Latin authors. The last book in the catalogue is "La Vie 
de Jesus Christ." 

On a careful examination of this inventory of a library in use 
on the Cape Fear at that early period, one can but admire the fine 
taste and culture that led to such a collection of standard litera- 
ture. It is an evidence of a refinement and an elevation of senti- 
ment that reflects high credit on the community. 

Moreover, a similar illustration is found in the will of Mrs. 
Allen: "I ordain that the said Mrs. De Rossett and Mrs. Dry 
have the care of all my private papers. ... As to all my 
other letters to and from my several correspondents abroad and 
in America, as also what miscellaneous I have of the amusing 
kind, I commit them entirely to their discretion;" from which 
it would appear that Mrs. Allen employed herself at times in 
literary composition. 

Mr. Allen's worth was appreciated by Governor Johnston, and 
in addition to his duties as Councillor and Judge he was Receiver- 
General of the province, having the duty of collecting the quit 
rents. 

This last employment entailed no end of trouble and finally 
brought him into financial difficulty. The original practice, under 
the Act of 171 5, was to pay these rents in commodities at a fixed 



NORTH CAROLINA 



valuation on the plantations. The authorities now undertook to 
change that practice, and a conflict ensued that led to the cessation 
of payments. An Act was, however, passed in 1737 that com- 
promised the points at issue, and all difficulties would have been 
removed if that Act had not been disallowed in England ; but it 
was annulled, and there was trouble in collecting the rents. Mr. 
Allen made frequent representations as to these matters, but 
with such little avail that after his death a claim was made by 
the Crown against his estate and his property was held liable for 
his failure to collect the rents. 

Hardly had Governor Johnston gotten warm in his seat as Gov- 
vemor before he became interested in promoting the growth of 
Newton, later called Wilmington, to the detriment of Brunswick, 
throwing himself in conflict with the gentlemen who had settled 
in the older town. Thus the Governor, along with Murray, Innes, 
and other Wilmingtonians, came into collision with the Moores 
and their connections, who were called by the Governor's faction 
"The family." Mr. Allen belonged to "The family," and there 
was some friction between him and the Governor until that matter 
was finally settled. 

On the nth of July, 1749, Edward Moseley, who was Treas- 
urer of the Province, died, and Mr. Allen at the succeeding ses- 
sion of the General Assembly, October, 1749, was elected treas- 
urer in his place. But he himself died the succeeding January, 
and at the next session, April, 1750, John Starkey was nominated 
by the Lower House, the Council proposing another. Starkey 
was appointed, but that was a beginning of the controversy be- 
tween the two Houses over the right to appoint a treasurer, which 
never was finally settled. 

When Burrington came over, he was accompanied by William 
Smith, then appointed Chief- Justice of the Province. A year or 
two later Smith returned to England and Burrington appointed 
Daniel Hanmer Chief-Justice in his absence. Smith died in 
1743, and Governor Johnston appointed John Montgomery Chief- 
Justice. Montgomery died in 1744, and Edward Moseley was 
appointed to succeed him. Enoch Hall seems to have been then 



ELEAZAR ALLEN 



appointed Chief- Justice, perhaps being commissioned by the 
Crown. In March, 1748, Eleazar Allen, Edward Moseley and 
Roger Moore were appointed Associate- Justices of the Province 
by the Governor. In October of 1749 Hall was acting as Chief- 
Justice, but on the i8th of December, 1749, Eleazar Allen took 
the probate of a deed as follows: "Personally appeared before 
me Eleazar Allen, Chief- Justice of the Province," etc. 

On the tombstone of Mrs. Allen is an inscription reciting that 
she was the widow of Chief-Justice Allen. From these facts it 
may be inferred that during the absence of Enoch Hall, the Chief- 
Justice of the Province, towards the end of the year 1749, Eleazar 
Allen, being the senior Associate Justice, temporarily filled the 
dfice of Chief- Justice by appointment of the Governor. But 
Allen did not long live to enjoy his new office. He died Janu- 
^U 7f 1750- On his tombstone the date is stated, January 7, 
1749, but evidently that is according to the old system when the 
year began on the 25th of March instead of on January ist; for 
he certainly was alive in the Fall of 1749. On his tombstone it 
is recorded that "his life was a constant course of piety and vir- 
tue," and indeed every memorial that has come down to us in- 
dicates that he was held in high esteem; and in a period when 
there was much jealousy among the public men, there was no 
word of disparagement recorded against him. Mrs. Allen sur- 
vived her husband eleven years, dying February 26, 1761. She 
passed her widowhood on the Lilliput plantation, but appears to 
have made two voyages to England. Having no children of her 
own, she felt almost a mother's affection and interest in her nieces, 
the daughters of Roger Moore and his wife, and of Captain 
Franklin and of William Dry; and a most affectionate remem- 
brance of her and of her husband was long cherished by a large 
circle of friends and connections among the people of the Cape 
Fear. 

The writer of this sketch is much indebted to Mr. W. B. Mc- 
Koy, of Wilmington, for the use of his collection of manuscripts 
in the preparation of this sketch. 

5*. A, Ashe. 




ALFRED H. BELO 




^LFRED H. BELO, soldier, statesman and 
journalist, was born, May, 1839, in Salem, 
North Carolina. He was of Moravian stock, 
and the family name can be traced back to 
1620. Seeking a home where they could wor- 
ship according to the dictates of their con- 
science, his forefathers located at Salem in North Carolina, where 
they were well esteemed by their associates. Colonel Belo's 
father was Frederick Edward Boehlo, but he chose to drop the 
Frederick and to cut his last name to Belo. He was a man of 
good business qualifications, owning an iron foundry, a linseed 
oil mill, a farm of some four hundred acres, and a wholesale and 
retail general mercantile store, and was prosperous. When the 
subject of this sketch was sufficiently advanced at the Moravian 
Boys' School, he entered the Masonic Institute at Germanton, and 
from there he passed to the care of the celebrated Doctor Wilson 
in Alamance County, under whose tutelage he completed his 
education. 

His father was a self-reliant man, who managed every detail 
of his large business himself, and when his son returned from 
school at the age of nineteen he proceeded to train him as his 
business associate. 

In i860, when he had just attained his majority, he was en- 
trusted with the responsibility of making the annual purchases 




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ALFRED H. BELO 



at New York for the supply of the Belo business, having ex- 
hibited unusual capacity as a business man with so short a 
training. 

When the crisis of 1861 came on, although he deprecated the 
precipitous course of the Southern States that seceded, upon the 
call to arms by North Carolina he raised a company, of which, 
on May 22, 1861, he was commissioned captain and which be- 
came Company D of the 21st Regiment, William W. Kirkland 
being the colonel. 

Captain Belo shared in the fortunes of his command and regi- 
ment, and by his gallantry and bravery won the applause of both 
his men and his superiors. His regiment was in the battle of 
First Manassas and was in hot pursuit of the routed Federal 
Army for several miles, thinking they were going right into Wash- 
ington; but to their amazement they were ordered to arrest the 
pursuit and retrace their steps. The regiment later was assigned 
to Trimble's brigade and participated in the historic valley cam- 
paign, performing a great part in the battle of Winchester, where 
General Banks was defeated, routing Shields, and indeed, in re- 
peated engagements, sweeping away no less than four Federal 
armies, and then striking McClellan's right in front of Richmond. 

On the reorganization of the 21st, Captain Belo was assigned 
by Governor Clark as adjutant of the camp of military instruction 
at Raleigh, and in the Fall of 1862 he served on the staff of Gen- 
eral Hoke, near Winchester, and performed staff duty at Peters- 
burg, and in March, 1863, he was commissioned major and as- 
signed to the S5th Regiment, which became a part of General 
Davis's Mississippi Brigade, In the Spring of 1863 this brigade 
constituted a portion of Longstreet's command that was sent to 
make an attack on Suffolk, Virginia. While on this duty a differ- 
ence arose between Captain Terrell and Captain Cousins on the 
staflF of General Laws and the officers of the 55th that led to an 
interesting episode. The former had stated that the S5th North 
Carolina had been assigned to protect a battery which the Federal 
forces captured, and Colonel Connally, denying that statement, 
demanded that they should correct their report, which they de- 



10 NORTH CAROLINA 

dined to do. Thereupon, on Colonel Connally's suggestion, it was 
agreed that the field officers and the captains of the 55th should 
take the matter up and by continued challenges fight it out to the 
bitter end. Agreeably to this, Colonel Connally challenged As- 
sistant Adjutant-General Terrell, and Major Belo challenged 
Captain Cousins. The meeting between the four officers oc- 
curred at the same hour and with only a ridge of hills separating 
them. Cousins selected large-calibre rifles and a distance of forty 
paces. Both fired simultaneously. Major Belo's shot passed 
through Captain Cousins's hat, and Cousins's shot missed Belo. 
Somewhat dissatisfied with their bad shooting, at the second shot 
Belo missed Cousins, while Cousins's ball passed through Belo's 
coat just above the shoulder. Before their third shot, the friends 
of Colonel Connally and of Captain Terrell, who had engaged in 
an effort to make an honorable settlement, succeeded in doing 
so; and Captain Terrell, becoming satisfied that he was in error, 
withdrew the original cause of offence, which prevented further 
hostilities between him and Colonel Connally; and this informa- 
tion was communicated just in time to prevent the exchange of a 
third shot between Major Belo and Captain Cousins. The affair 
was then amicably settled. 

Major Belo's coolness and courage were unsurpassed. From 
Gettysburg, where he was in command in the railroad cut, down 
through the carnage at Cold Harbor, his spirit and gallantry and 
persistence were heroic. At Gettysburg he was severely wounded, 
and there received his promotion as lieutenant-colonel, and he 
was again wounded at Cold Harbor. But he was engaged in all 
the great battles up to that time, although because of his wounds 
he was unable to serve with his regiment after that. The his- 
torian of the 55th Regiment says : 

"Colonel Belo's wound was in the arm, half-way between the elbow and 
shoulder joint; the bone was shattered and the operation of re-section was 
performed. The loss to the regiment was irreparable. He had been with 
the regiment in all its hard-fought battles and had the absolute confidence 
of every man in the regiment. He had a genius for organization and ap- 
preciated every detail that contributed to the effectiveness or character 



ALFRED H. BELO ii 



of a military organization. He was in North Carolina at the time of Gen- 
eral Lee's surrender, and he reported to General Beauregard and was as- 
signed by him to the command of a force." 

When Johnston surrendered he rode off to join the army of 
General Kirby Smith across the Mississippi, and after all the 
Confederate armies had surrendered, he pushed on to Texas on 
horseback, intent on gaining a livelihood. Taking up the first 
work that offered, he taught a small school at Galveston for some 
time, but soon found employment with the Galveston News, 
whose owner, Willard Richardson, quickly appreciated his su- 
perior excellence as an organizer and manager and proposed a 
partnership. Entering upon a journalistic career, he became one 
of the most successful newspaper men and one of the greatest 
editors of the South. It was a labor vast in its dimensions, for 
the people were accustomed to the old sentimental Southern way 
of doing business. The credit system, the sensitiveness of the 
advertiser and subscriber when the ordinary rules of business 
were applied to them, made the management doubly difficult. It 
not only involved a reform in the office, but in education of the 
people to proper methods of dealing with the newspaper. But 
through it all the policy outlined by the new manager was un- 
swervingly enforced. Besides the change in business methods 
he introduced new purposes in the editorial conduct of the jour- 
nal. For the most part, the Southern journals had been attached 
to the fortunes of individuals and sought the elevation to office 
of those politicians who they preferred should be honored, nat- 
urally condemning those whose views were antagonistic to the 
views of the paper, exploiting the virtues of friends and merciless- 
ly excoriating foes ; but under the new departure, put in force by 
Colonel Belo, his paper was free from such blemishes. Ab- 
solute truth, as far as it could be obtained, in the publication of 
the news, and absolute fairness to all men, were the cardinal 
principles on which the editorial management was made to stand. 
The struggle was great. His individual labors extended through- 
out the day and far into the night. But they were not without 
avail. His impress was recognized by the people, and the sterling 



12 NORTH CAROLINA 

worth of his paper became realized by the public. His journal 
began to prosper. Its utterances on public affairs at a period 
when conditions and situations existed that had never before 
been encountered commanded attention and respect. Its refusal 
to become an organ of individuals or of political parties called 
upon it the anathemas of ambitious men ; but it was always sup- 
ported by the conservative element of the State, which, realizing 
the mission of a great newspaper, bulwarked it with an irresistible 
strength. The growth of the commonwealth was great, but the 
paper kept step with step in its advance. It became a great power 
and influence which was wielded for the progress of the people 
and the advantage of the State. 

The immensity of Texas prevented the daily delivery of the 
Galveston paper to its subscribers in the remote sections. It 
was therefore determined to establish another and complete paper 
at Dallas in North Texas, where the immigration into the State 
had been most important, and the Dallas News was the result. 
Both papers were owned and managed by the A. H. Belo Com- 
pany. Correspondents were established at Washington and at 
Austin, who were of the first order of ability and were loyal to 
their papers and to the State. Wires connecting the two plants 
were installed and the new experiment in the newspaper business 
was entered upon. This new departure in journalism eventuated 
in new conditions that had to be met. Special trains had to be run 
to convey the newspapers either to other localities or to overtake 
or connect with other trains; so that now the Galveston News 
and the Dallas News dispatch three special trains daily to reach 
patrons who cannot be speedily served by the regular mails as 
established by the Government. 

The papers grew marvellously in wealth and their progress 
was marked by a wider range of influence, which they exerted 
invariably for the development and well-being of the State. Each 
newcomer from across the border was greeted by them and 
quickly learned to depend on them for his daily news. The 
weekly edition grew into a semi-weekly, and it is doubtful if any 
paper, not devoted to special lines, has a larger circulation. 



ALFRED H. BELO 13 



Colonel Belo indeed had the true idea of the profession of a 
journalist. He discussed matters from his own standpoint. His 
newspaper was the vehicle to the public of his own views on the 
public questions of interest to the people. Truth, reason and 
justice were interwoven in the presentation of his thoughts and 
gained the respectful consideration of the better element through- 
out the g^eat State of Texas. His position thus became of the 
first consequence, and he exerted an influence much greater than 
that which was accorded to any other citizen of the State. Un- 
trained at first in newspaper management and in the vocation of a 
journalist, fortunately he was well equipped by his natural char- 
acteristics and by the business qualities which had been developed 
under the methods practised by his father and during his trying 
experiences of the war, so that he rose equal to the demands of his 
new business, and promptly and effectively solved the questions 
of business details as they presented themselves, and solved them 
so correctly that- his papers have long stood as a great institution 
in the most important Southern States. 

It has brought him not merely wealth but fame and power, 
which he enjoyed and used for the advancement of his State. 

At length, however, failing health superinduced by his old 
wounds required that he should put his house in order, and under 
the influence of the affections of his earlier years he turned once 
more to the home of his childhood, and in April, 1901, he died 
at Asheville, North Carolina, and was buried in Salem, North 
Carolina, according to his request, amid the surroundings of his 
youth. 

In 1868 Colonel Belo was happily married to Miss Nettie En- 
nis, of Houston, Texas. Two children were born to this union: 
Alfred H. Belo, Jr., who worthily succeeded his father as Presi- 
dent of the A. H. Belo Company, and carried the business on to 
even a higher degree of success until his untimely death in April, 
1906, and Jeanette, who married Mr. Charles Peabody, of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts. 

5. A. Ashe. 





JOHN BLUE 

HE career of John Blue is a fine exemplifica- 
tion of success achieved in life by native North 
Carolinians without the aid of friends or other 
influences than capacity and persistent intelli- 
gent labor. He was bom on a farm in Que- 
whiffle Township, Cumberland County, on 
August 4, 1845, and so is now just threescore years of age. He 
was the second son and fifth child in a family of eleven children, 
while his father was the youngest of thirteen. His parents, Neill 
McK. Blue and Eliza Smith, were sturdy Scotch on both sides. 
His grandfather, John Blue, was born in the Isle of Jura in 1765 
and immigrated to America in early childhood with his father's 
family and settled in the sandhills of Cumberland County. 

The Scotch had begun their settlement on the Cape Fear as 
far back as 1734, about the time that Governor Johnston, himself 
a Scotchman, came to this colony; and the migration continued 
until the opening of the Revolution. The causes that led to this 
movement were not all political, but the industrial condition in 
their old homes had changed towards the middle of that century, 
and life in the New World opened up so many possibilities to 
improve their fortunes that the emigrants gladly availed them- 
selves of every opportunity to come to America. The health- 
fulness, the salubrity, the equable temperature, and the unfailing 
water supply of the upper Cape Fear attracted the hardy Scotch- 
men to those parts, where the record is that many of them have 
passed the century mark, and as strong as they have been in their 




r- 



/•y- 1 1 1 



1^ 



^ V C 



" -A:.-:-. 







(^J^^^- i^L^a^ 



JOHN BLUE 15 



physical constitution, equally remarkable are they in the develop- 
ment of high character, intelligence and sterling worth. The 
Highlanders of Cumberland County did not generally enlist in 
the cause of American Independence, and Peter Blue, the father 
of John Blue, mentioned above, was allied with the Tory leaders 
of that region. After Comwallis had gone north and Greene had 
returned to South Carolina, the Tories became very active on the 
Cape Fear. On one occasion when Colonel Wade and Captain 
Culp, who were Whigs, were returning to their homes, a band of 
Tories, with whom was Peter Blue, fell upon their camp at Piney 
Bottom and massacred such of the party as were there. To punish 
them for this. Colonel Wade and Culp collected about one hun- 
dred dragoons under Captain Bogan and raided the section about 
Drowning Creek, and ascertained the names of all the Tories who 
were in that affair and began the work of exterminating them. 
Towards the end of their expedition they reached Rockfish and 
came to the house of Peter Blue, where they found him, and, 
also, Archibald McBride, who was a patriot Whig. Immediately 
both of them were shot, McBride unfortunately being killed on 
the spot, and Blue badly wounded. 

On the return of peace these Scotchmen who had been loyalists 
during the war became entirely reconciled to the triumph of those 
who had fought for independence ; and in succeeding generations 
all those partisan differences have been entirely forgotten, and 
the families of those who participated in those bloody scenes of 
partisan warfare have largely intermarried, their descendants 
reverencing the bravery, spirit and courage of those who fought 
for their King as well as those who hazarded all for independence. 
Mr. Blue's childhood was spent in moderate, healthful toil. 
His parents were neither rich nor poor, but occupied the happy 
middle ground, manhood's cradle, where there is nothing to 
waste, and no actual want; a typical Scotch couple and faithful 
prototypes of that parent pair, where : 

"The mother, wi* her needle and her shears, 
Gars auld claes look amaist as weel's the new — 
The father mixes a' with admonition due." 



i6 NORTH CAROLINA 

The sublime faith of the mother and the sturdy honesty of the 
father have left their imprint uneflFaceable on the character of 
their son. 

At the age of eighteen Mr. Blue became a member of Com- 
pany B, 6th Battalion, Armand L. De Rossett captain, and ren- 
dered such service as was required of him imtil he was discharged 
with Johnston's army at Greensboro in May, 1865. 

Because of the circumstances of the war Mr. Blue's education 
was limited, but after the close of hostilities his educational train- 
ing was supplemented by one or two terms in a very efficient high 
school, which was kept at that time at Jackson Springs by N. D. J. 
Qark, and he profited very much by the instruction he received 
at that institution. 

In 1867, at the age of twenty-two, Mr. Blue's battle of life be- 
gan in earnest. He had at that time a capital of not more than 
$200; but so prudent, so enterprising, so active and industrious 
was he that every year brought him fresh success and inspired 
him with hope of better things for the future. He became actively 
engaged as a turpentine operator, and he continued in that busi- 
ness for more than twenty years, branching out and constantly 
becoming a more important factor in that line of work. The 
secret of his success was that from the first he determined to keep 
inviolate all his obligations, and his reputation in that regard 
soon secured him unlimited credit, which, however, he has ever 
been chary of using. To this he added an extreme care at all 
times in regard to the details of his business, which would have 
assured him success, even without that intuitive judgment in 
crises which enabled him to know what to do without apparently 
having to take the trouble to think it out. 

In 1892 Mr. Blue chartered and began to build the Aberdeen 
and Rockfish Railroad, running from Aberdeen eastward through 
a belt of as fine yellow pine timber as ever grew in the world, 
large quantities of which he had the foresight to purchase in the 
days when it had but little money value. This enterprise has 
proved enormously profitable, and the railroad has been extended 
until it now forms a connecting link with the Atlantic Coast line. 



JOHN BLUE 17 



a few miles south of Fayetteville. Besides being the owner of 
nearly all the stock of this valuable railroad, Mr. Blue has quietly 
invested his earnings in large tracts of timber in Georgia and 
Alabama, so that now he is easily the wealthiest man in Moore 
County ; but withal he is as unassuming, easily approachable, and 
as careful of the rights of others as when he had not thought of 
ever gaining this distinction. 

In 1874 Mr. Blue married Miss Fannie A. Owen, of Cumber- 
land County, and to this marriage there were born eight chil- 
dren, two of whom died in infancy, the other six still remaining 
at home with their parents. 

In 1881 Mr. Blue, who has always been a member of the Dem- 
ocratic Party, served his community in the only political office 
he has ever held. He was elected as State Senator from Cumber- 
land and Harnett Counties. In that body he took deservedly 
high rank because of his business qualities and information. He 
was appointed a member of the committee on the State debt and 
rendered efficient and valuable service in that connection; and 
he was also appointed a member of the committee on claims. 
Among his fellow-members were some of the best men of the 
State, and he established himself high in their regard. 

In his church affiliations Mr. Blue is a Presbyterian, and he 
served his congregation, Sandy Grove Church, as deacon from 
1872 till 1890, and since that time the Bethesda Church as ruling 
elder. He is deeply religious, with a childlike faith, but entirely 
free from intolerance and from that spirit which has too often 
caused cruelties to be committed in the name of the Prince of 
Peace. 

Busy a man as Mr. Blue is, he is never too busy to visit the sick 
in person ; and his many acts of relieving distressed persons by his 
personal ministrations, which are always done without ostenta- 
tion, attest his kindness of heart and human sympathy and stand 
in refreshing contrast to the tendency of some wealthy men to 
purchase a reputation for human kindness. 

/. McN, Johnson. 




ADAM BOYD 




{DAM BOYD occupied no inconspicuous place 
in North Carolina at the time of the Revolu- 
tion, as well as before and after that war. He 
was a native of Pennsylvania, born November 
25, 1738, and of Presbyterian antecedents, 
though he himself later became connected 
(after the Revolution) with the Church of England under its 
new name — the Protestant Episcopal Church. Mr. Boyd was 
a son of the Reverend Adam Boyd and his wife, Jane Craighead. 
In January, 1764, before he began his first work in Wilmington 
as an editor (or "printer," as editors were then called), Mr. 
Boyd was initiated into the Masonic fraternity, probably as a 
member of St. John's Lodge, now No. i, which had been chart- 
ered ten years prior thereto and is still in existence. 

It was on October 13, 1769, that Mr. Boyd began the publica- 
tion of the Cape Fear Mercury at Wilmington. This was the 
second paper published in that town, and its editors used the 
presses of Andrew Stuart, whose publication was called the 
North Carolina Gazette, Another North Carolina Gazette was 
published at New-Bern a little later. In 1767 Stuart's paper was 
discontinued, and this left the field occupied by the Mercufy alone. 
In the troublous and uncertain days preceding the Revolution, 
as well as during that war, Mr. Boyd was a firm and uncompro- 
mising foe to British oppression, and his paper was the mouth- 



ADAM BOYD 19 



piece of the patriots of the Cape Fear section as well as elsewhere 
in North Carolina. Could a full file of the Mercury be obtained, 
it would settle the long-standing controversy about the Mecklen- 
burg Declaration of Independence of May 20, 1775. What pur- 
ported to be a fac-simile of a copy containing that Declaration 
appeared in the issue of Collier's Weekly, of Philadelphia, for 
July I, 1905. The paper from which this fac-simile was made 
was afterwards examined by Dr. Worthing^on Chauncey Ford, 
of the Library of Congress, and pronounced by him a "clever 
forgery." Several gentlemen from Charlotte, who were deeply in- 
terested in proving the authenticity of the Declaration, also ex- 
amined the alleged Mercury and were of the same opinion as 
Doctor Ford. About the end of the year 1773 Mr. Boyd married 
Mrs. Mary De Rossett, relict of Moses John De Rossett, who 
had distinguished himself by his patriotic action while mayor of 
Wilmington in the Stamp Act times, but he died on Christmas 
day, 1767. When the troubles with the mother country broke 
out afresh in 1774, Mr. Boyd was a brother-in-law of Colonel 
James Moore, and otherwise was connected with leading patriots 
on the Cape Fear. He himself was an ardent patriot and 
a member of the committee of safety. He served with Har- 
nett and others on the local committee of correspondence, and 
entered with enthusiasm on the execution of measures that the 
situation required. Upon the opening of active hostilities with 
Great Britain, Mr. Boyd entered the Continental Army on Jan- 
uary 4, 1776, as ensign in the ist North Carolina Regiment, 
then commanded by Colonel James Moore, his brother-in-law. 
On March 3, 1776, Ensign Boyd was promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant, but soon thereafter — in May, 1776 — resigned his com- 
mission. Something more than a year later, Mr. Boyd re-entered 
the service, being commissioned chaplain of the 5th Regiment on 
October i, 1777. By what authority he then acted in a minis- 
terial capacity is not positively known. In his younger years his 
religious affiliations were probably Presbyterian, and he was not 
ordained in the Protestant Episcopal Church until after the war. 
In May, 1775, "Reverend Mr. Boyd" presented to the Pro- 



20 NORTH CAROLINA 

vincial Congress at Hillsboro two hundred copies of the pastoral 
letter of the Synod of Philadelphia on the subject of the war; 
and it is thought that this gentleman was Mr. Adam Boyd, and 
at that time he was probably a Presbyterian Licentiate. Hav- 
ing in the first flush of patriotic ardor enlisted as a soldier, he 
later appears to have considered it more seemly that he should 
render service as a chaplain. 

On August i8, 1778, Mr. Boyd became brigade-chaplain. Dur- 
ing his service he went with the army through its terrible north- 
em campaign in the Winter of 1777- 1778, and served on a number 
of courts martial, as well as in other military capacities. He re- 
signed on June i, 1780. 

After his return home Mr. Boyd was not idle, but set about to 
devise means for the relief of suffering among the American 
prisoners at Charleston. On June 3, 1780, he wrote Governor 
Abner Nash as follows: 

"As soon as I got home I wrote a letter to General Hogun, requesting 
him to acquaint me of the wants of himself and his fellow-sufferers, that I 
might endeavor to supply them. I took the liberty of assuring him that 
Your Excellency would give me all the assistance therein that was in your 

power As I am very certain our officers are in great want of 

many articles of clothing, I submit it to Your Excellency if it would not 
be well to send a flag, either with a letter to know their particular wants, 

or with such articles as we know they must stand in need of 

I shall most cheerfully go in with the clothing, should Your Excellency 
think proper to grant me a flag, for I think it my duty, as a servant of 
the States, to do every service in my power ; but for that corps it is more 
especially my duty to exert myself in everything." 

In the same letter he adds: 

"I have a large quantity of paper, very fit for cartridges, both small and 
large. Would it not be proper for the Commissary of Stores, or some 
other State officer, to get it for the use of the State?" 

On June 5th, a few days after this letter was written, Mr. Boyd 
was still at his old home in Wilmington. 

When Craig took Wilmington, Mrs. Boyd remained at her 



ADAM BOYD 21 



home, and she witnessed the cruel treatment of Cornelius Har- 
nett, who, when taken in Onslow County from a sick-bed and 
exhausted by the fatigue of his journey, was brought into the 
town, thrown across a horse's back, like "a sack of meal." Later 
she herself was driven from town by the British commander, and 
took refuge at the residence of her sister, Mrs. Moore, on the 
North East; and once that house was bombarded by the enemy, 
who alleged that some of the patriots were harbored there. When 
later in life Mr. Boyd went to the West, she did not accompany 
him. Indeed, during the last years of her life she was afflicted 
with total blindness, and remained with her daughter, Mrs. 
Toomer, a child of her first marriage. Her marriage with 
Mr. Boyd was without issue. 

Just after the Revolution Mr. Boyd aided in organizing the 
North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, and was one of the 
original members of that order. A little later he went to Georgia. 
On August 18, 1788, Mr. Boyd was ordained to the priesthood 
in the Protestant Episcopal Church, by the Right Reverend Sam- 
uel Seabury, Bishop of Connecticut, and for a while was rector 
of St. James's Church at Wilmington. He had remained only 
a short while, however, when the poor state of his health forced 
him again to leave Wilmington, and return to Georgia. At 
Augusta, in the last-named State, he held a charge from 1790 to 
1799. His health there was poor and he met with little encour- 
agement. In a letter written to Judge Iredell on February 15, 
1792, he stated that he had sought the post of chaplain in the 
event that a garrison should be stationed there. 

While at Augusta, in 1799, Mr. Boyd repulsed from the com- 
munion table a woman of questionable character, and this gave 
rise to a controversy which finally caused him to abandon that 
place. He went to Tennessee, and was at Nashville in 1800. 
Shortly thereafter he went to Natchez, Mississippi, and there re- 
mained until his death, on March 7, 1803. In Natchez he found 
some friends from North Carolina, and their society was a source 
of g^eat satisfaction to him. 

Mr. Boyd was afflicted with almost every physical malady that 



22 NORTH CAROLINA 

human flesh is heir to during his later years — gout, asthma, lame- 
ness and other infirmities. On April i8, 1800, he wrote: 

"I shall not repine, and hope to preserve such a sense of the goodness 
of God as shall secure for my mind such a calmness which is natural to 
a trust in that Power. Yet with grief and shame I confess I am not as 
tranquil as I was. Continual disappointments and losses I now fear have 
an influence I did not expect. If you knew all, or one-half, you would say 
that to be serene under such a mountain requires more strength of mind 
than is commonly the lot of man. Indeed, I do not think it attainable 
without superior aid. Perhaps I failed in this in being too secure or too 
confident in myself; the first I think the cause: as to the last, I know I 
have no strength. I am too thoughtless in everything ; hence all, or nearly 
all, the evils of my chequered life." 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 






'(f>J 




JOHN FLKTciii'/i:: r>;:i: :< ■' 



[)cihap.-> as much ];\ -l c • ' 
cmhk a^ bv \\liat ii. h .-" • 
hib cart-er lias hcen t t.«. : ». 
V ^ ^ |_j»,j>r *r-,!f ^'^'^'^ i^ravtio-I. Witli'i.t :i 
i22j£5^®<S^ ^"'^^ ^^•^^'^ l»tc.--iic ]-\ ^'.If-tra . 
:.i " -i v'J?urc«i bcb-'la*-. W'iihoiu wrali' , ■• 
:-"<t'/.l c Hin^rllor of iho wxaltliy. W'il^M :.t ' 
f.'- • 's, he has \v«>ii * »r hirii'^'^lf a Iiijb t ' <• i- ' 




of his p(;« 



:•! ' 



: *aK.''-Ai<' a^ tlu-iui^ 



. r\ "b^taclrs havt. iv.j,>\ r>Xi>:h : • '. ) with " - 

- '• .,i:lc .is^aip^t tl> m ••• as f'T.^cl *'.l- Ciiai.ir .•,••' 

: /T'.'i. ♦.. m '.>! his .ar. \. 

I«'l\n lilt hcT i»riit..t, V a^ l-r;! at W'cr "..;... " . . 
'. "lit'.. ?\urlh ^ ar"l'!K». May 2(/. I'-oi. 

r >\i.'-'i' .In, wivi ..or.i;l:t rclii^'c in \ ■ a: i tnar, ,::•.• • •. .> 

:-' l'-an<"( whi^h tollDWc^l tlu' ri."'0.-..i ; T i^- I. » • . .s. 

>'n''.c,^ IP'::, nf <lecp rcHi:u.u5; :v'iir.^«. : . • vf.r -. ' .»:<!- 
V. '.kniL^. tl-cir chaiaviori^tic^ liave r^ i'm*'*;.-, -I ' : wr \> - lity. 
'. ' '• nc\ iWuV^n's father \va> I^ax' i l\as'!)v.r\ '".Mit.**:. a M.i'M"(iist 
p,\-a«'hfr of irorc than average a]n!a\ I .<m'--' 1 • f ,^r(-at Cv'in- 
r:.. i; ^cih*^. <trcnc:;thened aial iro.MU,. I hy (a-, ^r a'al dili.i;cTit 
^1:m.. a sT,.*akrr of fnroc aii'l •' .<p. .'■,.. . a j)raitical Christian 
wi'Ja 'at cant, the iiitiiiencc of rib characV a' aiui hi\ left a di ep 




/ 



, -piCOi 








JOHN FLETCHER BRUTON 

OHN F. BRUTON'S success has been marked 
perhaps as much by the obstacles he has over- 
come as by what he has done. In either case 
his career has been one at which he may justly 
feel gratified. Without a collegiate education, 
he has become by self-training a learned lawyer 
and a cultured scholar. Without wealth, he has become the 
trusted counsellor of the wealthy. Without help from influential 
friends, he has won for himself a high place in the confidence and 
esteem of his people. Paradoxical though it may seem, these 
very obstacles have had much to do with his success. In the 
struggle against them was forged the character which lies at the 
foundation of his career. 

John Fletcher Bruton was born at Wentworth in Rockingham 
County, North Carolina, May 29, 1861. His ancestors were 
Huguenots, who sought refuge in America from the persecutions 
in France which followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 
Strong men, of deep religious feelings, home-loving and hard- 
working, their characteristics have reappeared in their posterity. 
Colonel Bruton's father was David Rasberry Bruton, a Methodist 
preacher of more than average ability. Possessed of great com- 
mon sense, strengthened and broadened by close and diligent 
study, a speaker of force and eloquence, a practical Christian 
without cant, the influence of his character and life left a deep 



24 NORTH CAROLINA 

trace upon the character of his son. Colonel Bruton's mother, 
Margaret G. Nixon, died while he was an infant. His father 
married a second wife, Jennie V. Mauney, to whom the child's 
training was committed. She gave him regular duties about the 
house — cutting the wood, working in the garden, feeding the 
horse, milking the cow — which taught him early in life the mean- 
ing of responsibility and the value of methodical habits. In more 
important ways than this, however, the character and influence 
of the step-mother were felt. At that period educational ad- 
vantages were limited. The ravages of Reconstruction had de- 
stroyed the public school system of the State, which had not been 
fully restored. 

The preachers of the State, however, have ever been warm ad- 
vocates of education, often preaching its importance from their 
pulpits, and they have managed to secure for their children 
primary training at least, and by reason of their deep conviction 
of its importance have inspired their children to seek academic 
training. The father of Colonel Bruton was not an exception to 
the rule ; he was poor, but by sacrifices he was able to secure for 
his son the advantage of attendance on private primary schools, 
and what with the generosity of certain teachers towards preach- 
ers' children, and especially the faithful and devoted efforts of a 
loving step-mother, the subject of this sketch gained a fairly good 
primary training. His step-mother was an ambitious woman of 
strong character and fine intellect, and it was under her persistent 
training and efforts that the fire of ambition was first lighted in 
the boy's soul. He was persuaded to believe that the future was 
pregnant with possibilities greater than the realities about him. 
She assured him of this many times and compelled him to study. 
While his father was presiding elder of the Salisbury District, 
North Carolina Conference, and a resident of Statesville, young 
Bruton enjoyed the marked advantage of attending the school of 
J. H. Hill, a well-known and capable teacher. After two years 
here, he spent two years at the famous Bingham School. To the 
admirable training received under Colonel Bingham he attributes 
much of his success. By this time his ambition had turned to- 



JOHN FLETCHER BRUTON 25 

ward the law, but having to pay a part of the cost of his years at 
school, he of necessity had to defer his law studies until the debt 
could be cancelled. 

In the Fall of 1881, therefore, he became a teacher in the Wil- 
son Public School. His success in the classroom met with de- 
served promotion in June, 1883, when he was elected to the super- 
intendency of the schools. After a successful year's work as 
superintendent, he resigned to enter the Law School at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina under the instruction of Doctor John 
Manning, one of the greatest law teachers the State has pro- 
duced. In the Fall of 1884 he was licensed to practise in the 
courts of North Carolina, and settled at Wilson, where he had 
made many warm friends. 

Qosely identifying himself with the interests of the com- 
munity. Colonel Bruton lost no opportunity to give his encourage- 
ment and support to helpful enterprises, whether industrial, in- 
tellectual, or religious. His community interest, his ability in 
conducting his clients' causes, his fidelity to various trusts con- 
fided to him, won his way into the confidence and good-will of 
the people. From the first success in his profession was assured. 

In November, 1887, Colonel Bruton was married to Miss Hattie 
Tartt Barnes, daughter of John T. Barnes, a prominent and in- 
fluential citizen of Wilson. In her he has found a companion who, 
sympathizing with his ambitions, has been to him a constant 
source of inspiration. Three children have been bom to them, 
one of whom died in infancy. 

In 1889 he was elected captain of Company F of the 2d Regi- 
ment of the State Guard. After three years' capable service, he 
received a commission as colonel of the regiment. The military 
training received at Bingham's school, added to natural inclina- 
tions, made him one of the most efficient officers of the State 
Guard. Though he was strict in the enforcement of discipline, he 
was popular with the officers and privates, and when he resigned 
his commission seven years later, he left the 2d Regiment with- 
out a superior in the State. 

As a member of the I. O. O. F., Colonel Bruton has manifested 



26 NORTH CAROLINA 

great zeal in promoting its interests, and has received much 
honor at the hands of his fellows. He was elected grand-master 
for 1891 and 1892, and the Odd Fellows' Orphan Home was es- 
tablished at Goldsboro during his term as grand-master, he being 
among the first advocating it; for 1892- 1893 he was grand-rep- 
resentative, and again for 1895 and 1896. These honors came 
to him as a testimonial from his fellow-members of his devotion 
to the Order. Colonel Bruton is also a member of tfie A. T. O. 
College Fraternity. 

An illustration of the estimation in which the people among 
whom he lives hold Colonel Bruton was given in 1895, when they 
elected him without opposition mayor of Wilson. His admin- 
istration was conducted with much courage, tact and patience, 
and was in every way worthy of the confidence placed in him. 
The next year he was re-elected, but much to the regret of his 
fellow-townsmen he was compelled to resign before the expira- 
tion of his term. The immediate cause of this step was his elec- 
tion in January, 1897, as president of the First National Bank 
of Wilson, for the additional duties imposed on him by this new 
trust made it necessary for him to give up his public service. In 
July, 1902, the Wilson Savings Bank, afterwards the Wilson 
Trust and Savings Bank, was organized, and Colonel Bruton was 
elected president. Both banks are still under his management, 
and the confidence the business public place in these institutions 
attests the efficiency of his services. Colonel Bruton was one of 
the charter members of the North Carolina Bankers' Association 
and served as its president in 1900 and 1901 ; he is also a director 
of the North Carolina Home Insurance Company at Raleigh. 

Though in the midst of an exacting and constantly growing 
private business, Colonel Bruton has not refused to give of his 
time and talents to such public service as demands the attention 
of patriotic citizens. The educational interests of the community 
and State have always had a strong hold on his attention. In 
1901 he accepted the chairmanship of the Board of Education 
of Wilson County to which he had been elected by the General 
Assembly of North Carolina. During the same year he obeyed 



JOHN FLETCHER BRUTON 27 

the call of his church in accepting a place on the board of trustees 
of Trinity College. In 1903 and again in 1904 he was elected a 
member of the execittive committee. He takes an active interest 
in educational progress and considers the call to such places of 
responsibility as a call to service. 

In politics Colonel Bruton is a Democrat. Though he has never 
sought office at the hands of his party, his advice is frequently 
sought by the party leaders and always cheerfully given. He is 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. From 
boyhood his interest in church affairs has been active, and, though 
broad-minded and tolerant, his loyalty and devotion to his church 
are marked characteristics. 

His election by the North Carolina Conference of 1905 as a 
delegate to the General Conference of Southern Methodism to 
meet in Birmingham, Alabama, in May, 1906, was an expression 
of the confidence reposed in him by his church, and is an honor 
worthily bestowed and justly earned by his unvarying course in 
Ufe. 

Although Colonel Bruton's career has not been one in which 
the arts of oratory are cultivated and developed, yet he has de- 
livered several addresses both in and out of the State that have 
attracted attention and brought him reputation as a popular 
speaker. His ideas are always clear, and he presents them not 
only in eloquent language, but in an engaging and elegant manner. 
Particularly was an address delivered before the Association of 
the Virginia Bankers in 1903 on the subject of "The Country 
Banker" admirably conceived. It bore evidence of his being a 
student of high ideals along practical lines, and merited the com- 
mendation bestowed upon it. As an illustration of the views he 
sought to enforce, we reproduce a paragraph that at the time 
was the subject of high compliment in several banking periodicals 
and daily papers: 

"The banker to fill his place and meet the demands laid upon him should 
be an all-roimd man ; he should be possessed of a good conscience, clean ; 
he should enjoy an unobscured vision with vocabulary to match, clear; 
he should be without subterfuge, candid; free from the gambling spirit, 



28 NORTH CAROLINA 

conservative ; thoroughly familiar with life and the art of living, practical ; 
careful without being cowardly, prudent; familiar with the truth whereby 
to convince, persuasive; untiring in his efforts to bring things to pass, 
persistent." 

Striking in appearance, pleasing in address, courteous in man- 
ner, Colonel Bruton possesses the power of attracting and con- 
ciliating men. In social intercourse companionable and sym- 
pathetic, in business affairs firm and aggressive, he is modest 
in estimating his achievements. Throughout his career he has 
made it a gliding principle never to enter into any undertaking 
half-heartedly. Whatever he does, he does with his whole heart 
and mind. Hard-working, thorough, careful in details, methodi- 
cal in habits, straightforward in his dealings — these character- 
istics are the secret of his success. Pure in private life, honorable 
in all public relations, his life and character are an inspiration 
to men who have an uphill climb to reach success. 

R. D, IV. Connor. 





JOHN BUTLER 



fORTH CAROLINA has ever been a sectional 
State. Much of the history of the State is 
made plain by this fact. The first settlers came 
from Virginia into the Albemarle region ; the 

Ml ■ ■ i^mi ^ Swiss and Germans located at New-Bern; the 

^^£j![2)^^^ Scotch took possession of the Cape Fear; the 
Scotch-Irish and Germans came direct from Pennsylvania to the 
middle of the State. At the time of the Revolution fusion had 
not taken place. The Scotch along the Cape Fear still spoke their 
native tongue and maintained their ancient customs. The State 
was thoroughly clannish — especially the more recently settled 
parts. The people were accustomed to following local leaders. 
The Moravians had clustered around Salem and had not fused 
with their neighbors. 

Shubal Steams had made a settlement of Baptists at Sandy 
Creek, and these had their leader. The same was true of the 
Jersey settlement on the Yadkin, and the Irish and the German 
communities of that section. 

All these settlements were distinct. Foote in his sketches of 
the early Presbyterian churches speaks of the "Hawfield con- 
gregation," and describes the home of a prominent man as being 
on the "edge of this congregation." There was not yet in the 
State that social co-ordination which is necessary for highest 
State life. The result was that when the Revolution came on 



30 NORTH CAROLINA 

there was little integral action. One community became Whig 
and another Tory. 

Not only was this true, but the system of government tended 
to the formation of classes and parties. The government was 
centralized. Many local officers were appointed by the central 
authority. The judiciary was not local. Not only the judges, 
but the justices of the peace, received their authority from the 
Assembly. The clerks of the courts received their appointments 
from the Governor. The executive officers were based on the 
same models. The sheriffs were appointees of the Governor and 
looked to him for approval. The military organization at the 
Revolution was similar ; officers of the county militia were elected 
by the Assembly. 

Such a system seems to indicate centralization and integration, 
but one result followed that hindered such a tendency. The Gov- 
ernment could and did do little for the scattered settlements of 
the West. They, and not the Government, kept a watch on the 
Indian and protected their homes. A dislike for the office-holding 
class was fostered. This feeling prevailed from Chowan to 
Anson. The Regulator movement was the most dramatic ex- 
pression of this feeling, but this feeling was prevalent in nearly 
every portion of the State. The popular party was opposed to 
the office-holding party. 

John Butler, of Orange, belonged to the office-holding party 
and lived in the Hawfields congregation on the western edge, 
"near Judge Ruffin's Mill." 

He was sheriff of Orange County and testified before the As- 
sembly in December, 1770, that he had found much difficulty in 
performing his official duties. The Regulators were opposed to 
him. Governor Tryon invited the sheriffs of several counties 
to appear before the Assembly and bear testimony to the difficul- 
ties that these Regulators put in their way. Butler's own brother, 
William, was a member of the Regulators of Orange. 

What part John Butler took in the Regulator disturbance is 
not known, but he was of course on the side of the constituted 
authorities. 



JOHN BUTLER 31 



After the battle of Alamance was over, however, he befriended 
the Regulators and stayed the hand of the executive authority. 
He signed many petitions asking pardon for those who had op- 
posed the Government. 

But like Caswell and the others who had put down the Regu- 
ulators, he joined the revolutionary party against the British 
Government, and was a member of the District Committee of 
Safety for the Hillsboro District in 1775. 

The Provincial Congress at Hillsboro in the Fall of 1775 real- 
ized that the hour of forcible opposition and defence had come. 
Governor Martin, who had fled from his palace at New-Bern 
at the end of May, was on board a British man-of-war in the 
Cape Fear, devising plans to subjugate the people. The whole 
State was thoroughly organized for defence. 

The militia of each county were organized under their colonels ; 
and John Butler was made lieutenant-colonel for Orange County. 
In the next year, 1776, he was made colonel. During these years 
there was no fighting in that section, but men were preparing 
for the conflict that was inevitable. The tide of war had struck 
North Carolina, but had been rolled back. The British fleet 
failed to make conjunction with the Scotch Tories of the Cape 
Fear. The battle of Moore's Creek Bridge had shown the Whigs 
of the State what to expect, and all was expectancy. 

It was at this time that the people of Orange chose Butler to 
represent them in the two important Congresses that were to meet 
at Halifax in April and November. By the April Congress he 
was appointed to purchase arms and ammunition and prepare 
for the conflict. Moore's Creek had been fought and the strife 
between revolutionist and loyalist had already begun. The dom- 
inant party had begun to confiscate the property of the loyalists, 
especially those taken in arms. Butler was appointed to assist 
in the inventory of this property. 

In the November Convention he did not take his seat till the 
Constitution had been adopted and the most important legisla- 
tion had already been enacted. The election of the Orange rep- 
resentatives was in dispute. Butler was not elected at first. The 



32 NORTH CAROLINA 

Convention pronounced the election fraudulent and ordered a new 
election. At this new election Butler was chosen. This accounts 
for his not being present when the first State Convention was 
adopted. In 1776 brigadier-generals were appointed for the dif- 
ferent districts; and General Thomas Person was the brigadier 
for the Hillsboro District. He resigned in 1777, and Butler was 
chosen by the Assembly in his place. This position Butler held 
throughout the Revolutionary War and till 1784, when he re- 
signed and Ambrose Ramsey became his successor. Butler never 
joined the Continental Line. His services to the American cause 
were always with the militia. There was no call for military ser- 
vices as long as the British campaigns were planned against the 
central States. In 1778 the British policy changed, and the scenes 
of the war began to shift from the North to the South. The 
scheme was now devised to roll up the colonies as a scroll, and 
to begin with Georgia, the weakest of the thirteen. Upon this 
scheme King George and Lord George Germaine had set their 
hearts. In this year there was skirmishing along the frontier be- 
tween Georgia and Florida, which had remained loyal to the 
Crown. General Robert Howe was in command of the southern 
division, with his headquarters at Savannah. He came into col- 
lision with the British and met with no success. The South Caro- 
lina delegates in Congress requested his removal. General Ben- 
jamin Lincoln superseded him. In November, 1779, Lincoln 
passed through North Carolina on his way to take charge of the 
southern army. North Carolina had been busy for some weeks 
preparing troops to march southward. Butler was ordered by 
Governor Caswell to get the troops in his district ready for march- 
ing. In October and November he was busy, and late in the 
year he sent his men forward under Antony Lytle. When Lin- 
coln arrived in South Carolina he had to collect the lowland 
militia of that State, but could not for fear of a slave insurrec- 
tion. Under John Ashe North Carolina sent two thousand men. 
But from North Carolina also went loyalists to help the British. 
Seven hundred loyalists marched from the State to join the 
British force at Augusta. 



JOHN BUTLER 33 



On March 3, 1779, Ashe's force was cut to pieces at Brier 
Creek, near the Savannah River. Even before the news of this 
disaster had reached North Carolina, Governor Caswell had 
ordered Butler to embody more troops in his district and go to 
the help of Lincoln. The time of the enlistment of those whom 
he had sent forward under Lytle was about to expire and the new 
levy was to take their place. 

Butler left Charlotte on April nth and reached Lincoln, near 
Augusta, on the 26th. Lincoln's move into Georgia uncovered 
Charleston, which was no sooner known to the British than Gen- 
eral Prevost crossed the Savannah, and made toward Charleston, 
raiding as he went. Lincoln, with Butler's men and others, hastily 
returned to protect the city. Prevost was forced to retreat, and 
on June 19th was attacked by Lincoln at Stono Ferry. Butler 
and Sumner, of North Carolina, were in the thick of the fight. 
Butler's raw troops fought well. In a letter to Governor Caswell 
he said : 

"I can with pleasure assure you that the officers and men under my com- 
mand behaved better than could be expected of raw troops." 

But these troops had enlisted for only a few months. Enlist- 
ments were generally for three months. On July 15th his men 
returned home. This was a fault in the policy of using the 
militia. They were never destined to become inured to the hard- 
ships of camp life or to the discipline of veterans. When their 
time expired they left camp and returned home. Like an Arab 
encampment, in the morning they were not. 

In December, 1779, Butler sent more men to the help of Lin- 
coln, but did not go himself. Early in 1780, Sir Henry Qinton 
decided to push the campaign in the South. He took eight thou- 
sand men from New York and brought them South to unite with 
Prevost. Later he brought Lord Rawdon from New York with 
three thousand more men. Washington saw that Lincoln needed 
help, and dispatched from his army all the troops of North Caro- 
lina and some from Virginia. 

On May 12, 1780, Charleston was forced to surrender, and 



34 NORTH CAROLINA 

with this fall went all the regular troops North Carolina had, be- 
sides several hundred of her militia. 

Again the militia were called upon to come into the field. Gov- 
ernor Caswell, whose term as Governor had expired, was now 
invested with the command of all the militia. He made his head- 
quarters near Cheraw. His three commanders were Rutherford, 
with the western troops; Gregory, with the eastern; and Butler, 
with the central. In August there were assembled at Cheraw, 
awaiting the arrival of Smallwood's Maryland Brigade, the Dela- 
ware regiment and some Virginia militia, who were following 
under General Gates, who had been appointed by Congress to 
command the southern army. The rashness of Gates in march- 
ing forward without horsemen to gain information resulted in 
his falling in with the British Army at night. 

The fate that met him and his troops is a sad page in our Rev- 
olutionary history. In front of the North Carolina militia was 
the Virginia militia. They gave way and in their flight the North 
Carolina militia joined them. A part of Gregory's Brigade fought 
well ; Dixon's regiment of this same brigade, being along with the 
Maryland regulars, stood firmly and gained great credit; but 
many of the other militia never fired a shot. In fifteen minutes 
the whole left of Gates's line of battle, composed entirely of militia, 
was a mob struggling to escape. Colonel Webster had come 
down upon them in a furious charge, and was then followed by the 
fearful Tarleton. 

The North Carolina militia fled toward home in any way they 
chose. On their return they met many pretended friends going 
to join the American army, who, on learning of its utter discom- 
fiture, proclaimed themselves friends of the victors. These roving 
bands plucked the militia as they fled. One of these bands met 
General Butler and robbed him of his sword, remarking by way 
of consolation, "You'll have no further use of this." 

But Butler was not willing to give up the fight. "He who fights 
and runs away will live to fight another day." September found 
him with more militia covering Salisbury and Charlotte, and when 
retreating before Comwallis's advance, skirmishing as he fell 



JOHN BUTLER 35 



back. He was ordered by the Board of War at the same time to 
g^uard the provisions that were being brought from the Moravian 
settlements. In those days of disorganization Butler gave the dis- 
consolate State what help he could. He and Sumner patrolled 
the banks of the Yadkin, watching the enemy and keeping him 
back. 

But in the midst of all this his troops vanished, for their term 
of enlistment had expired. 

After the battle of King's Mountain, Comwallis fell back into 
South Carolina, and in December General Greene took charge 
of his scattered forces and began the work of reorganization. 
He divided his army and sent one part of it west of Charlotte 
under General Morgan, and with the other he took post at Cheraw. 
By February Butler had collected another force, and was ordered 
to join Lillington in watching Major Craig, who had taken Wil- 
mington on January 29, 1781. While Butler was near Wilming- 
ton, Comwallis entered the State the second time in pursuit of 
Morgan after his thrilling victory at Cowpens. Butler was now 
ordered to hasten to the help of Greene. Comwallis at Hillsboro 
wanted to prevent their junction. For several days there was a 
game of hide-and-seek between these great commanders, but 
Greene enabled his militia to join him on March nth, and then 
challenged Comwallis to do battle at Guilford Court House on 
March 15th. • 

Again Butler and his militia were to face the trained veterans 
of the British Army. In this fight the North Carolina militia 
under Butler and Eaton were placed on the left of the front line, 
and the Virginia militia in their rear. But when the British vet- 
erans under Leslie fired on them they sought safety by retreat. 
Butler tried hard to stop the panic, but in vain. It must be borne 
in mind that these were not the troops that were with Butler at 
Camden. He was always in command of raw militia. Again these 
men scattered and many of them retumed home. General Morgan 
seems to have been the one American general who knew how to 
pit these raw soldiers against trained veterans, for at Cowpens 
they fought well, even against the terrible Tarleton. 



36 NORTH CAROLINA 

Butler remained with General Greene while Comwallis re- 
treated to Wilmington. When Greene decided to leave Com- 
wallis at Wilmington and so push him off the board, himself go- 
ing into South Carolina, he left Butler at Ramsey's Mill, near the 
junction of the Haw and the Deep, to collect provisions and the 
scattered militia and to watch the enemy. From this place Butler 
wrote General Sumner on April nth that "we have now in the 
field 240 men of those that fled from the battle on the 15th 
ult They are for one year and will in a few days join head- 
quarters." In addition to his military duties he was sent to the 
House of Commons, where he was on the Committee for Defence ; 
also he was a Councillor of State. 

But his chief work now was to keep down the Tories. In North 
Carolina it was thought that Comwallis would retreat from 
Virginia back through North Carolina. Governor Burke was 
very busy preparing to assist Greene or to make it unpleasant for 
Comwallis if he returned through this State. Butler kept a com- 
pany encamped on Haw River. With the departure of Greene 
and the presence of Major Craig at Wilmington, the Tory spirit 
rose again. In Butler's district were Chatham and Moore and 
Randolph, where there were many Tories. These Tories planned 
to surprise Butler's camp, but Govemor Burke wamed him. Then 
the Tories, learning that Burke was at Hillsboro and not well de- 
fended, determined that they would surprise him, which they did. 
He was captured and the Tories began their retreat. With them 
was the notorious David Fanning, shrewd and capable and 
bloody-minded. When Butler heard of the capture he set out in 
hot pursuit. At Cane Creek a desperate fight took place, which 
was probably a drawn battle. He did not rescue the Govemor, 
and the Tories continued to Wilmington. Butler then hurried 
around Wilmington and fought the Tories in small engagements 
at Hammond's Creek and Brown Marsh in Bladen. He still 
kept his troops embodied in 1782 and was in camp near Salis- 
bury. His home and plantation, probably called Mt. Pleasant, 
had been destroyed by the British under Comwallis. It was some 
years before the strife of Tory and Whig ceased in his district. 



JOHN BUTLER 37 



To re-establish order in the State was a difficult task, and But- 
ler was charged with a part of this duty. In the Assemblies of 
1784 he was chairman of the Committee on Grievances, and 
there were many. His name appears on nearly every page of the 
proceedings. 

At the November session of 1784 he resigned the brigadier- 
generalship, and was excused from further attendance on the 
sessions. 

Little is known of his personal traits or characteristics. He 
must liavc been a popular man, possessing the confidence and re- 
spect and esteem of the State, to have had the chief command in 
his district for seven years, especially during the troublous years 
of the war. He was in nearly every session of the Assembly, save 
when he was in the field, and he was several times a Councillor 
of State. While his troops did not fight well, there is nowhere 
any imputation of inefficiency or of a lack of courage on his part. 
He was too plain and simple a Democrat to indorse the Society 
of the Cincinnati, and one of his last measures introduced into 
the Assembly was to preclude any member of that order from 
sitting in the General Assembly of North Carolina. 

£. W. Sikes. 





JARVIS BUXTON 




ARVIS BUXTON was bom near Washington, 
North Carolina, on February 20, 1820, and died 
at Asheville, North Carolina, March 11, 1902. 
He was the son of Reverend Jarvis B. Buxton, 
an Episcopal minister, who soon after his son's 
birth moved to Fayetteville, and who was a 
preacher of fine powers and a man of rare excellence, being 
greatly beloved by his congregation, and his published sermons 
have brought much comfort in many homes. The boyhood of 
Doctor Buxton was passed in Fayetteville in a community fa- 
mous for its culture and virtues. After his primary education, 
he was sent to school in Flushing, Long Island, where he studied 
under Doctor Muhlenberg, founder of St. Luke's Hospital, in 
New York City. He was prepared for college, and, returning 
to North Carolina for his collegiate course, entered the State 
University at Chapel Hill. He graduated in 1839, and then, pro- 
posing to enter the ministry, became a student at the General 
Theological Seminary in New York, where he graduated in 1842. 
Two years later he was ordained deacon by Bishop Ives, then 
bishop of the diocese of North Carolina. The early part of his 
ministry was spent at Valle Crucis, in what is now Watauga 
County, where he taught and studied in a mission organized by 
Bishop Ives. In 1845 he took charge of a parish at Rutherford- 
ton, and the following year removed to Asheville with the purpose 





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JARVIS BUXTON 39 



of establishing an Episcopal Church there. At that period Ashe- 
ville was hardly more than a secluded hamlet in the mountains, 
and Doctor Buxton had at the beginning of his work but one 
communicant. 

There being no railroads yet built in that part of the State, 
Doctor Buxton's trips between his two parishes in Rutherford- 
ton and Asheville were made on horseback, and his visits to his 
old home in Fayetteville were made in the same way. 

On January 6, 1848, in Fayetteville, Doctor Buxton was mar- 
ried to Miss Anna Nash Cameron, daughter of Judge John A. 
Cameron, appointed United States Judge for Florida, and a 
brother of Judge Duncan Cameron, of Hillsboro ; and this union 
was blessed with eight children, five of whom still survive. 

After his marriage Doctor Buxton returned to his charge at 
Asheville, and was ordained priest by Bishop Ives, June 17, 1849, 
at Rutherfordton. His work all through the mountain country 
of western North Carolina was pressed with energy and con- 
tinued to grow in extent and in importance. He was the first 
missionary of the Episcopal Church to enter upon a field of labor 
west of the Blue Ridge, and he not only established the church 
there, but also established missions all through the country. He 
likewise had charge of stations at Waynesville and Bumsville. 
He built churches on the French Broad, on Haw Creek and 
Beaverdam, and it was through him that the valuable Ravens- 
croft property in Asheville was purchased for the diocese. 

The first church which Doctor Buxton built was found too 
small for the growing congregation, and during the latter part 
of his ministry it was torn down and a new church costing some 
$20,000 was erected. 

In 1891, after a ministry of forty-five years, Doctor Buxton 
resigned the rectorship in Asheville and with his family removed 
to Lenoir, in Caldwell County. Here he served St. James's Church 
in Lenoir, the Peace Chapel near Lenoir and the church in the 
valley of the Yadkin. 

On June 30, 1896, Doctor Buxton lost his wife, and a few years 
later he returned to his old home in Asheville, and from that time 



40 NORTH CAROLINA 

■ 

until his death he was actively engaged in the ministry, especially 
mission work in North Asheville. Physically and mentally he 
was at work until the last days of his life. The devoted life of 
Doctor Buxton was closely connected with the spiritual and tem- 
poral growth of Asheville, and his loss was felt by hundreds who 
admired his noble qualities of mind and heart, his unselfish devo- 
tion and his Christian character; indeed his friendship was not 
confined to members of his denomination, but he was warmly 
beloved by all with whom he came in contact. 

The missionary spirit abounded in Doctor Buxton, and his 
labors were not limited to the bounds of his own parish. A noble 
priest, an humble, devoted Christian, who led among his people 
a most consistent, blameless life, he labored for the good of his 
fellow-man, to the glory of God, with the judgment of mature 
years and the energy, buoyancy and perseverance of youth. He 
thought evil of no man and never despaired of even the most 
reckless and wayward being brought back to the paths of right- 
eousness. 

Though shadows crossed his path in his later years and sorrow 
fell upon him, yet no man ever heard him speak except in kind- 
ness of any one, and his trust in his Saviour was unfailing. 

While loyal and devoted to the teachings of his church, he 
never failed to attend those in sickness and affliction, whether Jew 
or Gentile, to whom his ministrations could bring comfort or re- 
lief, and his presence was a benediction to the community in 
which he lived. He knew the weakness of men, but he loved them 
for the good there was in them. 

His benevolence was limited only by his means, and despite 
his advanced years he continued in his Christian efforts to the 
last. 

He passed away in the eighty-third year of his age, lamented 
by his church and greatly missed by the community where he had 
labored so unremittingly, carrying ever with him the spirit of the 
Saviour. 

/. C. Buxton. 



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Pl. <J^y?*w/^ 





RALPH P. BUXTON 

^HE subject of this sketch was bom in the year 
1826 in Washington, North Carolina, and was 
the son of the Reverend Jarvis Buxton, who, 
removing to Fayetteville, was the scholarly and 
beloved rector of St. John's Episcopal Church 
of that city for many years. In the east wall 
of this venerable and still beautiful house of worship is a memorial 
tablet, bearing tribute to the virtues of this consecrated man of 
God, who passed out from among them "carrying his full 
sheaves." Ralph P. Buxton received a liberal rudimentary and 
academic training, and graduated with distinction from the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. He served with ability in the con- 
servation and execution of the law as solicitor of the Fayetteville 
Judicial District, and in the flush of manhood married Miss Re- 
becca Bledsoe, a cultured and accomplished young woman, mem- 
ber of a prominent North Carolina family. He allied himself with 
the Republican Party early after the close of the Civil War, he 
and his brother-in-law, the late Colonel Thomas S. Lutterloh, 
being the acknowledged leaders of the party in the upper Cape 
Fear section, its most trusted advisers, who shaped its policy and 
directed its campaigns. It is significant that, during those days 
of reconstruction, an epoch of intense partisan feeling, even Judge 
Buxton's most bitter political foes never failed to do justice to 
his honesty of purpose. No antagonist, either in the debate or in 



42 NORTH CAROLINA 

the strenuous conflict on the stump, ever cast the stigma of self- 
ishness or corruption on his Republicanism: he may have been 
regarded wrong-headed, but not wrong-hearted. Nay, more, 
though he lived in a community Confederate to the backbone dur- 
ing the Civil War, and afterwards Democratic always to a white 
heat, before his lovable and irreproachable private character the 
social ostracism which lashed others shrank abashed before him ; 
and about the hearthstone of his refined and hospitable home 
gathered the best and most notable men and women of the city — 
many of the former his avowed and uncompromising enemies on 
the hustings. 

Judge Buxton was a member of the Convention which met for 
the amendment of the Constitution, and few men of either party 
in that Assembly addressed themselves to the work before them 
with broader views and a more conservative spirit than he. In 
truth, while he abhorred the Democracy of the Southern Bourbon, 
it was a misnomer to call him a "Radical," as the Republicans 
were known thirty and thirty-five years ago. 

He was the gubernatorial candidate of the Republican Party 
in 1880, and was defeated by Thomas J. Jarvis, the nominee of 
the Democratic Party. He left behind him a political record of 
which few men in his party in the South could boast: that he 
was never an aspirant for office, or a seeker after its spoils ; that 
the honors which came to him wefe unsolicited, and were tributes 
to his abilities and integrity. 

He was on the Superior Court bench during the first admin- 
istration of Governor Holden, and afterwards held the same posi- 
tion by election of the people, defeating the late Bartholomew 
Fuller, who died at Durham, but was then a member of the Fay- 
etteville bar. Mr. Fuller was nominated at Rockingham, and at 
that time the Fayetteville Judicial District was made up very 
largely of the territory afterwards known as the Charlotte Con- 
gfressional "Shoestring" District. I am unable to give the dates^ 
which are immaterial, but Judge Buxton, during the course of 
his public life, enjoyed the honor of securing a nomination from 
both the Republican and Democratic Parties. 



RALPH P. BUXTON 43 

On the bench Judge Buxton was a safe rather than a brilliant 
jurist. Like the junior counsel, Lynx, of the Yatton trial in War- 
ren's "Ten Thousand a Year," he crept rather than ran over a 
case — not that he was mentally slow and plodding, but he was 
constitutionally careful and accurate. The late William B. 
Wright was a man of gigantic frame, more than six and a half 
feet in height, with a stalwart build in proportion, though the 
time was to come when old age "clawed him in its clutch," and 
bowed and broke the once herculean form. He had a leonine 
head and grizzled mane, which he shook in the thunders of juridi- 
cal polemics at bench, jury and bar, and the other lawyers af- 
fectionately called him "Father Magnus." Mr. Wright had a 
high opinion of the intellectuality and legal acumen of Ralph 
Buxton, and often wondered especially at his mastery of all the 
minute details of a case. "Buxton," he once said, in his deep, 
burning voice, as the two were sitting in Mr. Wright's office on 
Green Street, "the ordinary eye can hardly follow a fly on the 
wall, but I believe that you could pick out a red bug in a saw- 
pit!" 

His personal qualities eminently fitted him to be an interpreter 
and executor of the law. He was patient; not easily provoked 
to anger, though like the Laird of Dumbiedikes, in Scott's "Mid- 
lothian," something dangerous when fully aroused; tolerant of 
the weaknesses of human nature, affable and courteous to the bar, 
sympathetic and indulgent to the masses of the people who, as 
spectators or litigants, sought the interior of the court-room. 

Reverend Jarvis Buxton passed away when his son Ralph was 
in his early youth, but the boy retained through life much of the 
fortiter in re of his learned and distinguished father in matters 
of moral principle and even of important concerns of daily life, 
while he had still more of the suaviter in modo which made the 
women of his family so charming, and especially marked the char- 
acter of his sister, Mrs. T. S. Lutterloh, who for many years was 
an admired leader of Fayetteville society. 

Judge Buxton was gifted with a delicate and exquisite sense 
of humor. He delighted in his hours of relaxation and ease to 



44 NORTH CAROLINA 

meet with his friends at his home or at the houses of his neigh- 
bors in the enjoyment of an evening's reading or recital. He 
could always be depended on for ''flashes of merriment to set the 
table in a roar," and he was no mean elocutionist in didactic 
selections. His rendition of Cowper's "J^hn Gilpin's Ride" was 
inimitable. The joke at his own expense seemed to intensify his 
enjoyment, and his mirth was no whit checked because it was 
"one on him." He used to tell with much gusto of one of his 
early experiences, when he had procured his license, hung out 
his "shingle," was "raking the woods" for a client, and was at- 
tending court over in Richmond County. In those days, during 
the regime of the County Court, before the County Commissioner 
system of government, it was the time-honored custom for the 
Judge on the Superior Court bench to call on the newest-fledged 
lawyer to charge the grand jury, or to assign to him the task of 
defending the toughest minor criminal under the frown of the 
solicitor. This last duty fell to Buxton; and the case of his 
client, a negro charged with larceny, looked "blue" — in fact, the 
evidence was dead against him. But the young lawyer did his 
best; and much to his gratification, and perhaps still more to his 
surprise, the jury brought in a verdict of not guilty. It was a 
feather in his cap, and in spite of his modesty there was a little 
strut in his walk as he crossed the Court House green at the noon 
recess until two or three of the jury met him, and one of them 
said : "Buxton, we all thought your client guilty, but we didn't 
want to discourage you at the very outset of your career." 

On one occasion, while Judge Buxton was holding a term of 
Cumberland Superior Court in Fayetteville, looking up from his 
notes while a witness was being examined on the stand, a look 
of surprise came over his face, succeeded by an indignant frown. 
"Get down off that chair!" he said to the witness. The man, a 
bright mulatto, looked astonished and bewildered, and turned his 
eyes helplessly towards the sheriff. "Get down off that chair!" 
called the Judge still more sharply. "Why, Judge," said the 
sheriff, while his face reddened and his eyes watered in the effort 
to keep back a guffaw, "he is not standing on a chair; he is just 



RALPH P. BUXTON 45 

about the tallest man in North Carolina, nearly seven feet high !" 
Judge Buxton slowly raised himself and leaned forward until he 
could see the feet of the witness squarely planted on the floor, and 
sank back in his chair, while a peal of laughter rang through the 
court room, in which the bench joined without recourse to the 
gavel. 

The last few years of Judge Buxton's life were passed in re- 
tirement from the cares and burdens of public Ufe. In his office 
on Donaldson Street he attended industriously as of yore to the 
concerns of his profession, his counsel ever eagerly sought by 
the other members of the bar. Never a man of robust physique, 
his health visibly declined ; and every day, as he rode in the early 
afternoon on a large sorrel horse to his home over Haymount, 
his friends could see the mysterious beckoning hand not far 
away. 

The summons came as doubtless his brave soul would have it 
come, when the harness was loosed and ready to be laid by, when 
he closed his brief, made up his case ready for the verdict. He 
passed away, sitting in his chair at his home, the "Buxton Oaks," 
known also as the "Dobbin Homestead," where lived for many 
years before the war James C. Dobbin, Secretary of the Navy 
in the administration of President Pierce. 

Judge Buxton was a member and vestryman of St. John's Epis- 
copal Church. He left no children, but is survived by his widow. 

/. H, Myrover, 





|iMI\ CAMERON BUXTON^ 







• 



,.(»fii (u'sr M*r r\p7<^ia«fi, **Tell nic where 4 

I. in \M^ U>rM, Aivt ^%lio Idi parents wenr* and 

v\itl (I'll Villi what kiBc! ai mMi lie W If 

H4f if II xsfsv di|*p]icU to the tidijeet of Ittii 

•Vuli. the i-Hfifiijion would inActd be a tru* 

iniii^ tiir JmImi r«imrmQ BttxlDn ft^aft faorn iit 

4nli» f niiiiH-, x§wih Oiraliiiai on Scpianber 30^ 

• -n 01 1 locfoi Juniii Boxtoti and Anna Rux- 

a. 1/ *unl i« iii»t flir U^ie u{ nian wi! mitild ex* 

m liiM T-iu^l m (Mi vti^imifif ifiiMitiMitti trciicm ftnd bf ttidi 

^ ►^•fr Iiii i^rcTiit. i^-cior Bitxton waj an EpUcopat 

li *4i fi^Mil vk^« •irf«i|Q coniTni^ii ,»ensi*, ^nd det'p piety* 

«lr* nit4tl>ifi n?fiiiin^ fur xif the Dlhltina! ile^ert{Jtifin of n 

f/ni'^Ii **!>'' inijr t*ni^1 L^enik, ami vcl '*niled her 

^i^lt '* Ml . a » t«ic ^A» ^pinit a*- ^at ihc uftial 

•it»4i liriv^v fair • ti^i tiviii^ duriiiit the perjud of the 

I (*ih'iirfoiT iind Ic^r 01 indnigcjice iblli 

»i 4 tlllTiT^t iiiiit:, Ht 11 A^ pref*ared 

«»w»«i'ft Midi, ItllJct^t City, Mil., wberc, 00 

-» oj mil niM* proncfoni* dis^position, he wat a 

i««^i'iHh> iifUC/ttg III** ^^t*iiller I'^y*, whcme chnnipioft 

\\f d»*3pLfi*i1 311 lirautiy, uod huiisdf strrnnfr^'at 

•Ttiii i.t tUe wok u^^ifM die in^tiU* and domineer^ 

* mdlkf ,*' Le::i villi; i^l* Cleinent'i, he fiiteied Trinily 

-4^iMiirit| Cimn.^ whi^re he nmramed tlircte yi^r&v KoL 



It lu>i l^M♦• 




JOHN CAMERON BUXTON 




E often hear the expression, "Tell me where a 
man was born, and who his parents were, and 
I will tell you what kind of man he is." If 
that test were applied to the subject of this 
sketch, the expression would indeed be a tru- 
ism, for John Cameron Buxton was born in 
Asheville, Buncombe County, North Carolina, on September 30, 
1852, arid was the son of Doctor Jarvis Buxton and Anna Bux- 
ton (nee Cameroii), and is just the type of man we would ex- 
pect to find reared in that vigorous mountain section and by such 
persons as were his parents. Doctor Buxton was an Episcopal 
clergyman of broad views, strong common sense, and deep piety, 
while Mrs. Buxton reminded one of the Biblical description of a 
Mother in Israel, who was loving and gentle, and yet "ruled her 
household well." Mr. Buxton's life was spent as was the usual 
life of such boys, except that, living during the period of the 
Civil War, it had more of privation and less of indulgence than 
fall to those who lived in a different time. He was prepared 
for college at St. Clement's Hall, EUicott City, Md., where, on 
account of his love of fun and generous disposition, he was a 
gfreat favorite, especially among the smaller boys, whose champion 
he always was. He despised all tyranny, and himself strong, was 
always the protector of the weak against the insults and domineer- 
ing of "school bullies." Leaving St. Clement's, he entered Trinity 
College, Hartford, Conn., where he remained three years. Not 







y^ 




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;UHN CAMERON BUXTON. 




and 
If 

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-_ ,.,,,,. ., . ,air w^ ^inmt aA wat lilt Uiitial 

iti r3a2r|it Umt Hvii^ flatinic Ibe ^lerioil cit tfi^ 

note of iinvitUiii and tesi of m tban 

.,. Uvt*J til a iHfftffenI thne He ^ *>, , .v,jgiretj 

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ve dI iim ami i!et»eT in. l»e wai tt 



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Tio*, whrft Ik iv ^ ^iswi. Koi 




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JOHN CAMERON BUXTON 47 

having the money to continue his studies, he showed his pluck 
and determination to acquire a good education by teaching one 
year at Edenton, North Carolina, this enabling him to enter the 
senior class at Hobart College, Geneva, New York, where he 
graduated in 1874 as salutatorian of his class — thus, in spite of 
obstacles, standing in the very front rank of a college in which 
he had spent only one year, and had no help from friends or from 
favoritism. 

Mr. Buxton studied law in Asheville, North Carolina, under 
Judge John L. Bailey, and was admitted to the bar of the State 
in January, 1875. He immediately moved to Winston, North 
Carolina, then a very small place, just commencing its marvellous 
growth, and with it has grown up until both he and the city have 
reached their present success. His first coming to Winston was 
both pathetic and amusing. He had no friends in his newly 
adopted home, was a perfect stranger to all, was utterly ignorant 
of the practice of his profession, and his worldly goods could have 
been summed up in these words, "his sheep-skin, a new suit of 
clothes, a change of underwear, and twenty-five cents in money." 
His energy, cordial manner, and determination to succeed soon, 
however, won him many friends. At first he was associated with 
Colonel J. W. Alspaugh, who was then a newspaper editor, law- 
yer, and the general business man of Winston. Very soon, how- 
ever, he started out for himself, and by his faithful devotion to 
his clients' interests commenced to win a good practice. At this 
time Watson and Glenn, two of the very foremost lawyers in 
western North Carolina, Colonel Joseph Masten, and Judges T. 
J. Wilson and D. H. Starbuck had the entire practice of Forsythe 
County. The last three named gentlemen soon practically retired 
on account of age, leaving the field to Mr. Buxton and Messrs. 
Watson and Glenn. Single-handed, Mr. Buxton continued his 
practice, each day establishing himself more firmly in the hearts 
of the people, and winning for himself a splendid reputation 
both as a counsellor and a trier of causes in the Court House. 
On October 16, 1877, Mr. Buxton was united in marriage to Miss 
Agnes C. Belo, of Salem, North Carolina, daughter of the late 



48 NORTH CAROLINA 

Edward Belo and Amanda Fries Belo, Mr. Belo being the first 
president and prime mover in the building of the N. W. N. C. 
R. R. (now part of the Southern System), which proved the source 
and cause of the present wealth and growth of Winston-Salem 
and that vicinity. In his marriage Mr. Buxton was as wise as he 
had proved himself to be in other matters, for he chose well, hav- 
ing in his wife an estimable, true, strong Christian woman, who 
has added not a little to her husband's power and strength. In 
1883 Mr. Buxton was elected Mayor of Winston, and by his en- 
thusiasm and push gave a new impetus to city affairs, many new 
and beneficial changes being made in its municipal management! 
In 1884 without any solicitation on his part he was nominated 
and elected by the people of the 32nd senatorial district to rep- 
resent them in the State Senate, and so in January, 1885, ^^ ^^' 
signed his place as Mayor to become State Senator. As a rep- 
resentative of the people's interests in the Senate Mr. Buxton was 
always vigilant and alert. He exposed everything he felt was 
wrong, and stood for all that tended towards the elevation of the 
State. On one occasion he found some bill with an innocent title 
covering a vast amount of legislation that was very hurtful, and 
with his accustomed zeal exposed the efforts of its author — ^who 
was secretly trying to get it through — until he accomplished its 
defeat, the author exclaiming, as he saw the end of his pet scheme, 
**That great big man has sat down on my little bill and killed it." 

In the summer of 1884 J. C. Buxton was chosen one of the 
delegates to the Democratic Convention that met in Chicago, and 
was largely instrumental in turning the votes of the North Caro- 
lina delegation, among whom were Senators Vance and Ransom, 
from Mr. Bayard, of Delaware, to Grover Cleveland, of New 
York — ^a favor which Mr. Cleveland has never forgotten, as 
shown by his subsequent acts. 

In 1884 the firm of Watson and Glenn by mutual consent dis- 
continued their partnership for the practice of law, Mr. C. B. 
Watson forming a partnership with Mr. Buxton, which partner- 
ship has continued unchanged ever since, except to admit to the 
firm in 1896 Mr. T. W. Watson, son of the senior member. 



JOHN CAMERON BUXTON 49 

This firm has been and is now justly considered one of the very 
strongest in the State, and has always enjoyed a most extensive 
and lucrative practice. During a period of twenty-one years the 
author of this sketch has been intimately associated with the firm, 
and can say of them, individually and as a firm, that in all that 
time he never knew them to do in their practice a questionable 
or censurable act. They always tried their cases openly and 
fairly, using no uncertain methods to influence either judge or 
jury, proving themselves under all circumstances high-minded, 
able, honest lawyers, who won their victories by merit and knowl- 
edge, and lost cases by no dereliction of their duty, but because the 
law or facts were against their clients. In matters requiring 
exposure, or the unearthing of littleness, Mr. Buxton was par- 
ticularly strong, and in all cases where the responsibility was 
thrown upon him he measured up to the responsibility, and proved 
himself equal to every emergency. Twice in my life I have heard 
judges of the Superior Court say, after listening to his powerful, 
logical presentation of his case, "That was the strongest speech 
I ever heard in the Court House." 

Mr. Buxton has always taken a great interest in the material 
and educational development of Winston-Salem. For years he 
has been president of the Graded School Commissioners, and 
much of the credit for Winston's splendid city schools is due to 
him. Continuing his zeal in behalf of education, he induced Mr. 
Carnegie to give $15,000 for the erection of a public library in 
Winston, which is not only an ornament but a blessing to the 
entire community. 

In 1890 he was elected president of the First National Bank 
of Winston, having a capital of $200,000, holding this position 
until January, 1893, when he resigned to attend to his pressing 
law business. In July, 1893, when on account of the panic pre- 
vailing ever3rwhere this bank failed, he was appointed by Comp- 
troller Eccles to re-organize the bank, which he successfully did 
until it later consolidated with the People's Bank of Winston. 
Fifteen years ago he was elected president of the Winston-Salem 
Building and Loan Association, one of the most successful and 



so NORTH CAROLINA 

helpful institutions of the Twin-City, and has held it ever since. 
Thus we see that Mr. Buxton, as well as being an able lawyer, 
is likewise a successful man and educator. 

Mr. Buxton has always been a loyal, sterling Democrat, ever 
ready to aid his party, even when not himself a candidate, thus 
not showing the selfish spirit that sometimes marks our political 
brethren. In addition to being senator and delegate to the Na- 
tional Convention, he was also chairman of the Democratic State 
Convention that met in Raleigh in July, 1887, his address to the 
Convention being considered of unusual power and force. In 
1900 Mr. Buxton was nominated by the Democrats of the Eighth 
Congressional District to represent them in Congress, and though 
he was defeated, the majority against him was 1600 less than 
against the Democratic nominee for president, thus showing it 
was no want of popularity on his part, but the unfortunate politi- 
cal complexion of the district. His defeat was a great loss, for 
North Carolina has few sons that could and would have made 
a truer and stronger member of the House of Representatives 
than Mr. Buxton. In religion Mr. Buxton, inheriting his creed 
from his deal* old father, whom he loved most tenderly, has al- 
ways been an ardent and influential Episcopalian. He loves his 
church and the name Protestant Episcopal, and when at the Gen- 
eral Convention of his church that met in San Francisco in 1901, 
to which he was a delegate, an effort was made to change the 
name of the church, he introduced a resolution against such 
change, and through the influence of himself and other conserva- 
tive members who loved the old name the move was lost. He 
has been senior warden of his church for many years, and one of 
its most liberal supporters. He also takes a great interest in the 
Brotherhood of St. Andrew, having made several strong speeches 
in its behalf. To show Mr. Buxton's strong character, as well as 
his zeal for his church, at the Convention in Boston in 1904, be- 
ing dissatisfied with the part a certain bishop of the church had 
taken in establishing a subway tavern where intoxicating liquors 
could be bought, he introduced a ringing resolution deploring and 
condemning the action of said bishop; and though the chairman 



JOHN CAMERON BUXTON 51 

ruled his resolution out of order, as reflecting on a member of an- 
other house, to wit, the House of Bishops, still later in a speech, 
with words that carried conviction to every heart, he scathingly 
denounced the efforts of any one, preacher, bishop or layman, 
who tried to commit the church to the encouragement of 
saloons. 

Mr. Buxton has never aspired to be called an orator, yet at 
times, in his powerful arraignment of facts and merciless exposure 
of crime and falsehood, he has risen to heights of sublimity and 
power to which few men attain. 

The author of this sketch has reason to remember with grati- 
tude his power as a speaker, and still blesses him for his kind 
words. At the Democratic Convention of 1904 he was requested 
to place in nomination for Governor Forsythe's candidate, R. B. 
Glenn. His speech was the last of the many speeches made. 
This is the description that a hearer afterwards made of 
the speech : '*It wasn't pretty ; it wasn't eloquent ; it was simply 
powerful, grand, like the fearful onward rushing of mighty 
waters, sweeping all before it in its resistless force." The ap- 
plause it brought attested its power. 

Mr. and Mrs. Buxton have had bom to them four children: 
Cameron Belo Buxton, a graduate of Chapel Hill, and now hold- 
ing in Philadelphia a splendid position as traffic agent of the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad ; Miss Caro Fries Bux- 
ton, a beautiful and accomplished young lady, a graduate of Bryn 
Mawr, Pa., now living with her parents ; Miss Anna Nash Bux- 
ton, a splendid type of young girlhood, now attending Bryn Mawr 
College; while little Jarvis, the idol of his parents, and loved of 
all, was taken when ten years old, while pure in heart, to be with 
God. Of all Mr. Buxton's life, his home life is the best. De- 
voted to home and family, he seeks his pleasures there, not at the 
club or lodge, and to know him truly is to know him at home. It 
is one of the sweetest homes in which I have ever visited, sur- 
rounded by an atmosphere of love and a reign of peace. 

That Mr. Buxton has faults, and has committed errors, none 
would admit more readily than he, but no one regrets his mis- 



52 NORTH CAROLINA 

takes or sorrows more over his faults, and this desire to profit by 
his failures has but insured his success. 

Mr. Buxton is a large, strong type, physically, mentally and 
morally, of American manhood, with a heart as big as his body 
and a nature too true to be little. To sum up his strong per- 
sonality and character in a few closing words: He is a lawyer 
who is diligent, forceful and honest. In his political career he 
has always proved himself fearless, bold and above a suspicion of 
using questionable methods to secure his advancement. With 
his strength, however, there is also gentleness, for no one sym- 
pathizes more deeply with the distressed or lends a more willing 
hand to relieve suffering. As husband, father, friend, and citi- 
zen he fills each niche well, at home ruling through love, and in 
business succeeding by the strength of his intellect, using no un- 
certain methods. 

Mr. Buxton is yet young, just in the prime of his manhood. The 
State in its present tide of prosperity needs such men to help de- 
velop its resources and direct its affairs, and it is earnestly to be 
hoped that John Cameron Buxton may yet be spared for many 
more years of usefulness for the promotion of right and the up- 
building of the State. 

R. B, Glenn. 







i' / * * -"'3— ^ "^"^ <5 " ^^ 




Li:\\ !> .\;.'i :•: 1 ' 



•"3^?^';:;::, 




t ,. *v r^ "-t . til. it >- 1\*/ r Hi 
•.'.'•" - In t-ntTL; aiui n^. ; : a * .. ■• 

.: ' ^ ciiT is bv '.'; t' a iin'iv'^ ■ . 
' v^ n,,tTi in \\\\' M'Tc. and r.-^ 
1 ■' y-ati .^^ thai V • tn)p"ii< c^i i 

Iii> farhf-r. Ia'W'" C.'arr, was a \<\ 

M-'r"i;t.Tl, in a rri^ion r*'mark:'l»U- .... 

'* f'X •^ccno^\ of iis !>r >Vk\\\ l.^Mii- 

.' ]'-r;'.ltivatt"l ikids. It \va> an :<' 

-u',r'\ near to lmhkI n^arl-ct^ *' ■'" 

^' '':v'(l l'\' a |>r'')*^per<)ns C('in'niip': * 

\ -.iuijiT^ily Mr. (."arr. tb,c fr^'icT, 



• . ^' I.iM' -■>:x \ . ar s 




LEWIS ALBERT CARR 




[MO*NG the business men of Durham, a town 
whose remarkable development has been 
brought about by the joint efforts of her enter- 
prising citizens, there are but few equalling in 
excellence and usefulness Lewis Albert Carr, 
the subject of this sketch. Vast and varied are 
the interests that center in that growing and prosperous city, and 
for twenty years Mr. Carr has been among the foremost of her 
citizens in energy and in practical accomplishment, every year con- 
tributing through his enterprise and loyal devotion to her expan- 
sion and substantial growth. 

Mr. Carr is by birth a native of Maryland, was trained as a busi- 
ness man in Baltimore, and has the fine manner of the polished 
gentleman of that metropolis and all the vigor and enterprise that 
have distinguished the successful men of that great mercantile 
and industrial centre. 

His father, Lewis Carr, was a farmer, living in Howard County, 
Maryland, in a region remarkable no less for its salubrity than for 
the fine scenery of its broken landscape and for the fertility of its 
well-cultivated fields. It was an ideal country for farm-life, suf- 
ficiently near to good markets for all farm products, and thickly 
settled by a prosperous community. 
Unhappily Mr. Carr, the father, died when only forty-six years 



54 NORTH CAROLINA 

of age, leaving a family of nine young children — six of whom were 
boys and three girls. The management of the farm and the rearing 
of the children thus devolved on the mother, Mrs. Jane M. Carr, 
who fortunately was a woman of exceptionally fine sense and 
judgment and well versed in the practical affairs of life. Neces- 
sarily the boys, as they became of sufficient strength, were em- 
ployed in the duties of their farm-home. Their work and pas- 
times, their labor and recreation, were not different from those of 
their neighbors. They followed the plow and harrow, cured the 
hay, housed the com, and marketed the wheat ; and when the farm- 
work of the year was over they attended the country schools that 
were taught during the winter months. 

The schoolhouse was some four miles distant from the Carr 
farm, and the boys during its session made the daily journey of 
eight miles or more, going and returning. This exercise and their 
farm-work in the open air had a beneficial effect in establishing 
fine constitutions and developing vigorous frames and well- 
rounded mental equipments, in some measure dispensing with the 
necessity of the training afforded by higher school advantages. 

At length at the age of seventeen the subject of this sketch, 
realizing that the farm no longer needed him, and having a man's 
ambition for a larger life, determined to seek a business career in 
the neighboring city of Baltimore. His education, while not a 
finished one, was far from deficient ; he was vigorous, the soul of 
energy, and prepossessing in manner and appearance. He soon 
obtained employment with Charles A. Gambrill and Company, a 
great house, owning extensive flouring mills, renowned for the 
superior excellence of its flour and having an established trade 
throughout the entire South; but being without experience, the 
compensation he at first received was only $5 per week. 

Having gained a footing in that establishment, young Carr was 
never allured to other employment He remained steadfast at his 
work and gradually rose in usefulness, meriting the confidence of 
his employers and receiving manifestations of their good opinion. 
Indeed he possessed those characteristics that were calculated to 



win his way in life^^nd brings h 



m fine success. 



LEWIS ALBERT CARR 55 

For thirteen years he served Gambrill and Company, constantly 
growing in efficiency and developing his business qualities; and 
then finding himself able to enter upon an independent career, in 
1883 he formed a partnership with J. W. Wolvington, under the 
name of Wolvington, Carr and Company, and established a grain 
and flour business. A thorough master of every detail of the 
wheat and flour trade, he brought to the new firm ripe experi- 
ence, and its business was very successful. 

On the 2ist of November, 1878, Mr. Carr was happily married 
to Miss Clara Watts, a daughter of Mr. Gerard S. Watts, a pros- 
perous merchant of Baltimore. She was a sister of Mr. George 
W. Watts ; and after his removal to Durham, Mr. and Mrs. Carr 
were drawn also to locate there. Thus it came about that in 1888 
Mr. Carr sold out his interest in his Baltimore business and made 
his home at Durham. He came to Durham just as that town was 
recovering from some little backset in its general course of rapid 
progress, and he contributed somewhat to giving it the increased 
momentum that has ever since carried it forward in its remark- 
able development. 

The Durham Fertilizer Company was then being formed. He 
made an investment in that enterprise and was elected secretary 
and treasurer of the company ; and from that time his name has 
been closely associated with all the great enterprises and immense 
factories and vast interests that have sprung from that parent 
stock. 

Active and zealous in promoting every enterprise that would 
tend to the advantage of Durham, he was interested in the con- 
struction of the Durham and Northern Railroad, and since 1892 
he has been a director of that company. So also he was a promo- 
ter of the Durham and Lynchburg Railroad Company, and was a 
director of that company until it was incorporated into the Nor- 
folk and Western. The benefit Durham has received from the 
construction of these additional railroad facilities has been beyond 
calculation, and the community is largely indebted to the vigor 
and enterprise of Mr. Carr for their accomplishment. 

He was one of the organizers of the Citizens* Savings Bank of 



56 NORTH CAROLINA 

Durham, and for five years served as a director of that institution. 
His interest in the industrial welfare of the city led him to promote 
the incorporation of the Commonwealth Cotton Mills. Since 1899 
he has served as a director of the First National Bank of Durham, 
and the value of his services in connection with finances has been 
well recognized by his constant re-election as Vice-President of 
that progressive and well-managed institution. 

Besides his connection with these well-known companies, he 
has been interested in many other enterprises, not merely those of 
local interest, but others established in various parts of the State. 
Nor has he concerned himself exclusively with matters of busi- 
ness. Other lines of work also interest him — such as the Watts 
Hospital, of which he is a trustee. 

Among his most notable enterprises was that of establishing 
the Interstate Telephone and Telegraph Company. Of this he 
was the originator, and he achieved a fine success in organizing 
and putting it into operation. It was the first independent tele- 
phone company organized in the South. The work engaged his 
close attention and called forth his best capacity, and it has been a 
large success and has conferred a great benefit on many communi- 
ties in North Carolina. It also has established exchanges in Mary- 
land and Virginia. 

But as varied and important as have been the indefatigable 
labors of Mr. Carr in other lines, the chief work of his life is, by 
common consent, that arising from his connection with the fer- 
tilizer company. When the Durham Fertilizer Company had 
demonstrated by its great success the value of that line of business, 
it was determined to expand, and the Norfolk and Carolina Chem- 
ical Company was thereupon organized. Mr. Carr, who as secre- 
tary and treasurer of the parent concern exerted a powerful in- 
fluence in its affairs, was a chief factor in organizing the new 
company, which was owned by the plant at Durham. He was 
much employed in the construction of the large works at Pinner's 
Point, and was secretary and treasurer of the Norfolk Chemical 
Company until it was merged in the Virginia-Carolina Chemical 
Company. So fine a field of industry was here opened that, with 



LEWIS ALBERT CARk 57 

a comprehensive grasp of the business interests involved, Mr. 
Can* and his associates, in 1895, determined to bring the different 
properties manufacturing fertilizers in the State, and some else- 
where, under the direction of one management ; and the Virginia- 
Carolina Chemical Company was formed with that object. Mr. 
Carr, who had achieved such remarkable success in the manage- 
ment of the Durham Company and of the Norfolk and Carolina 
Chemical Company, now became Managing Director of the North 
Carolina Division of the Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company, 
and he held that important position until the reorganization in 
1903. At that time various changes were made in the system of 
management, and to Mr. Carr was committed the very important 
work of Manager of the North Carolina Sales Department of the 
Company. In connection with the affairs of this great company, 
one of the largest industrial organizations of the world, Mr. Carr 
has been a director of the Southern Cotton Oil Company, and is a 
director of the Navassa Guano Company of Wilmington, and of 
the Charleston Mining and Manufacturing Company of Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. 

In all the large duties of his several positions Mr. Carr has ex- 
hibited a ccMTiprehensive intelligence, a careful thought, a rapid 
determination, and an unwavering attention to business that have 
gained for him high rank as a manager of affairs and brought 
him fine reputation for administrative ability. 

As a citizen he has ever been quick to join others in advancing 
the interests of his community, and has been among the foremost 
of those men who have placed Durham on her substantial basis 
of prosperity. While never seeking political preferment, he has, 
in order to be useful to his town, served four years as Alderman of 
Durham. In politics he is a Democrat ; and he is zealous for the 
advancement of his friends, while not caring for public applause 
or station for himself. 

His religious affiliations are with the Presbyterians, and he is 
a member and a deacon of the First Presbyterian Church of Dur- 
ham, and contributes liberally, not merely to his church but gen- 
erally to all the charities that appeal to his benevolence. 



S8 NORTH CAROLINA 

Busy as he is, he has but little leisure to pass in recreation, but 
he is very fond of the hunt and occasionally joins his friends in 
that sport. 

Mr. Carr's home at Durham from the time of his first arrival 
has ever been a notable feature in the social life of his com- 
munity. But after twenty years of happy wedded life he had 
the misfortune to lose his first wife, who, dying on March 12, 
1898, was survived by four children : one son and three daughters. 
The eldest of these daughters was married on November 7, 1900, 
to Mr. George L. Lyon, a grandson of the late Mr. Washington 
Duke. On May 2, 1900, Mr. Carr was married to Miss Jessie B. 
Carroll, a daughter of Mr. O. J. Carroll, of Raleigh, and one of 
the loveliest of her sex. 

S. A, Ashe, 






PETER CARTERET 

N the death of Samuel Stephens, about the end 
of the year 1669, he was succeeded by Peter 
Carteret, who was probably chosen President 
by the Council at that time, and a few months 
later was appointed by the Proprietors in Eng- 
land. At the meeting of the Proprietors in 
January, 1670, Sir George Carteret named Peter Carteret as his 
Deputy, and probably they were of the same family. Peter Car- 
teret came to Albemarle in the Fall of 1664. In the first letter of 
instructions to Sir William Berkeley the Proprietors mentioned 
that they reserved the nomination of a surveyor and a secretary 
as officers particularly charged with taking care of their interests. 
They mentioned that Sir George Carteret had recommended 
Monsieur Lepreyrie for surveyor and Lord Berkeley had recom- 
mended Richard Cobthrop for secretary, who promised to be ready 
to go out within a month. These gentlemen, however, did not 
go, but instead, Thomas Woodward was the surveyor, and Peter 
Carteret the first secretary; and it appears that Carteret brought 
over with him the commission and instructions for Governor 
Drummond in the Fall of 1664. His office of secretary was of 
importance, as he kept the record of all the surveys, and it was 
upon his certificate that the Governor made the grants. Thomas 
Woodward says of Carteret in his letter of June 2, 1665 : "I make 
no question but Mr. Carteret, our secretary, will answer all your 



6o NORTH CAROLINA 

expectations, for I assure you that he is diligent." It may be 
assumed that from that time onward Peter Carteret was the Dep- 
uty and representative in Carolina of Sir George Carteret. It is 
said that he was Speaker of the Assembly of Albemarle. 

The instructions sent him as Governor in 1670 required him 
to put in force the grand model of Government as near as may 
be — "and not being able at present to put it fully in practice by 
reason of the want of Landgraves and Cassiques and a sufficient 
number of people, however, intending to come as nigh it as we 
can in the present state of affairs in all the colony of our said 
Province, you are therefore required to have the four precincts 
elect five representatives each, and then, the five persons chosen 
by us being added, and who for the present represent the No- 
bility, are to be the Assembly." The Assembly was to elect five 
persons, who, being joined with the five deputed by the Pro- 
prietors, were to compose the Council. The Governor and the five 
Deputies were to be the Palatine's Court. The Governor, with 
the consent of the Council, was to establish other Courts. The 
Assembly was to make the laws, which, being ratified by th« Gov- 
ernor and any three of the five Deputies, were to be in force as 
under the Fundamental Constitutions. 

It is to be noted that the changes in the polity required by these 
instructions, which supplanted and took the place of the Funda- 
mental Constitutions, were neither numerous nor important. 
There being no nobility, that element in government provided 
for in the Constitution found a substitute in the Deputies and in 
five other persons elected by the representatives of the people; 
and this addition to the Council of persons chosen by the As- 
sembly made that body more responsive to the will of the people. 
In that respect the change was towards popular rights. 

It is true that one of the provisions of the Constitutions was that 
the people should take an oath or affirmation to observe them and 
to abide by them; but yet the Constitutions had no vitality or 
operation beyond what was contained in the instructions to the 
Governors. Still they hung somewhat as a cloud over the people, 
and there are traces of popular discontent. During the Miller 



PETER CARTERET 6i 

troubles some of the people raised the cry that "they did not want 
Landgraves and Cassiques/' but the leaders in that affair quickly 
told them not to say that ; they were not quarreling with the Lords 
Proprietors. 

There was, however, a matter of more vital import that caused 
dissatisfaction. Under the Great Deed the rent was a farthing an 
acre, payable in commodities; while the Constitutions prescribed 
a rent of as much silver as is contained in a penny, thus increasing 
the rent fourfold and making it payable in money. This 
provision, however, was never enforced. When the Proprie- 
tors later gave instructions that such rents should be collected, 
the people demurred, and the Proprietors eventually recognized 
the validity of their agreement contained in the Great Deed. 

So far as the changes inaugurated in Carteret's time were of 
interest to the people, they seemed rather to subserve the public 
convenience than to be a cause of irritation and discontent. The 
county was laid off into four precincts, and Precinct Courts were 
established and other changes were made that came naturally with 
the growth and development of the colony. At the session of the 
Assembly in April, 1672, more than fifty-four Acts were passed, 
which, however, probably embraced all former laws then re- 
enacted. 

While the administration of Carteret is thus historic because 
of the alteration in the system of government, it is also historic 
because it witnessed the introduction of the Society of Friends 
among the people. Both under the Concessions and the Consti- 
tutions there was absolute freedom of conscience and religious 
toleration. In 1672 Edmundson and George Cox both visited Albe- 
marle. The latter says that he found only one Quaker there, 
Phillips, who had not seen a Friend for seven years. The former 
mentions having borrowed a canoe and "with this boat we went 
to the Governor's. The Governor, with his wife, received us lov- 
ingly; but a doctor there would needs dispute with us." From 
this it appears that Carteret was married and that he was a man 
of kindly disposition. Fox continues : "We tarried at the Gov- 
ernor's that night ; and next morning he very courteously walked 



62 NORTH CAROLINA 

with us himself about two miles through the woods to a place 
whither he had sent our boat about to meet us." The visits of 
these Quaker preachers marked the rise of the Quaker sect in the 
colony. 

In 1672, during his administration, new navigation laws and 
customs duties were passed in England, and it was required by the 
Crown authorities that these laws should be enforced in Albe- 
marle, and they interfered with the established trade of the Col- 
ony. The new element introduced into the Council by the ad- 
mission of five inhabitants elected by the Assembly changed the 
attitude of that body toward public measures and brought it under 
the rule of the people themselves. The Council was no longer 
in harmony with the Governor. Carteret's efforts to compose 
differences were fruitless. He wearied of the attempt; and his 
three years' term being about to expire, he laid down his office 
and went to England, probably with the hope that he might suc- 
ceed in having the causes of dissatisfaction remedied. On the 
25th of May, 1673, 2t Council was held at the house of Thomas 
Godfrey. Carteret had then sailed for home, and Colonel John 
Jenkins, the senior member of the Council, presided as Deputy- 
Governor. It does not appear that Carteret ever returned. 

5*. A. Ashe. 






GEORGE CATCHMAID 

5EORGE CATCHMAID, the first Speaker of 
the Assembly of whom there is any particular 
mention, is an interesting character in our his- 
torical annals because of the events and inci- 
dents with which he was connected. Of his 
personal history but little is known. He is de- 
scribed in the grants made to him as being of the rank of "Gen- 
tleman," and "of Treslick." He came to Carolina in 1662 ; is said 
to have brought into the settlement sixty-seven persons ;^ was the 
Speaker of the Assembly at the session of the Summer of 1666;* 
shortly afterwards he died, and his widow married Timothy 
Biggs. He left no children ; and many years afterwards Edward 
Catchmaid, of London, claiming to be his nephew and heir, sought 
to obtain possession of his lands in Albemarle. This is a brief- 
statement of the known facts of his life. But in connection with 
him several important matters relating to the settlement of Albe- 
marle and concerning the early inhabitants have been incidentally 
recorded. 

Some writers have thought that the first settlement on the 
Chowan was under a grant to Roger Green, which was made by 
the Grand Assembly of Virginia in 1653, ^^ behalf of himself 
and certain inhabitants of Nansemond River. This grant offered 
10,000 acres of land to the first hundred persons who should seat 

* Bancroft, Vol. 2, p. 135. 

• C. R., Vol. I, p. 152. 



64 NORTH CAROLINA 

themselves on Roanoke River and on the south side of the Chowan 
River and its branches. It was made after Virginia had sub- 
mitted to Parliament and when there was not only no oppression 
of dissenters in Virginia, but when every freeman in the Old 
Dominion had the right to vote, and the Legislature elected the 
Governor and all other officers, and the only religious restriction 
was one forbidding the use of the Prayer Book in churches. 
There is no evidence that any settlement was ever made under 
this grant ; and Bancroft says particularly "that these conditional 
grants seemed not to have taken effect/'^ It is to be further ob- 
served that the lands explored by Roger Green and mentioned in 
this grant were not on the shores of the Sound, but south of the 
branches of the Chowan, which was not in the limits of Caro- 
lina. The authorities in Virginia well knew that the territory 
south of the 36th degree of latitude had been long since granted 
by the Crown under the name of Carolina, and was not under their 
jurisdiction. 

In a suit growing out of George Catchmaid's settlement in 
Carolina, the record of which is preserved by Doctor Hawks in 
his second volume, page 132, some account is given of those who 
first seated themselves on the shores of Albemarle Sound. From 
that record it appears that George Durant came in company with 
the "first seaters," but for two years he occupied himself with 
finding out the country and selecting a good location. Having 
done that, he purchased from the King of the Yeopim Indians a 
certain neck of land on Perquimans River, receiving his deed on 
the first day of March, 1661 ( 1662) ;* and from this it would ap- 
pear that the "first seaters" came in 1659 or 1660. George Durant, 
while beginning his clearing, encouraged Catchmaid to seat a tract 
of land adjoining his own, and Catchmaid sent in 1662 Richard 
Watridge with three hands to settle and seat the said lands ; and a 
month later Catchmaid, having come to Albemarle, informed 
Durant that Governor Berkeley had then lately returned from 
England, and had announced that the settlers at Albemarle should 

* Bancroft, Vol. 2. p. 134. 

*At that time the year began March 25th, and not January ist. 



GEORGE CATCHMAID 65 

hold no longer under Indian titles, but that he would grant patents 
to those desiring them : and Catchmaid proposed to take out pat- 
ents for the land occupied by both Durant and himself. 

As a matter of fact Governor Berkeley did go to England, and 
while there mentioned to the King these new plantations in Caro- 
lina outside of Virginia, and asked for instructions, and the King 
directed that he should require those settlers who had bought 
their lands from the Indians to take out patents and grants from 
Virginia. Berkeley returned in the Summer of 1662: so Wat- 
ridge's arrival on Durant's Neck was in the Fall of 1662. 

Catchmaid accordingly procured a patent for 3,333 acres of 
land, the date of the same apparently being prior to the 13th day 
of March, 1662 (1663), for on that day he made an agreement 
in writing to convey Durant's part of the land to him, which, 
however, he failed to do ; and thus arose the occasion of the law- 
suit many years after his death. 

Besides this grant of more than three thousand acres, made 
before March, 1662 (1663), Governor Berkeley, as Governor of 
Virginia, also made another grant to Catchmaid for importing 
thirty persons into the Colony of Virginia, dated 25th of Sep- 
tember, 1663, six months later. This last grant was in the vicin- 
ity of the former one, but appears to have been entirely distinct 
from it. It would seem that in addition to the sixty-seven per- 
sons that Bancroft says "Catchmaid established in Carolina," he 
also brought into the Colony of Virginia thirty other persons. On 
that same day, September 25, 1663, Governor Berkeley made 
grants, which have been preserved, for lands at Albemarle, indi- 
cating that at least one hundred persons had been brought into 
Virginia by those to whom these lands were granted. It would 
therefore seem that planters of considerable substance were con- 
cerned in this first settlement ; such indeed is the statement of John 
Lawson, the first historian of North Carolina, who wrote in 1708 
and knew what the people of Albemarle said about it. He says : 

"A second settlement (after Walter Raleigh's) of this country was made 
about fifty years ago, in that part we now call Albemarle County, and 
chiefly in Chowan Precinct, by several substantial planters from Virginia 
and other plantations." 



66 NORTH CAROLINA 

After mentioning some of the difficulties of the new settlement, 
he continued: 

"Nevertheless, I say, the fame of this new-discovered Summer country 
spread through the neighboring Colonies, and in a few years drew a con- 
siderable number of families thereto." 

The next resident to write of North Carolina was Doctor 
Brickell, who, after residing in Albemarle, substantially repeats 
what Lawson wrote : and so Lawson*s account of the settlement 
would seem to have been in agreement with local traditions. 

Conditions of freedom continued to exist in Virginia until after 
the Restoration, when a political revolution set in which eventu- 
ated in restoring the old order of things, religious as well as tem- 
poral. If Roger Green, clerk, was a minister of the Church of 
England, and in 1653 designed to lead his flock into the wilder- 
ness because of the overthrow of the Church of Virginia, ten years 
later the requirement that the whole Liturgy should be read, and 
that no Nonconformists might teach even in private under pain of 
banishment, doubtless tended to drive the Independents into Caro- 
lina. Thus it may be that after the first settlements, subsequent 
accessions to the inhabitants of Albemarle were influenced by re- 
ligious intolerance in the Old Dominion; and after the grant of 
Carolina to Governor Berkeley and his brother and the other Pro- 
prietors, Berkeley probably viewed such a movement with satisfac- 
tion, as it promoted his personal interests. Yet it is to be remem- 
bered that Woodward, the surveyor, in 1665, does not mention 
such an influence as aiding the settlement of the Colony. In 1664 
Drummond was appointed governor, Carteret the secretary, and 
Woodward the surveyor. The Proprietors limited grants to fifty 
acres and charged half-penny an acre quit-rent, while in Virginia 
the rent was one shilling for fifty acres. The first Assembly that 
met petitioned the Proprietors for the same terms as existed in 
Virginia, and Woodward in June, 1665, wrote urging their ac- 
quiescence. He mentioned that he had many years been en- 
deavoring and encouraging to seat Albemarle, and he urged a 
larger apportionment than fifty acres to the person, saying: "To 



GEORGE CATCHMAID 67 

think that any men will remove from Virginia upon harder con- 
ditions than they can live there, will prove, I fear, a vain imagina- 
tion, it being land only that they come for." This would seem 
to be in line with the traditions of the settlement as perpetuated 
by Lawson, and apparently negatives the idea that the settlers 
were seeking the wilderness to escape from religious oppression. 
But however it may have been in regard to the Independents, 
it is quite certain that the Quakers did not make the first settle- 
ment. In 167 1, ten years after Durant's party had built their 
cabins, Edmundson came to Albemarle and found only one Friend 
there, Phillips, and he had been there only seven years. He and 
his wife came from New England. However, Edmundson made 
several converts at that time ; and Fox, who followed him the next 
year, says that he also made "a little entrance for the truth among 
the people in the north part of Carolina." Three or four years 
later Edmundson again visited Albemarle and "turned several 
to the Lord ;" "people were tender and loving, and there was no 
room for the priests, for Friends were finely settled, and I felt 
things were well among them." Indeed, from a memorial made by 
the Quakers in 1677 ^^ appears that there were then at least twenty 
members of that faith in the Colony who had settled in Carolina 
as early as 1663 and 1664. Necessarily their conversion was the 
work of Edmundson and Fox, and the Quaker element in the 
Colony is to be dated from that period, some ten or twelve years 
subsequent to the original settlement. To the same effect is the 
statement of Governor Walker in 1703,^ who then wrote: 

"George Fox, some years ago, came into these parts, and, by strange 
infatuations, did infuse the Quaker principles into some small number of 
the people ; which did and hath continued to grow ever since very numer- 
ous, by reason of their yearly sending in men to encourage and exhort 
them to their wicked principles." 

While the Friends constantly grew in strength, it was not until 
the end of the century that any other denomination of Christians 
had either a minister or a house of worship in Albemarle. It 

*C. R., Vol. I, p. 572. 



68 NORTH CAROLINA 

would thus seem that the inhabitants were not particularly de- 
voted or interested in their religious affiliations. 

Catchmaid was probably Speaker of the first Assembly, held 
prior to the month of June in 1665. He was Speaker of that 
held in the Summer of 1666. Tobacco-planting in Albemarle 
was then so considerable that in June, 1666, Maryland appointed 
commissioners to arrange with Virginia and "the Southward 
plantations" for the cessation of planting tobacco for one year 
in the three colonies; and the Legislature of Carolina assented 
to this. In transmitting the Act authorizing this agreement in 
the Summer of 1666 there was some delay because of an Indian 
War which prevented the messengers leaving Carolina. 

It was doubtless while Catchmaid was Speaker that the Act 
was passed providing for civil marriages, similar to the law in 
Virginia from 1654 to the Restoration; and another providing 
that settlers should be exempt from actions for debt, that being a 
law earlier in force in Virginia. Certainly the Speaker of the As- 
sembly exerted no little influence in the new settlement and con- 
tributed much to its growth. It is apparent that a considerable 
number of settlers were received from Massachusetts, and that 
at a very early day New England traders established connections 
in Albemarle and sought to engross the trade and commercial 
dealings of the settlement. As Catchmaid was not only a man 
of substance, but a leader in directing public matters and a man 
of some social standing, "a gentleman," he must have made an 
impress as such on the colony. 

His widow married Timothy Biggs, Deputy of the Earl of 
Craven, and Comptroller and Surveyor-General of His Majesty's 
Customs. His action as a customs officer had much to do with 
bringing on Culpepper's Rebellion in 1677. Biggs had the sym- 
pathy of the Quakers, but does not seem to have been of that 
faith; at any rate he was belligerent, for in 1678, when he had 
gone to England, he recommended to the Lords Proprietors to 
send an armed vessel to Albemarle, and to enlist a body of troops 
in Virginia to suppress the rebels. The Proprietors, however, 
warned him to hold his peace, and his bloody plan was not 
favorably considered. S, A. Ashe, 





BENJAMIN CLEVELAND 

F all the fierce frontiersmen whose activity 
spread consternation among the partisans of 
King George in the Southern campaigns of the 
American Revolution not one stood higher than 
Colonel Benjamin Cleveland, who was born 
May 26, 1738. Thanks to the splendid histori- 
cal effort of Doctor Lyman C. Draper in his volume entitled 
"King's Mountain and Its Heroes/' as well as to the works of less 
importance, we are enabled to present for the consideration of 
our readers a sketch of the career of this remarkable man. 
Prince William County, Virginia, was the birthplace of Ben- 
jamin Cleveland ; and his father's home was on Bull Run, a stream 
whose name was later to be known in all quarters of the globe as 
the opening scene of the greatest of American wars in 1861. 
While still a child young Cleveland was carried sixty miles west- 
ward to Orange County, Virginia, when his father removed to the 
latter locality. His new home was about six miles above the junc- 
tion of Bull Run with the Rapidan River. 

The personal prowess for which Cleveland was distinguished 
in the maturity of life was manifested in early childhood, and 
Draper tells us that at the early age of twelve he seized his father's 
gun and put to flight a party of drunken rowdies who were rais- 
ing a disturbance at his home while John Cleveland, the father, 
was absent. Having "an unconquerable aversion to the tame 



70 NORTH CAROLINA 

drudgery of farm-life," young Qeveland soon became famous as 
a hunter, and ranged the g^eat forests of his neighborhood in 
search of big game. To him the life of a hunter was a source of 
profit as well as pleasure, for the hides, furs, and pelts won by his 
rifle brought him no inconsiderable income. Tradition says that 
Cleveland saw some service in the French and Indian War and 
there received his first schooling as a soldier. Before leaving 
Virginia he married, in Orange County, Mary Graves, daughter 
of a gentleman of some fortune, who later came with his own 
family and that of his son-in-law to North Carolina. 

It was about the year 1769 that the above party settled in North 
Carolina. Qeveland first cultivated a farm on the waters of 
Roaring Creek, a tributary of the Yadkin River, later removing 
to a river bend of the Yadkin which (from its horseshoe shape) 
was called "The Round About." In after years, when the cele- 
brated Daniel Boone was a resident of the Yadkin Valley, his 
tales of the hunting-grounds to the westward so stirred the rest- 
less blood of Cleveland that in 1772 he set out with a party of four 
companions — ^five men in all — ^to Kentucky. These men were set 
upon by a large band of Cherokee Indians, who robbed them of 
all their belongings, guns included, and ordered them to return to 
the place from whence they came. After a painful journey the 
half-famished hunters finally succeeded in reaching the settle- 
ment of the white race once more. Cleveland later returned to 
the Cherokee country for the purpose of recovering his horse, 
and accomplished that object with the help of some friendly In- 
dians furnished him by Big Bear, a chief of the Cherokee nation. 

At the beginning of the Revolution Cleveland was com- 
missioned an ensign in the 2nd North Carolina Continental 
Regiment, commanded by Colonel Robert Howe, on September i, 
177s; he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in Januar)% 
1776, and became captain in November, 1776, later resigning from 
the Continental Line, or Regulars, and entering the militia. He 
bore some part in the Moore's Creek campaign in the Spring of 
1776. In the Spring of 1777 Cleveland commanded a company 
of volunteers against the Cherokees; but in the following July 



BENJAMIN CLEVELAND 71 

peace with the Indians was effected by the treaty of the Long 
Island of Holston. 

The County of Wilkes was formed in 1777, chiefly through the 
instrumentality of Captain Cleveland, and he was made colonel of 
the militia forces of the new county in August, 1778. In 1778 
Colonel Cleveland represented Wilkes in the North Carolina 
House of Commons, and was State Senator therefrom in 1779. 
In this county he was also Presiding Justice of the Court of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions. 

To tell in full of the desperate encounters in which Qeveland 
engaged would fill a volume. He was constantly engaged against 
the enemy, in 1777 serving in Indian campaigns, going on the ex- 
pedition to Georgia in 1778, and returning in 1779, and after- 
wards marching against the Tories at Ramseur's Mill, though he 
did not reach that place in time for the battle which was fought 
there on June 20, 1780. 

"Old Round About," as Qeveland was familiarly known (tak- 
ing that sobriquet from his plantation of the same name), prob- 
ably had a hand in hanging more Tories than any other man in 
America. Though this may be an unenviable distinction, he had 
to deal with about as unscrupulous a set of ruffians as ever in- 
fested any land — ^men who murdered peaceable inhabitants, burnt 
dwellings, stole horses, and committed about every other act in the 
catalogue of crime. Draper gives a number of instances where 
this fierce partisan avenged with hemp the wrongs of his neigh- 
borhood. But Qeveland was not always a man of a relentless 
mood. On one occasion, related by Draper, a particularly ob- 
noxious character was finally captured, and Cleveland called out : 
"Waste no time ! — swing him off quick !" Instead of being ap- 
palled by his approaching doom, the man turned to the colonel and 
remarked with perfect coolness : "Well, you needn't be in such a 
d — d big hurry about it." Struck with admiration at this display 
of bravery, Qeveland exclaimed : "Boys, let him go I" This act 
of magnanimity, from a source so unexpected, completely won 
over the Tory, who at once enlisted under Cleveland's banner and 
became one of his most faithful and devoted followers. 



72 NORTH CAROLINA 

Says the historian above quoted : 

"Qeveland was literally *all things to all people/ By his severities he 
awed and intimidated not a few — restraining them from lapsing into Tory 
abominations; by his kindness, forbearance, and even tenderness winning 
over many to the glorious cause he loved so well." 

The battle in which Cleveland gained his greatest renown was 
that fought at King's Mountain on the 7th of October, 1780. The 
rendezvous preparatory to this ever-memorable engagement was 
at Quaker Meadows, a plantation owned by the McDowell family 
in Burke County, near the present town of Morganton. Here 
the members of Cleveland's command were joined by their com- 
patriots. The battle of King's Mountain was fortunately a great 
and overwhelming victory for the Americans ; and among all the 
desperate fighters there engaged not one showed more personal 
courage than Colonel Cleveland. A description in detail of the 
battle could not be placed in a brief sketch such as the present, 
and so for fuller particulars we must refer the reader to works 
which have been devoted to that great event. When the victory 
was cpmplete, and the British commander, Colonel Ferguson, 
had been killed, that officer's horse was, by common consent, 
turned over to Colonel Cleveland because the latter "was too un- 
wieldy to travel on foot," and had lost his own horse during the 
battle. In view of Cleveland's size — ^weighing, as he did, more 
than four hundred pounds — it is wonderful that he could have led 
a life of such activity. 

After the victory at King's Mountain more than thirty Tories 
were condemned to death, and nine were executed — the others 
being reprieved. The executions here alluded to were, for the 
most part, punishments for past crimes — house-burnings, out- 
rages against women, desertions and betrayals, assassinations of 
non-combatants, etc. These measures were also in retaliation for 
past British cruelties — a few days before this eleven Americans 
having been hanged at Ninety-Six in South Carolina, and many 
more having been accorded similar treatment at other times. 
Cleveland was a member of the court (or court martial) — the 
nature of the tribunal being of a perplexing character — ^which 



BENJAMIN CLEVELAND 73 

tried and condemned these Tories. The Battle of King's Moun- 
tain restored comparative order to western North Carolina, yet 
there was more fighting to be done, and Colonel Cleveland as 
usual bore more than his share, serving under General Griffith 
Rutherford. 

After the war Colonel Cleveland's plantation, "The Round 
About," in North Carolina was lost to a litigant who had a better 
title therefor, and Cleveland soon removed to South Carolina, 
-where he became, first, an Indian fighter, and a judge, after peace 
wth the Cherokees had been effected. Before he died Cleveland 
attained the enormous weight of four hundred and fifty pounds. 
The death of Colonel Qeveland occurred in what is now Oconee 
County, South Carolina, in October, 1806. He left two sons and 
a daughter, and many of his descendants are now living. Gov- 
ernor Jesse Franklin (elsewhere noticed in this work) was a son 
of Qeveland's sister. Robert and Larkin Cleveland, brothers of 
the colonel, and "Devil John" Cleveland, the colonel's son, were 
all brave and efficient officers in the Revolution, as was also Jesse 
Franklin, above mentioned. 

By Chapter 9 of the Laws of 1840-41 a county was formed 
out of Lincoln and Rutherford and named for Colonel Cleveland. 
In this act the name was misspelled Cleaveland, but by another 
l^slative enactment — ^passed many years later — ^the error was 
remedied. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 





RICHARD CLINTON 




'HE county-seat of Sampson County is called 
Clinton, as a compliment to Colonel Richard 
Clinton, one of the Revolutionary patriots of 
that vicinity. The Clintons along with the 
Kenans and others came over from Ireland 
with Colonel Sampson about 1736, and were 
among the first to settle in the wilderness on the head-waters of 
the northeast branch of the Cape Fear. Because of this Irish set- 
tlement it was at first proposed to call that region the county of 
Donegal, but when in 1749 the upper part of New Hanover was 
cut off to form the new county it was named Duplin, in honor of 
Lord Duplin, one of the Board of Trade at that time ; and Duplin 
County during the Revolution extended far to the west, embrac- 
ing the territory of Sampson County and covering a large and ex- 
tensive region. 

Whether the subject of this sketch was bom before or subse- 
quent to this first Irish settlement is unknown ; he may have been 
one of the very first white children born in that part of the State. 
It is said that he was a nephew of Colonel Charles Clinton, the 
father of Governor George Clinton and of General James Clinton, 
of New York ; and in person and characteristics he was not inferior 
to those distinguished gentlemen. He was remarkably handsome, 
was always cool and self-possessed, a thoughtful man, and one of 
much dignity of character. 



RICHARD CLINTON 75 

On November 29, 1768, Governor Try on commissioned him 
one of the justices for the county of Duplin; so at that early age 
he had attained a position of influence and was a man of conse- 
quence in his community ; and by successive appointments he held 
this position until the Revolution. 

His military career began in the civil commotions which dis- 
turbed North Carolina prior to the Revolution, he being a major 
in Governor Tryon's army, which marched against the Regulators 
and routed them at the Battle of Alamance. Before that time, be- 
tween 1762 and 1765, he married Penelope Kenan, a sister of 
Colonel James Kenan, and he was a man so highly regarded that 
he held the office of register of the county of Duplin under the 
Crown. 

When the troubles with the Mother Country came on he was an 
active Whig, and was elected to represent Duplin County in the 
Provincial Congress which sat at Hillsboro in August and Sep- 
tember, 1775. By that body he was elected lieutenant-colonel 
of Duplin County, when the militia of the State was organized 
for Revolutionary purposes on September 9, 1775. The next 
Provincial Congress, April, 1776, selected him as one of the com- 
missioners to procure arms and ammunition for the army, and he 
was energetic and efficient in that service. When the last Pro- 
vincial Congress met in December, 1776, it adopted a State Con- 
stitution and established a State Government and organized 
Courts of Pleas and Quarter Sessions under the Constitution, and 
he was appointed by the Congress a justice for Duplin County. 
In the early stage of the Revolution the Provincial Congress had 
adopted a Test Oath, which all the Revolutionists took, and the 
Legislature at its session of November, 1777, prescribed an Oath 
of Allegiance and Abjuration. This oath was taken by the citi- 
zens of the different counties, and the record is preserved wherein 
Colonel Qinton took it in Duplin County. He represented his 
county in the House of Commons continuously from 1777 to 
1784. In that year Sampson County was formed out of Duplin, 
and he represented Sampson County in the Senate in 1785 and 
until 1795, with the exception of one year. He thus served his 



76 NORTH CAROLINA 

people in the Legislature during nearly the whole period of the 
Revolutionary War, and participated in the adoption of those 
measures which were relied on to protect the State from the in- 
cursions of the enemy. 

After the Battle of Moore's Creek and the departure of the 
British fleet from the Cape Fear in the early Summer of 1776, 
quiet reigned in North Carolina until the opening of 1781, al- 
though detachments were sent to the aid of South Carolina when 
that State was invaded. What share Colonel Qinton had in the 
operations to the southward is not recorded, nor has the par- 
ticular part he played in 1781 been perpetuated. He was, how- 
ever, the right arm of his brother-in-law. Colonel Kenan, during 
the troublous times that were ushered in when Major Craig oc- 
cupied Wilmington on the 28th of January, 1781. At that time 
the militia of Duplin and of other counties were ordered down to 
the great bridge twelve miles above Wilmington ; but Craig had 
hastened to demolish the bridge, and had then returned to the 
town, which he immediately fortified to protect the garrison. When 
Colonel Kenan, Colonel Clinton and their forces had reached the 
bridge and found it destroyed, they fortified themselves on the 
northern bank to hold that pass and prevent the enemy from mak- 
mg excursions into the country. There were about seven hun- 
dred militia collected there under General Lillington when about 
the first of March Major Craig attacked them with artillery from 
across the river, the contest being maintained for two days, and 
then having accomplished nothing the British returned to their 
fortifications at Wilmington. In April Cornwallis began his 
march northward, and Lillington retreated to Kinston, where on 
the 28th of April he discharged all the militia, and the men re- 
turned to their homes to protect their several communities from 
the Tories, who became very active in Duplin as well as in every 
part of the country where the British Army had passed. At length 
Colonel Kenan and Colonel Clinton got together in July some four 
hundred men and took post near Rockfish Creek, when Major 
Craig marched out against them with his main army and field 
pieces and dispersed the militia, who were badly armed and had 



RICHARD CLINTON 77 

but little ammunition. Major Craig remained several days in Du- 
plin and then marched on to New-Bern. The Tories were reani- 
mated by the presence of this British force and were more auda- 
cious than ever. Kenan and Clinton collected some light-horse and 
formed a little flying camp and made frequent sallies on their ene- 
mies ; and when Craig heard that General Wayne was approaching 
Halifax, and hurried for protection to his fortifications at Wil- 
mington, the Whigs of Duplin embodied to the number of eighty 
light-horsemen, and marching quickly into the neighborhood 
where the Tories were embodied, surprised them, killed many, and 
put to instant death all the prisoners they took. This bloody ac- 
tion struck such terror into the Tories of Duplin that they sub- 
sequently gave but little trouble. During that period Colonel 
Clinton and his associates were as active and as zealous as any of 
the famed partisan leaders of the Revolution. 

After peace was won he continued to enjoy the respect and es- 
teem of his people, and by his wise counsels in the halls of the 
Legislature promoted their interests and welfare, and was re- 
garded as one of the most patriotic statesmen of that part of the 
State. 

When Sampson County was established he owned the land 
that is now the site of the town of Clinton, and when it was laid 
off he donated five acres for a public square and Court House and 
also a lot for a public school. 

Colonel Clinton died in 1796, leaving two sons and four daugh- 
ters. William, the eldest son, married Miss Seawell, a daughter 
of Judge Seawell, and had two sons, William and James. Rich- 
ard Clinton married Ferebee Hicks and moved to Georgia. None 
of Colonel Clinton's descendants bearing his name now live in 
North Carolina. His daughter Mary married Mr. Roland, of 
Robeson County; his daughter Rachel married Mr. Rhodes and 
left one son, Doctor Richard Rhodes. Elizabeth married David 
Bunting, of Quaker descent, originally of Pennsylvania but set- 
tling in Sampson County, and left eight children, one of whom, 
Penelope Bunting, became the wife of Colonel Thomas K. 
Morisey, who was her cousin, being the son of George Morisey, 



78 



NORTH CAROLINA 



of Cork, Ireland, and of Jane Kenan, a sister of Mrs. Penelope 
Clinton. The youngest child of Colonel Clinton, Nancy, married 
Owen Holmes, a brother of Governor Holmes, and left five sons 
and three daughters. One of her sons, Owen, was a distinguished 
lawyer, located at Wilmington, was a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, married Betsy Ashe, a daughter of Colonel 
Samuel Ashe, of Rocky Point, and left three children: Owen, 
who died unmarried; Bettie, who married Doctor John Meares, 
of Wilmington; and Sam Ashe Holmes, who married Mary 
Strudwick, of Alabama. These removed to California. 

S. A. Ashe. 





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ORLANDO R. COX 

lAR from the madding crowd's ignoble strife," 
there be men who in the even tenor of their 
way and in the quiet pursuit of their ideals are 
doing the real work that counts most largely 
in the inventory of the substantial assets of a 
State. The student who turns the pages of 
North Carolina's history for the last quarter of a century will look 
in vain for the names of many men who have wrought and built 
for their communities, their churches and themselves. The chief- 
est value of this volume and its highest mission are that it brings 
to light and places on historic record the names of a large number 
of the unknown who have contributed most largely to the rebuild- 
ing and upbuilding of this commonwealth ahd who are not known 
outside of their respective communities and the limited commer- 
cial circles in which they operate in the conduct of their daily 
business. Men of genius, merit, and real worth, who are absorbed 
in the steady and serious prosecution of their life's work, shrink 
from the empty honors and notoriety which come to smaller men. 
The man who has no definite work before him and is without a 
definite object in life is to be pitied. He loses the real joy of ex- 
istence. He never feels the uplifting enthusiasm which comes 
to a man whose every faculty is at work in the accomplishment 
of a task or the serious and earnest pursuit of the object of his 
ambition. 



8o NORTH CAROLINA 

There is nothing more interesting than the study of the build- 
ing of the character of a man whose plans are jointed or dove- 
tailed, and made to fit as one by one they mature and take their 
places in the splendid structure of a superbly built and success- 
ful life. It has been the good or ill fortune of the writer to touch 
life at many points in his checkered career and to know something 
of the lives of many men of many minds and many vocations. 
Within the range of his observation there has rarely come a life 
so rounded, so smooth, so straight, so unaffected, so serious, so 
earnest and so successful as that of Orlando R. Cox. From the 
humblest beginning it has grown and expanded each and every 
day until at its meridian we find its impress upon nearly every 
enterprise and institution of his church and his native county. 
Nor has the sphere of his influence and usefulness been limited 
by the confines of his county. His name is linked with a chain of 
financial and commercial institutions throughout the State, and 
in their management his fine business judgment is invoked in the 
capacity of a director. 

He comes from one of the oldest, largest and most substantial 
families of the county of Randolph. Bom at Cox's Mill on the 
26th of August, 1844, he remained on the farm until the year 
1868, when he began work as clerk or salesman in the general 
store of Hugh T. Moffitt at Moffitt's Mills, North Carolina. Here 
he was engaged for about one year, after which he accepted a 
position as clerk in the company's store at Cedar Falls, North 
Carolina. His earliest ancestor of whom there is public record 
was Abel Cox, a citizen of sterling virtues. The name of his own 
father was Mica j ah Cox, who was a farmer and millwright by 
occupation. He was well known and is still well remembered 
by the older citizens of the county. He was fond of hunting and 
fishing, and many amusing incidents of his hunting exploits still 
live in the traditions of his people. It is told that many a wild 
buck fell a victim of his deadly aim and many a timid doe lay 
lifeless at his feet. He was a leader in his community, an en- 
thusiastic Mason, a devout member of the Methodist Protestant 
Church, and was Justice of the Peace of his county for thirty-one 



ORLANDO R. COX 8i 

years. The name of the mother of our subject was Matilda John- 
son Cox. It was from these plain, honest, industrious and God- 
fearing parents of simple life that Orlando R. Cox inherited the 
fine traits, the rugged virtues and the sterling qualities which 
have marked his steadily successful career. It was in the year 
1869 that Orlando R. Cox, the plain farmer boy, with limited 
education acquired from the "old field schools'' and two terms 
with Professor Holt, came as a clerk, as before told, in the com- 
pany store at Cedar Falls at a very small salary. Here began the 
real work of his life, and it was not long before he, by diligence 
and fidelity, had made himself an essential, individual factor in 
the management of the business of the company as well as a val- 
uable and popular citizen of the county. Seven years thereafter, 
in 1876, without solicitation on his part, he was elected sheriff of 
the county. Before the expiration of his term he violated the 
political epigram: "Few die, none resign." He grew tired of 
political office, tendered his resignation as sheriff, and accepted 
the position of secretary and treasurer and general manager of the 
Cedar Falls Manufacturing Company — a position whose duties 
were more congenial and more in keeping with the ambition of 
his life. This company had been organized and created the year 
before and had become the purchaser and owner of what was 
known as the Cedar Falls property, including the cotton mill, 
store, sites, tenement houses and everything. Cedar Falls Cotton 
Mill is the oldest in the county. 

Cedar Falls takes its name from a cluster of majestic cedars 
which grew around a rugged shoal in Deep River, on the banks 
of which the village is built about midway between Randleman 
and Ramseur on a branch of the Southern Railway. It was away 
back in 1848 that this first cotton mill in the county was built, and 
for more than half a century the winds that blow through 
the venerable cedars that grow there have been vibrating with 
the music of its busy machinery. It has been a training school 
for some of the cotton mill men who are to-day among the South's 
leaders. It was here that the Elliotts, the Makepeaces, the Odells 
and others learned the practical part of the cotton mill business. 



82 NORTH CAROLINA 

It was here that Benjamin Elliott, the first man who inspired the 
building of a cotton mill in Randolph County, lived and pros- 
pered, and beneath those cedars sleep the remains of this pioneer 
and benefactor. It was near here that the late George Makepeace 
lived. Of him the late Reverend Doctor Braxton Craven said in 
his sermon, dedicating the Naomi Cotton Mills : 

"George Makepeace was the very genius of organization, and few men 
could govern men, women, and children with less annoyance or greater 
effect In spirit and life he was a model man; quiet, considerate, cool- 
headed and warm-hearted, he said and did the right things at the right 
time and always with the happiest results." 

Mr. George Makepeace was the grandfather of C. R. Make- 
peace, cotton mill architect and builder, now of Providence, R. I. 

Cedar Falls and its surroundings are rich in interesting biog- 
raphy and industrial reminiscences. These mills were here before 
Greensboro, Charlotte, Wilmington, Rockingham, Fayetteville 
or Raleigh had a railroad. Its founders were Henry B. Elliott 
and Philip Horney. Of these two men Doctor Craven further 
said in the sermon referred to: 

"There was Philip Horney, a man whose heart was young when his 
body was old. He made money and spent it, or a part of it, as a true man 
should; he was an ardent friend and supporter of the church; his table 
was always spread for the hungry; his sympathy reached towards all who 
needed it, and everybody called him friend. There was Henry B. Elliott, 
one of the noblest of Randolph's noble citizens. He had something of the 
bearing of an English nobleman, but withal the courtesy and self-sacrific- 
ing generosity of a warm-hearted and true man. He was gifted in in- 
tellect and finely cultivated in extensive learning and enthusiastic in every- 
thing that seemed to promote good for the country." 

There was inspiration in such associations for a young man of 
Mr. Cox's determination and ambition. He reckons these names 
and associations among the strongest influences which stimulated 
him in the great task he had set for himself. 

Following and succeeding these men was Doctor John Milton 
Worth, whose wise counsel and far-sightedness as president of 
this company constituted the strongest support Mr. Cox had for 
many years. Under the vigorous and successful management of 



ORLANDO R. COX 83 

Mr. Cox, aided by President Worth, the Cedar Falls Mills have 
more than trebled in the number of spindles and capacity, and 
he has been enabled to build a new mill with two hundred looms 
at the same places. He is a practical mill man, with all the word 
implies. His knowledge was acquired around the spindles and in 
personal work and attention to every detail of the complex opera- 
tion of a cotton mill. Some conception of the magnitude of the 
task may be formed when it is remembered that at the time he as- 
sumed control of this magnificent property, in the early days of 
1878, the value of its assets did not exceed the amount of its in- 
debtedness. Without name or credit or backing, save that which 
grim grit and tireless pluck gave, he assumed a burden from 
which others had shrunk, and steadily for years toiled at his desk 
and in the mill through the long hours of day and the heavy hours 
of night until he had lifted every dollar of encumbrance and 
made the stock of this company the most desirable and valuable 
in the markets of the State. It is doubtful if there can be found 
in the State a man who has given his time more constantly, un- 
selfishly, and unreservedly to the promotion of the interests of his 
company. In the meantime, by close economy and the most frugal 
habits he was enabled to purchase from time to time stock until 
he became the largest stockholder of the company, and is to-day 
the piactical owner of the two mills. 

In more recent years he has been induced to invest some of the 
fruits of his toil in other plants and institutions. He succeeded 
Doctor J. M. Worth as president of the Bank of Randolph, the 
largest and strongest bank of the county, in which he has been a 
stockholder and director from its incorporation. He also suc- 
ceeded Doctor Worth as president of the Asheboro Furniture 
Company, in which he had been a stockholder and director since its 
incorporation. He is a stockholder in the Asheboro Chair Factory, 
the Concord Wholesale Grocery Company of Concord, North 
Carolina. J. W. Scott and Company of Greensboro, North Caro- 
lina, the Wachovia Loan and Trust Company of Winston-Salem, 
North Carolina, and the Greensboro National Bank. He is also 
a charter shareholder and director of the Greensboro Loan and 



84 NORTH CAROLINA 

Trust Company, the strongest financial institution in the Gate 
City, as well as in the North State Fire Insurance Company and 
Greensboro Life Insurance Company of the same city. There 
are other corporations in which he is interested and holds stock. 
This list, however, will suffice to show the value of his career to 
his community, his county and his State. It tells its own story. 
It is his own work. He is the architect of his own fortune. 

Twice married, he was blessed by his first marriage with six 
children, three of whom are dead and three living. The issue of 
his last marriage are five children, all of whom are living. Nor 
is this all. There is another field in which we may note the 
harvest from the good seed he has sown. He is and has been 
from earliest young manhood a member of the Methodist Prot- 
estant Church, and for years has been one of the leading and most 
influential laymen of that church in North Carolina. Time and 
again he has been selected as delegate to the annual and quad- 
rennial convocations and for the highest positions of trust and 
honor in that church. At his home he is a faithful communicant 
and liberal supporter of his church and all of its enterprises. In 
the Sunday-School and elsewhere he is as prompt, as active, as 
enthusiastic and as earnest as he is in the prosecution of his busi- 
ness affairs. It is to be recorded, too, that while, as a rule, he has 
resisted the flattering inducements to enter politics he has, from a 
sense of public duty, served his county four years as a County 
Commissioner and ten or twelve years as a Justice of the Peace. 

He is the upright man and the model citizen. He meets and 
measures up to every exaction of Church and State. He has 
wrought well in his day and generation. His record is a proud 
heritage for his children. His is a life whose lesson is worth pre- 
serving. It may not be written in bronze or brass or stone, but it 
will live in the ever-widening circles of the lives it has touched. 
When the old county of Randolph comes to make up the roll of 
her native sons who, in the last three decades, have done the most 
for her material growth, her credit and her good name, there will 
be on that roll no name ahead of that of Orlando R. Cox. 

G, S. Bradshaw, 




WILLIAM DICKSON 




'R. JAMES O. CARR, a distinguished member 
of the Wilmington bar, has rendered the State 
notable service by the publication of "the Dick- 
son Letters," which form an interesting and 
valuable addition to our literature, covering the 
dark period of 1781 in the Cape Fear section 
and the period when the Federal Constitution was adopted. In 
this sketch the writer will follow the Introduction made by Mr. 
Carr to the Dickson Letters, whose preparation shows painstaking 
research. 

The Dickson family in Duplin County trace their descent to 
Simon Dickson, who was a stern English Puritan and an ardent 
adherent of Oliver Cromwell, and received as his reward for his 
services a grant of 400 acres of land in County Down, Ireland. 
There he settled and had a numerous offspring. John Dickson, 
fifth in descent from Simon, was bom in Ireland in 1704, and 
died in Duplin County, North Carolina, on the 25th of December, 
1774. When thirty- four years of age he emigrated from Ireland 
and located in Chester County, Pennsylvania, where he resided a 
few years and where three of his sons were bom. He then moved 
to Maryland, but after a short while located in Duplin County 
some time previous to 1745. He had eight sons and one daughter. 
The eldest son, Michael, moved to Georgia; William, the subject 
of this sketch, was the third; Robert, another son, towards the 



86 NORTH CAROLINA 

close of the Revolution moved to Virginia, but returned to Duplin 
in 1784. He served in the House of Commons in 1777 and con- 
tinuously from 1784 to 1788. Joseph also left the county about the 
close of the Revolution, but returning served as Register of Deeds 
and County Surveyor and was in the House of Commons in 1780 
and 1797. Alexander likewise emigrated to Virginia in 1781, but 
returned in 1784. He was a public-spirited and patriotic man and 
highly esteemed in his county. He left no children, and in his 
will devised the bulk of his property "to the use of a free school 
or schools for the benefit of the poor of Duplin County." In 1817, 
when his estate was settled, this fund amounted to $12,621. It has 
always been known as the "Dickson Charity Fund," and until 
after the Civil War the income was applied to educational pur- 
poses, and since the war to the Public School Fund. Edward 
Dickson, another son, was one of the most respected and pros- 
perous citizens of Duplin County. His granddaughter, Ann Wil- 
liams, married Doctor Stephen Graham, and their daughter, Sarah 
Rebecca Graham, married Honorable Owen R. Kenan, and be- 
came the mother of Colonel Thomas S. Kenan, of Raleigh, North 
Carolina; James G. Kenan, of Kenansville, and the late William 
R. Kenan, of Wilmington. 

William Dickson, the subject of this sketch, was bom in Chester 
County, Pennsylvania, on the loth of January, 1739, ^^^ ^^s 
brought by his father to Duplin County during infancy. His ed- 
ucational advantages were limited, as he was reared among the 
early settlers in the wilderness before the establishment of schools. 
Still he appears to have been well taught at home ; wrote with un- 
common ease, and was a man of comprehensive ideas, good judg- 
ment, and great wisdom. He discussed political questions with in- 
telligence, and forecast the future with intuition and remarkable 
foresight. 

He had just reached manhood when the exciting period of the 
Stamp Act troubles fostered unrest and mental activity among 
the colonists; and this was followed by the trying times of the 
Revolution, during which he was recognized as one of the trusted 
leaders of his community. 



WILLIAM DICKSON 87 

He was a delegate from Duplin County to the first Provincial 
Congress held at New-Bern on the 25th of August, 1774; and 
he was a member of each successive Congress, and participated 
in the deliberations of the body that framed the Constitution of 
the State. On the establishment of county courts in 1777 he was 
elected clerk of that court for Duplin County, and it is said that 
he held that position for forty- four years. While he did not serve 
in the Continental Army, he was active in the militia, especially 
in the year 1781 after Major Craig took possession of Wilming- 
ton and the Tories rose in the Cape Fear country. He was with 
Lillingtqn and Kenan when they held the Great Bridge from 
February until April, retiring in front of Cornwallis. In his letter 
of 1784 Mr. Dickson gives a graphic account of the devastation 
of Duplin County during that April and June. "At length," he 
said, "we got collected about four hundred men under Colonel 
Kenan in Duplin and made a stand." About the 20th of July 
Colonel Kenan was joined by a part of Brigadier-General Caswell's 
Brigade, making his total force the number above stated. Breast- 
works were thrown up about one mile east of the present village 
of Wallace, where the county road crosses Rockfish Creek, and 
on August 2d Colonel Craig's force of Regulars, about five hun- 
dred strong, moved up and attacked them. Colonel Kenan had 
but a few rounds of ammunition, and when this was exhausted 
his militia gave way, and in the stampede some thirty or forty 
men were captured, besides the loss in killed and wounded. After 
this encounter the Whig forces were dispersed and the enemy 
stayed several days in Duplin, the Tories gathering very fast and 
taking possession of the county. Major Craig, having marched to 
New-Bern, returned towards Kinston, proposing to move north- 
ward, but heard that General Anthony Wayne was approaching 
Halifax, which deterred him from further operations, and he 
sought safety in his fortifications at Wilmington. This retreat 
gave renewed courage to the Whigs, who now embodied, William 
Dickson being among them. They organized about eighty light- 
horsemen, marched into the neighborhood where the Tories were, 
surprised them, cut many to pieces, took several and put them to 



88 NORTH CAROLINA 

death. During all those troublous times, though Mr. Dickson had 
many narrow escapes, he received but one wound, which was a 
shot through his right leg. About the middle of October General 
Rutherford and General Butler, with 1500 militia from the back 
country, came down the Cape Fear and suppressed the Tories. 
As Rutherford drew near to Wilmington intelligence was re- 
ceived of the surrender of Comwallis, and Major Craig hastily 
sailed away for Charleston, and the troubles of the Revolution 
were over. 

William Dickson was a patriotic and progressive citizen. His 
interest in the establishment of the Grove Academy at Kenans- 
ville indicates the importance he attached to education. He men- 
tions that about Christmas, 1785, "we made up a small school of 
fourteen or fifteen boys, which is the first attempt that has ever 
been made to teach the languages in this part of the country." 
In 1787 he states that "at our Grove Academy there are yet but 
twenty-five students under a master, who teaches only the Latin 
and English Grammar and the Latin and Greek languages." 

In that same letter he refers to the Constitution of the United 
States, then submitted to the Legislature of each State for con- 
currence, and says : 

"Our General Assembly for this State are now convened and have it 
under consideration. We hear that debate runs high concerning it, aljso the 
populace and the country are divided in their opinion concerning it. For 
my own part I . am but a shallow politician, but there are some parts 
of it I do not like. However, I expect our Legislature will adopt it in 
full." 

In a subsequent letter he says of the Federal Constitution : 

"I think that it is formed so as to lay the foundation of one of the great- 
est empires now in the world, and from the high opinion I have of the 
illustrious characters who now hold the reins of government, I have no 
fear of any revolution taking place in my day. Since I wrote to you on 
the subject I have become reconciled to it." 

He adds : 

"It was a matter of necessity rather than choice when the Convention of 
North Carolina received it about twelve months ago, we being the last 



WILLIAM DICKSON 89 

State except one (Rhode Island) which came into the measure. Virginia, 
though with much reluctance, and the other States around us, having pre- 
viously adopted the Federal plan, the State of North Carolina could 
not remain independent of the Union and support the dignity of the State 
itself. Had Virginia only stood out with us, I think North Carolina would 
not have been in the Union yet. It appears to me that the Southern 
States will not receive equal benefit in the Government with the Northern 
States. . . . The Southern States will have their vote, but will not 
be able to carry any point against so powerful a party in cases where either 
general or local interest are the object. Some attempts which were made 
in the course of the last session of Congress have much alarmed the South- 
em people. The most strenuous exertions were made by some of the 
Northern representatives to liberate and emancipate the slaves in the 
United States, and though they did not carry their point, they seemed de- 
termined never to drop the matter until they do. This, if effected, will 
be arbitrary, cruel and unjust." 

These extracts of letters made contemporaneously with the 
events they refer to are not only interesting of themselves, but in- 
dicate that William Dickson was a man of profound thought and 
a good writer. That he exercised a great influence in his com- 
munity cannot be doubted. 

He died January 20, 1820, at the age of eighty-one years. He 
married in 1767 Mary Williams, a daughter of Joseph Williams 
of Onslow County, and a granddaughter of Benjamin Williams, 
who is said to have been descended from Frances, a daughter of 
Oliver Cromwell, and settled near Halifax, North Carolina, prior 
to 1750. 

William and Mary Dickson had nine children. One of their 
descendants became the wife of Leroy Polk Walker, Secretary 
of War in President Davis's Cabinet, and later a brigadier-general 
in the Confederate Army ; another descendant was Albert Pickett, 
author of a "History of Alabama." A son of William Dickson, 
Doctor William Dickson, of Tennessee, was a member of Cong- 
ress for three terms, and the county of Dickson in Tennessee was 
named for him. 

S. A. Ashe. 





DAVID FANNING 

AVID FANNING, one of the most extraordi- 
nary men evolved by the Revolutionary War, 
was bom about the year 1756. His parentage 
and his birthplace are obscure. In his "Sched- 
ule of Property lost to him on account of his 
attachment to the British Government, filed and 
sworn to at St. Augustine in November, 1783," he mentions "550 
acres of land in Amelia County in the Province of Virginia, with 
dwelling-house, etc., orchards and large enclosed improvements 
valued at 687 pounds ; and 550 acres of land near said plantation, 
heir to the estate of my father, and some improvements with a 
dwelling-house, 412 pounds; three saddle-horses, twelve planta- 
tion horses," etc. From this it would appear that Colonel 
Fanning was a native of Amelia County, Virginia. Governor 
Swain, however, in tracing his career stated that he was born in 
that part of Johnston County which has since been embraced in 
Wake, and that he was apprenticed to a Mr. Bryan, from whom 
he ran away when about sixteen years of age, finding a temporary 
home at the house of John O'Deniell, of Hawfields in Orange 
County. He was untaught and unlettered, and he had the scald 
head, that became so oflFensive that he did not eat at the table with 
the family; and in subsequent life he wore a silk cap so that his 
most intimate friends never saw his head naked. In the course 
of two or three vears he left North Carolina and settled on Rae- 



DAVID FANNING 91 

burn's Creek, a branch of Reedy River in Laurens District, South 
Carolina, and engaged in trafficking with the Indians. That part 
of the country was inhabited by the Scovellites, who had been sup- 
pressed about the time of the Regulation movement in North 
Carolina, and like the Regulators they sided with the King rather 
than with the Whigs. 

David Fanning left a journal from which the events of his 
career are collated. 

In April, 1775, Colonel Fletcher, the colonel of Laurens County, 
who was a Royalist, directed the captains to muster their com- 
panies and present two papers to be signed, to see who were 
friends to the King and who would join the Whigs. Fanning, 
then in his nineteenth year, was sergeant of his company, and at 
the muster on the isth of May he presented the papers, and 118 
men signed in favor of the King. There were sharp collisions be- 
tween the Loyalists and their Whig neighbors during that year; 
and that Autumn, when it was learned that a large quantity of 
ammunition was being sent to the Cherokee Nation by the new 
Whig Government, as was customary. Fanning and his friends 
intercepted the pack-horses and secured the powder. Because 
of this, the "Snow Campaign" of December, 1775, was under- 
taken by Colonel Martin, Colonel Rutherford, and others, with 
North Carolina forces, and the Loyalists dispersed and the am- 
munition recovered. In July, 1776, the Indians made their foray 
on the western frontier of North and South Carolina, in accord- 
ance with the plan devised by Governor Martin for the subjuga- 
tion of North Carolina, beginning their massacre on the very day 
of the bombardment of Fort Moultrie. Fanning hastened to join 
the Indians, carrying twenty-five of his neighbors with him, and 
they attacked a fort in South Carolina containing 450 Whigs, but 
the assailants were driven off, and Fanning came to North Caro- 
lina. After experiencing numberless hardships, however, he re- 
turned to his home in March, 1777. From the beginning, in May, 
1775, he had been constantly active as a zealous Loyalist, always 
on the warpath, and undergoing many vicissitudes; and this 
course he continued to pursue, being entirely irrepressible. 



92 NORTH CAROLINA 

In March, 1778, he was chosen commanding officer of the 
Loyalists of his region, and there were daily conflicts between 
his followers and the Whigs, until at last the Loyalists were dis- 
persed, and for three months he was obliged to remain in the 
woods, living only on what was killed in the wilderness. 

Eventually there were embodied some 500 Loyalists determined 
to go to St. Augustine, but the Whigs having intercepted them 
and dispersed them. Fanning undertook to make his way to Hol- 
stein River, but later returned to Raebum's Creek; and after a 
great many thrilling experiences he agreed to live peacefully at 
home under a conditional pardon. For a year he observed the 
terms of his surrender, but on the reduction of Charleston in May, 
1780, he and one William Cunningham, known as "Bloody," con- 
cluded to embody a party of men, and they were rapidly joined 
by many Loyalists. They captured the fort at Ninety-Six and the 
fort at White Hall, together with 300 men. Fanning now with 
a small party scouted on the frontiers, and he fell in with Colonel 
Ferguson's detachment five days before the destruction of that 
force at King's Mountain, but did not join it. After that battle, 
the Whigs in upper South Carolina took heart, and Fanning's 
situation becoming alarming, he left that State and came to Deep 
River, where he remained quiet, but all the while discovering who 
were friends to the King. 

In July, 1780, when South Carolina was entirely submissive 
to the British and the North Carolina Loyalists were bold and 
exulting. Major Ferguson arranged for their organization and 
commissioned seven captains with their subordinates for com- 
panies in Randolph ; six captains for Chatham ; four for Cumber- 
land ; three for Anson and two for Orange ; and so the organiza- 
tion and nucleus of a loyal militia force in that part of North Caro- 
lina was substantial. These officers, however, remained inactive 
until Craig took possession of Wilmington and Cornwallis reached 
Hillsboro and issued his proclamation for the Loyalists to embody. 
Captain John Rains, of Randolph County, was the first to begin 
to embody his company. Doctor John Pyle, who was a physician 
and an estimable man, one of the Regulators, feeling conscien- 



DAVID FANNING 93 

tiously bound by his oath, also responded and was assigned the 
command of some 300 men, the first Loyalists to collect. On 
their way to join Comwallis at Hillsboro they fell in with Colonel 
Lee and his troops, on the 25th of February, 1781, near the site 
of the town of Burlington, and were cut to pieces. At that time, 
however. Fanning was still on Deep River, with a smaller party, 
arousing the Loyalists to action. 

He joined Cornwallis at Dixon's Mills on Cane Creek, but 
after accompanying him as far as Cross Creek, he separated from 
the army and began the career of murder and rapine that has 
made his name infamous. It must be said, however, that he was 
one of the boldest men, most fertile in expedients and quick in 
execution, that ever lived in North Carolina. Had he been on 
the Whig side, his fame would have been more enduring than 
that of any other partisan officer whose memory is now so dear 
to all patriots. Foraging on the country, seizing what he wanted, 
slaying, slaughtering, burning homes and butchering in cold blood 
according to his mood, he became a terror and a scourge. 

His headquarters were at Coxe's Mill on Deep River, and from 
there he sallied forth in every direction, intercepting all parties 
passing to and from General Greene's camp in South Carolina, 
and terrorizing all that region. Early in June Colonels Collier 
and Balfour led a detachment to dislodge him, but Fanning by a 
forced march was enabled to make a night attack upon them and 
drove them off. For a time then Colonel Christopher Dudley oc- 
cupied Coxe's Mills with a force of 300 Virginians, but could not 
suppress this indefatigable partisan. Emboldened by the protec- 
tion and by the presence of the British Army, the Tories of Cum- 
berland, Bladen and Duplin had likewise become very active and 
the Whigs had been driven from their homes, while many who 
were not resolute partisans had submitted to the dominion of the 
Loyalists. In Chatham, Randolph, Anson and Cumberland, Fan- 
ning and his coadjutors were in absolute control; and all that 
region was dominated by the Royal adherents. 

About the first of July there was a muster of the Loyal militia 
at Fanning's camp, and he was chosen colonel, and thereupon 



94 NORTH CAROLINA 

set out for Wilmington to obtain a commission : and on the 5th of 
that month Major Craig commissioned him colonel of the Loyal 
militia in Randolph and Chatham Counties. On his return he at 
once collected about 150 men and began active operations. A few 
days later, about the middle of July, there being a general muster 
and a court-martial at Pittsboro, Fanning made a descent upon 
that place and took fifty-three prisoners, including all the militia 
officers of the county except two, a Continental captain and three 
members of the Assembly. He paroUed some and carried others 
to Wilmington. It was a great advantage to these Tory bands 
that they could obtairt all the ammunition that they needed from 
the British Army, while the Whigs were entirely without am- 
munition and were very badly armed. 

Fanning's next exploit was to attack Colonel Alston's party 
at his house ; and on the i ith of August he again passed on down 
to Wilmington to obtain supplies and ammunition. Returning 
towards the end of August, he found Colonel Slingsby at Eliza- 
bethtown, and the night that he separated from Colonel Slingsby 
occurred the Battle of Elizabethtown, in which Slingsby was 
killed and the Loyalists were routed by Colonel Brown. A day or 
two later he joined Colonel McNeil on Drowning Creek, who was 
threatened with attack by Colonel Wade. Fanning, however, be- 
came the assailant, and won a victory. On the 9th of September, 
being joined at Coxe's Mills by Colonel McDougal with 200 men 
from Cumberland, and Colonel Hector McNeil with his party 
from Bladen, and having himself some 950 men, he proposed to 
put in execution a plan he had long had in mind of capturing the 
Governor of the State. General Butler and Colonel Robert Me- 
'bane lay within forty miles of Coxe's Mills, and Fanning let it be 
understood that he proposed to attack them. He marched to 
Rocky River, and then, changing direction, pressed on to Hills- 
boro without stopping. At seven o'clock on the morning of the 
I2th he entered the town in three divisions, killed fifteen, wounded 
twenty, and took upwards of 200 prisoners, including the Gov- 
ernor, Burke, his Council, and many officers of the Continental 
Line and seventy-one Continental soldiers. At noon that day they 



DAVID FANNING 95 

left Hillsboro and early the next morning reached Lindsay's Mill 
on Cane Creek, where General Butler intercepted them. At the 
first outset eight of the Tories fell, including Colonel McNeil ; but 
after a four hours' conflict Butler's troops were driven off. Fan- 
ning, however, lost heavily: twenty-seven killed, sixty so badly 
wounded that they could not be moved, and thirty others slightly 
wounded. Fanning himself received a shot in his left arm, break- 
ing the bone in several places ; and his loss of blood was so great 
that he had to be secreted in the woods on Brush Creek. His 
army, however, proceeded under Colonel McDougal and the 
prisoners were safely delivered to Major Craig at Wilmington. 
In this Battle of Cane Creek Butler lost twenty-four men, killed, 
and left ninety woimded on the ground, and the Loyalists took 
ten prisoners. Of the killed were Colonel Luttrell and Major 
Knowles. It is of interest to record that Colonel Pyle, who was 
a hiunane man and a physician, attended these wounded Whigs 
so carefully that he was pardoned by the Whig Government, and 
became a quiet, peaceful citizen during the remainder of the war. 
A month elapsed before Colonel Fanning was able to move 
about. Then having received a fresh supply of ammunition, and 
embodying about one hundred and fifty men, he sallied forth 
again. But the Whig forces pressed him so closely that, learning 
of Cornwallis's surrender and of Craig's evacuation of Wilming- 
ton, he divided his followers into small squads, continuing, how- 
ever, to scour the country. On the loth of December Colonel 
Isaacs led a party from the west and took possession of Coxe's 
Mills, and after this Fanning was in the woods and kept moving 
with a small party as occasion required. Daily he performed some 
extraordinary feat, until at length in January he proposed terms 
for an armistice. Pending these negotiations, he was more quiet, 
but when they fell through, receiving a message from Colonel 
Balfour that "there was no resting-place for a Tory's foot upon 
the earth," on the 12th of March he set out for Balfour's planta- 
tion. **When we came upon him," says Fanning in his Narrative, 
"he endeavored to make his escape ; but we soon prevented him, 
fired at him and wounded him. The first ball he received was 



96 NORTH CAROLINA 

through one of his arms and ranged through his body ; the other 
through his neck, which put an end to his committing any more 
ill deeds/* Miss Balfour's account of this murder is given else- 
where in this work. 

Hard and bitter indeed was the conflict during those bloody 
months between the Tory and Whig elements throughout the en- 
tire Cape Fear section from Guilford County to the sea. All that 
region was a scene of turmoil, rapine and fierce warfare, but the 
fires of patriotism were not extinguished, and the trials, suffer- 
ings, sacrifices and endurance of the Whig, people were heroic. 
A momentary view of what they suffered is given in the Nar- 
rative of Fanning, after he had murdered Balfour: 

"We then proceeded to their Colonel's (Collier), belonging to said 
county of Randolph. On our way we burnt several rebel houses and 
caught several prisoners. The night coming on, and the distance to said 
Collier's was so far that it was late before we got there. He made his es- 
cape, having received three balls through his shirt. But I took care to 
destroy the whole of his plantation. I then pursued our route and came 
to one Captain John Bryan's, another rebel officer. I told him that if 
he would come out of the house I would give him parole, which he re- 
fused. With that I immediately ordered the house to be set on fire, which 
was instantly done. As soon as he saw the flames of the fire increasing, 
he called out to me and desired me to spare his house, for his wife and 
children's sake, and he would walk out with his arms in his hands. I 
immediately answered him that if he walked out that his house should be 
saved for his wife and children. When he came out he said, 'Here, damn 
you, here I am.* With that he received two balls through his body; he 
came out with his gun cocked and sword at the same time." 

And so it was almost every day during the period that Fan- 
ning was raiding in North Carolina, burning homes, murdering, 
and hanging. On the other side there was equal violence, and 
many Tories were hanged and many shot without quarter, par- 
ticularly when taken bushwhacking and marauding in small 
squads. 

Fanning's proposition for a truce was for a neutral territory 
twenty miles north and south, thirty miles east and west, Ham- 
mond Coxe's Mill being the center, to be totally clear of the Whig 
Light-Horse ; to be no plundering or murdering ; all public roads 



DAVID FANNING 97 

to be travelled by any person or company unmolested ; the Loyal- 
ists to have free trade with any port. And that was to last until 
the end of the war. This proposition was finally rejected about 
the middle of March ; and in April Fanning, together with two of 
his captains, took unto themselves wives on Deep River, and 
early in May left North Carolina with their wives and property 
for the peace-ground on the Pedee in South Carolina. Remaining 
there a month, on the 17th of June, 1782, he departed for 
Charleston, and on the 28th of September, together with the other 
Loyalists at Charleston, he took passage for St. Augustine, 
Florida, where he remained two years. After peace many of the 
Loyalists returned to North Carolina. But Fanning's career had 
been too bloody for him to find a resting-place among the people 
he had so outraged. His remorseless rapine and murderous exe- 
cution were without a parallel. Besides individual hangings and 
minor encounters, he had participated in thirty-six bloody en- 
gagements; and the plantations he had ravaged and despoiled, 
leaving ruin and suffering in his path, were innumerable. The 
General Assembly extended amnesty and pardon to all Tories 
with the exception of three, and Fanning was among those pro- 
scribed. His crimes and butcheries were beyond forgiveness. 

In September, 1784, he located near St. John's, New Bruns- 
wick, and later resided at Digby, Nova Scotia, where he died in 
1825. 

5. A. Ashe. 






PETER FORNEY 

fETER FORNEY was a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, a lawgiver for the State and Nation, and 
the founder of the iron industry in western 
North Carolina. He was the son of one of the 
most distinguished of the early settlers of Lin- 
coln County, and was himself the progenitor 
of many whose names are upon the honor-roll of this and other 
States. He was born in Lincoln (formerly Tryon) County in 
April, 1756, and died there ist of February, 1834, in the seventy- 
eighth year of his age. He was the second son of General Jacob 
and Mariah (Bergner) Forney. His mother was a native of 
Berne, Switzerland. She came to America on board the same 
ship which brought the young man to whom she afterwards gave 
her heart and hand. General Jacob Forney was bom about 1721 
in Alsace upon the Rhine, to which place his father, who was a 
Huguenot, had fled after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
in 1685. About 1735 he went to Amsterdam, then to Pennsyl- 
vania, and about 1754 joined the tide of emigration for the South, 
and settled in Lincoln County. In 1781 Cornwallis, while in his 
pursuit of Morgan, made his headquarters for about three days 
at the house of General Jacob Forney, and during that time con* 
sumed much of his food supplies and forage, and carried off his 
gold and silver, amounting to about one hundred and twenty 
pounds sterling. The Forney log house, in which Cornwallis 



PETER FORNEY 99 



was an unwelcome guest, was still standing a few years ago, and 
I>erhaps is now. The name was originally spelled Farney, but 
was changed by the grandfather of the subject of this sketch dur- 
ing his residence in Alsace. 

Peter Forney entered military service in 1776, about the first 
of June, and marched under command of Colonel William Graham 
and Captain James Johnston to Fort McFadden (Rutherfordton) 
to protect the inhabitants of that section against the Indians. He 
joined a detachment of one hundred men and pursued the fleeing 
red men for several days. Failing in overtaking them, he re- 
turned to the fort. His next expedition was against a body of 
Tories assembled near the South Carolina line. In this expedi- 
tion he served as lieutenant in the company of Captain Charles 
Reid, the detachment being in command of Colonel Charles Mc- 
Lean. The detachment brought back several prisoners who were 
conveyed to Salisbury. Lieutenant Forney was then transferred 
to the company of Captain Kuykendal, and was frequently out on 
expeditions for suppressing and intimidating the Tories. In the 
Fall of 1779 he volunteered with a party to go to Kentucky 
(Harrod Station), where he remained but a short while. Lieu- 
tenant Forney then joined the militia company of Captain Neal, 
which was preparing to march for the relief of Charleston. While 
in waiting at Charlotte for the assembling of more troops, he was 
promoted to the captaincy in place of Neal by Colonel Hampton 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Hambright. He marched to Charleston 
under command of Colonel Hall. The militia of the State was 
then under command of General Lillington. While at Charleston 
the period of enlistment of most of Forney's men expired, but 
he succeeded in persuading them to remain for about six weeks, 
at which time fresh troops were expected. Immediately after his 
return from Charleston, which was the Spring of 1780, Captain 
Forney volunteered under Lieutenant-Colonel Hambright and 
went in pursuit of Colonel Floyd, a Tory leader, on Fishing 
Creek, South Carolina. Returning from this expedition, he found 
the Tories assembled at Ramseur's Mill under Colonel John 
Moore, and another body of them near Mountain Creek. He 



loo NORTH CAROLINA 

went at once to report these facts to General Rutherford, whom he 
found encamped at Colonel Dickson's on the Catawba, three miles 
northwest of Tuckaseege Ford. He attached himself to Ruther- 
ford's force and marched to Ramsetir's, but did not arrive until 
two hours after the battle. Captain Forney participated in the 
battle at Cowan's Ford on the ist of February, 1781. When the 
gallant Davidson fell the militia was repulsed. Forney retreated 
across the Yadkin and remained upon Abbott's Creek about six 
weeks, during which time he had no regular command, but as- 
sisted the American cause wherever he could do so most effec- 
tively. His last service in the Revolution was to command a com- 
pany of dragoons under Major Charles Polk in the expedition 
of General Rutherford to Wilmington. When these troops ap- 
proached that city, Major Craig, having heard of Comwallis's sur- 
render, fled, and thus carried away from the soil of the State the 
last red-coat. 

Having devoted several years of his life to military operations, 
Captain Forney now turned his attention to matters of a more 
peaceful nature, but none the less profitable to his country. He 
fortunately became the owner of the "Big Ore Bank," located 
seven miles east of Lincolnton. His brother Abram (who had 
participated in the battle of King's Mountain) was associated 
with him for a while. It is recorded in a small note-book of his 
that he produced hammered iron in his forge on the 26th of 
August, 1788. This is believed to be the first manufacture of 
iron in the western part of the State. This iron deposit was 
"granted" by the State in 1789 to Peter Forney and others whose 
interests he subsequently purchased. In 1791 he sold a portion of 
this bank to Captain Alexander Brevard, Major John Davidson 
and General Joseph Graham. Vesuvius Furnace on Anderson's 
Creek and Mount Tirzah Forge were erected by this company. 
Forney erected a forge near his home (now the property of Mrs. 
Hall), bought other lands, and about 1809 erected Madison 
(Derr) Furnace on Leeper's Creek about five miles from Lincoln- 
ton. These works supplied the Government with cannon-balls 
during the War of 1812. Madison Furnace was washed away by 



PETER FORNEY loi 



a freshet about 1868, and the Mariposa Cotton Mills, owned by 
Captain Joseph G. Morrison, now occupy the site. 

Having served as a soldier and as a **Captain of Industry," 
Captain Forney had attained to such a position of confidence and 
respect in the hearts of his fellow-countrymen that he was called 
upon by them for service in the political aflfairs of the State. In 
the meantime he had been appointed by the Legislature to the posi- 
tion of brigadier-general in the State Militia. He was elected 
a member of the House of Commons in 1794, 1795 and 1796, and 
of the State Senate in 1801-02. His services here were so satis- 
factory that he was elected to membership in the Thirteenth Con- 
gress over his former partner. General Joseph Graham, one of 
the most prominent and distinguished men in the State. He 
served from the 24th of May, 1813, to the 3d of March, 1815, and 
had the honor of being succeeded by his son, David M. Forney. 
He was Presidential Elector several times : at first on the Jeffer- 
son ticket; then in 1813 on the Madison ticket, and again in 1825 
and 1829 on the Monroe ticket. 

In 1783 General Forney married Nancy, the daughter of David 
Abemethy, a lady of great moral worth, goodness of heart, and 
Christian benevolence. Five sons and seven daughters blessed 
this union. They and their children have proven themselves 
worthy of their illustrious ancestry. 

General Forney passed away at his home, "Mount Welcome," 
at a ripe old age. In the language of Wheeler, he was "a bright 
example of the useful citizen and upright man. Generosity, can- 
dor, integrity and freedom from pride and vain show were prom- 
inent traits of his character." 

W, A. Withers, 




BENJAMIN FORSYTH 




^Y an act of the General Assembly of North 
Carolina ratified on the i6th day of January, 
1849, Stokes County was divided, and out of it 
was created the county of Forsyth, the name (as 
the act states) "being given in honor of the 
memory of Benjamin Forsyth, a native of 
Stokes County, who fell on the northern frontier in the late war 
with England." Stokes County had been named as a compliment 
to Colonel John Stokes, who lost his right arm in a fight with 
Tarleton's Dragoons during the Revolution; and it was just and 
proper that its daughter county of Forsyth should bear the name of 
another soldier who made a still greater sacrifice — even life itself — 
in defence of America's rights during our second conflict with 
Great Britain. Benjamin Forsyth's first entrance into the army 
was as second lieutenant of the Sixth Infantry on April 24, 1800; 
but he was honorably discharged a few months later, on June 
15th. This very brief service was possibly due to a temporary 
increase in the army on account of the imminent probability of 
war growing out of the strained relations with France at that 
time. Returning to his native State, Mr. Forsyth took some part 
in the politics of that day. In two successive sessions of the North 
Carolina House of Commons, which met on the i6th of Novem- 
ber, 1807, and on the 21st of November, 1808, he represented 
Stokes County. Before the meeting of the latter session Forsyth 



BENJAMIN FORSYTH 103 

had again been commissioned an officer in the army, but remained 
in North Carolina to serve out his term in the Assembly, which 
adjourned on the 23d of December, 1809. Hence he did not ac- 
tively enter upon his military duties until 1809, though his com- 
mission bore date July i, 1808. He was assigned to the Rifle 
Regiment with the rank of captain, and held this position when 
the second war with Great Britain opened in 18 12. His first ex- 
ploit in that war was in September of that year. On the 20th of 
that month he embarked at Cape Vincent on the St. Lawrence 
River in New York, and went down in boats to the towns of 
Gananoque and Leeds on the Canadian side, for the purpose pri- 
marily of destroying the King's store-house at one of those places. 
In Captain Forsyth's party were seventy riflemen from the reg- 
ular army, and thirty-four militiamen. They landed before day- 
break on the 2 1st without being observed, but were discovered 
shortly after sunrise and fired upon by a body of 125 British 
regulars and militia. This fire was returned ; and, after a sharp 
skirmish, the King's forces fled, leaving ten or more of their num- 
ber dead on the field, while others fell into the stream. Eight 
British regulars and some of the militia were made prisoners by 
the Americans, who destroyed the store-house and returned to 
Cape Vincent with many captured military supplies, after paroling 
the militia prisoners. In this expedition the United States forces 
had only one man killed and one slightly wounded. On Janu- 
ary 20, 181 3, Captain Forsyth was promoted to the rank of 
major. He was an officer not only of great bravery, but of 
unusual dash, vigor and enterprise. 

While commandant of the post at Ogdensburg, New York, on 
February 6, 1813, Major Forsyth gathered together a force of 
about two hundred regulars and volunteers, and with these pro- 
ceeded in sleighs up the river to Morristown. At three o'clock in 
the darkness of the following morning they crossed over the river 
to Elizabethtown, surprised the guard and took fifty-two prisoners, 
among whom were five officers. They also captured 120 muskets, 
twenty rifles and several boxes of ammunition; and returned to 
Ogdensburg without the loss of a man. A few days later, on 



I04 NORTH CAROLINA 

February 2ist, the British gathered a force of more than twice the 
number under Forsyth, who was at Ogdensburg, and finally suc- 
ceeded in driving him out of that place, but suffered severely in 
so doing. On that occasion the British forces formed themselves 
in two columns of 600 men each, and in the battle killed and 
wounded about twenty Americans. Forsyth reported that, from 
the coolness with which his riflemen fired he was led to believe 
that the British had lost at least three times that number. The 
Americans retreated to Black Lake, about nine miles from 
Ogdensburg. Shortly thereafter Forsyth was present at the cap- 
ture of Fort George, in Canada, on May 27, 181 3, and greatly 
added to his reputation as a soldier in the battle fought there. 

For "distinguished services" Major Forsyth was first given 
the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel, and was later (April 15, 
1814) commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 26th Infantry. 

An anecdote of Colonel Forsyth appeared shortly after his 
death in the Pennsylvania Journal, and was copied in Niles's Reg- 
ister for January 11, 181 7. This account says: 

"Colonel Forsyth, so celebrated in the last war as the commander of a 
band of sharp-shooters which harassed the enemy so much, happened in 
a scouting party to capture a British officer. He brought him into his 
camp and treated him with every respect due to his rank. Happening to 
enter into conversation on the subject of sharpshooters, the British officer 
observed that Colonel Forsyth's men were a terror to the British camp- 
that as far as they could see they could select the officer from the private, 
and the officer of course fell a sacrifice to their precise shooting. He 
wished very much to see a specimen of their shooting. Forsyth gave the 
wink to one of his officers, then at hand, who departed and instructed two 
of his best marksmen, belonging to the corps, to pass by the commanding 
officers' quarters at stated intervals. This being arranged, Colonel For- 
syth informed the British officer that he should be gratified, and observed 
that he would step in front of his tent and see whether any of his men 
were near at hand. According to arrangements made, one of the best 
marksmen appeared. The colonel ordered him to come forward, and in- 
quired whether his rifle was in good order. *Yes, sir,' replied the man. 
He then stuck a table knife in a tree about fifty paces distant and ordered 
the man to split his ball. He fired and the ball was completely divided by 
the knife, perforating the tree on each side. This astonished the British 
officer. Presently another soldier appeared in sight. He was called, and 



BENJAMIN FORSYTH 105 

ordered, at the same distance, to shoot the ace of clubs out of the card. 
This was actually done. The British officer was confounded and amazed — 
still more so when the colonel informed him that four weeks before those 
men were living at their homes in the capacity of husbandmen. So much 
for the American soldiery." 

The death of Colonel Forsyth occurred near Odelltown, on the 
Canadian frontier, June 28, 1814, and was due to his refusal to 
retire even when ordered to do so. His commanding general 
had ordered a small party of Americans to attack a larger body 
of British, and then to beat a hasty retreat, leading the pursuing 
party into an ambush which had been formed. A portion of this 
ambuscade was commanded by Forsyth, who also had orders 
to retreat after a short brush with the British ; but he preferred 
to fight to a finish then and there. In a contemporaneous publi- 
cation in North Carolina (the Raleigh Register of July 15, 1814) 
we find this account : 

"At a short distance from the road Colonel Forsyth lay with a party 
of riflemen in ambush. It is said that the Colonel had also been ordered 
to retreat if discovered by the enemy while advancing; and that, had the 
orders been obeyed, a strong detachment then moving in the skirt of the 
wood would have gained the enemy's rear and captured them. But un- 
fortunately for the service as well as for himself, Colonel Forsyth, as soon 
as the enemy came up, gave them battle. They suspected the ambuscade, 
returned two fires and retreated. At the first fire Colonel Forsyth fell. 
He received a shot through his breast, and shortly thereafter expired. 
Colonel Forsyth was a brave and intrepid soldier. On our part, except the 
Colonel, two only were wounded, and none killed. Of the killed and 
wounded of the enemy we are not informed." 

Another contemporaneous account of the death of Forsyth we 
find in Niles's Register for July 16, 1814, under the head of 
"Events of the War." This account says: 

"Lieutenant-Colonel Forsyth, of the Rifle Corps, was killed on the 28th 
ult., in a skirmish near Odelltown. It appears that a plan had been formed 
for ambuscading a detachment of the enemy, near that place, by Briga- 
dier-General Smith, and that Forsyth had orders to attack, retreat and 
draw them into the snare. The affray commenced ; but, instead of falling 
back, his personal courage tempted him to make a stand, and he remained 
in the road within sixteen rods of the enemy, where he received a ball 



io6 NORTH CAROLINA 

near the collar-bone, which brought him to the ground. He immediately 
expressed a conviction that he must die, and exclaimed, 'Boys, rush on!* 
He was the only person killed — two others were slightly wounded. It is 
understood that the enemy had seventeen killed. Forsyth was buried 
next day at Champlain with the honors of war. He was a terror of the 
enemy, and among the best partisan officers that ever lived." 

The Legislature of North Carolina, wishing that the family of 
Colonel Forsyth might be comfortably provided for, appointed a 
committee several years later to investigate its condition. On the 
22d of December, 1817, this committee reported to the House of 
Commons that the Forsyth family then consisted of the colonel's 
widow, four daughters and a son — ^the latter then about eight 
years of age ; that the condition of Mrs. Forsyth was not of a de- 
scription to require aid from the State, though her circumstances 
were not affluent. The committee at the same time recommended 
that the State should bear the expenses of educating young For- 
syth ; that the Governor should be ex o/Kcio his guardian ; and that 
a sword should be presented to this youth by the General As- 
sembly "as an expression of the grateful sense they entertain of 
the gallantry and good conduct of the aforesaid Colonel Benjamin 
Forsyth." 

The above-mentioned son of Colonel Forsyth was James N. 
Forsyth. He entered as a student at the University of North 
Carolina; and, with the consent of his ex-ofUcio guardian. Gov- 
ernor Hutchins G. Burton, left that institution to enter the United 
States Navy, wherein he was commissioned a midshipman on 
November i, 1826. The Legislature of 1825 repealed the above 
provision for young Forsyth's education, and in lieu thereof di- 
rected the Governor to invest $750 as a fund whose interest would 
be paid him until he was twenty-one, and then the principal should 
be turned over to him. Though the interest was paid Midshipman 
Forsyth as late as the year of his death, he never lived to draw the 
principal. He perished at sea in the wreck of the Hornet in the 
month of September, 1829. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 




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JOSHUA WALKER GORE 




JOSHUA WALKER GORE, engineer, physi- 
cist, inventor, and Professor of Physics in the 
University of North Carolina, bom in Fred- 
erick County, Virginia, on the loth of Janu- 
ary, 1852, was the son of Mahlon Gore and 
Sydney Sophia (Cather) Gore. His earliest 
ancestor in America was his paternal great-grandfather, John 
Gore, who came from England as one of a colony of Friends who 
settled in Loudon County, Virginia, about 1778. His grandfather 
was Thomas Gore and his grandmother Sarah Walker. His ma- 
ternal great-grandfather came from northern Ireland shortly after 
the Revolutionary War and settled in Frederick County, Virginia. 
The family had originally gone from Scotland, and were of the 
Covenanters. His maternal grandfather, James Cather, was born 
in Glasgow ; and his maternal grandmother, Nancy Howard, was 
a native of Belfast, Ireland. James Cather enlisted in the War 
of 1812; he represented his county in the State Legislature in the 
early forties, and was a member of the Secession Convention of 
1 86 1, voting against that measure. Upon the first rumor of in- 
vasion by Federal soldiers, however, he raised a company of home 
guards. Such is the family history of the breed, a stock that has 
given to the country some of its strongest men. 

Mr. Gore's father, who was a farmer and merchant, died in 
i860, when Mr. Gore was but eight years old, and he was de- 



io8 NORTH CAROLINA 

prived of a father's guidance; but the devoted mother was both 
father and mother to the boy. 

His early education was received at the Loudon Valley Acad- 
emy, from which, in 1871, he entered Richmond College. While 
there he made certificates in mathematics and physics and did 
work in ancient and modem languages. In 1873 he went from 
Richmond College to the University of Virginia, from which he 
was graduated in 1875 with the degree of Civil Engineer. After 
leaving the University he spent two years (1876-78) at Johns 
Hopkins as Fellow in Mathematics, paying special attention also 
to physics. At the Hopkins he was directly under the instruc- 
tion of the great Sylvester in mathematics and of Rowland in 
physics. 

Mr. Gore was soon elected Professor of Physics and Chemistry 
in the Southwestern Baptist University at Jackson, Tennessee, 
where he remained until 1881, when he was selected by his hon- 
ored teacher. Colonel C. S. Venable, as his assistant in mathe- 
matics in the University of Virginia. In 1882 he was called to the 
professorship of physics in the University of North Carolina, 
which position he is still filling efficiently and acceptably. 

At the University of North Carolina he has been wholly re- 
sponsible for the electric light plant, and in large measure for 
the heating and water plants. He was one of the prime movers 
for the investment of endowment funds in these and other im- 
provements, which are sources of revenue to the University. He 
was also greatly interested in and aided in establishing the Uni- 
versity Press, and has had charge of the erection of the Y. M. 
C. A. building. He has developed a strong course of electricity 
at the University, and as Dean of the Department of Applied 
Science he is aiding in the upbuilding of an institution to meet 
the growing needs of the South. 

Professor Gore is the inventor of improvements in telephony 
and in wireless telegraphy, and takes an active interest in many 
matters connected with the subject of engineering. He is a mem- 
ber of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
and of other learned societies. During the greater part of his life 



JOSHUA WALKER GORE 109 

in Chapel Hill he has been Dean of the University. He was Act- 
ing-President during President Alderman's absence in Europe, 
and upon the resignation of Doctor Alderman as President of the 
University the visiting committee recommended to the board of 
trustees that Professor Gore be made Acting-President for a year 
pending the selection of a president. 

He was urged by his friends for the presidency of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, and also for the same position in con- 
nection with the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts at 
Raleigh, though he never consented to the presentation of his 
name for either position. His remarkable executive ability and 
excellent business sense have brought him flattering offers from 
beyond the bounds of the State, but he has preferred to remain 
with the University of North Carolina, and much of the marked 
success of the institution has been due to Mr. Gore's good common 
sense, sound judgment and business ability. 

On November 9, 1883, Professor Gore married Miss Margaret 
Corinthia Williams, daughter of Reverend J. W. M.Williams, D.D., 
noted minister of the Gospel, bom in Portsmouth, Virginia, 
who for over forty years was pastor of the First Baptist Church of 
Baltimore, Maryland. Mrs. Gore's mother was Miss Corinthia 
Read, of the Eastern Shore of Virginia, a lineal descendant of 
Colonel Edward Scarborough, Surveyor-General of Virginia 
under King George HI. 

Mr. Gore is a Democrat and a Baptist, and an active worker 
in both Church and State. He is a man of affairs, an alderman 
of the town of Chapel Hill, and a director of the bank of Chapel 
Hill. In reviewing Professor Gore's career one hardly knows 
whether to attribute his success to his own individual initiative, 
to the marked influence of a most remarkable mother, or to his 
singularly happy home life; but perhaps it were better to say 
that these combined have made him the man he is. 

Collier' Cobb. 




JULIUS ALEXANDER GRAY 




ULIUS ALEXANDER GRAY was of Scotch- 
Irish descent, and thus identified with a people 
that has played a part of the greatest im- 
portance in the material, social, intellectual, and 
moral development of the middle section of 
North Carolina. His grandfather was Robert 
Gray ; his father, Alexander Gray. Both lived to the exceptional 
age of ninety-six years. The family lived first in New Castle, 
New Jersey, removing thence to Orange County, Virginia. Here 
Alexander Gray was born in 1768, and thence he removed to Ran- 
dolph County, North Carolina. He is said to have been a man of 
unusually good education for the day in which he lived, and of 
noteworthy intellectual and literary tastes, a charming story-teller, 
and a leader in the social life with which he came in contact. He 
was in the North Carolina State Senate in 1799, 1804- 1807, 181 2, 
1823, and 1 826- 1 828. He owned a plantation in Randolph 
County and more than one hundred slaves — an unusually large 
number for his day in the section of country in which he lived. 
In 18 1 2 he was appointed a general in the North Carolina militia 
to serve, if necessary, in the war then waging against Great 
Britain. Just before the close of the war he was put in command 
of the State troops in the field at Wadesboro ; but, on account of 
the early conclusion of peace, he was not called into active ser- 
vice. He is said, also, to have been appointed a commissioner 







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JULIUS ALEXANDER GRAY in 

on the part of the State to treat with the Indians of western North 
Carolina and eastern Tennessee, while Tennessee was yet a part 
of North Carolina. 

Alexander Gray married Sarah, a daughter of Jeduthan Harper, 
a citizen of Randolph County, a colonel during the War for In- 
dependence, and a representative of his county in the Legisla- 
ture — a man of vigorous character and a kinsman of Robert Good- 
loe Harper, the celebrated Maryland lawyer and statesman. 

Julius Gray was born in his father's home September 6, 1833. 
He grew up in the conventional way of boys in his station in life 
and of his opportunities. Strong in body and of vigorous health, 
he lived an active and wholesome life, but was not subjected to 
any systematic labor. He was prepared for college at the "High 
School" in Greensboro — ^probably the Caldwell Institute — and 
under the Reverend Jesse Rankin at Lexington, North Carolina. 
Entering the Sophomore class at Davidson College in 1850, he 
was graduated from that institution in 1853. Two years later, 
when he was twenty-two years old, he became teller and book- 
keeper in the Cape Fear Bank of Greensboro, of which Jesse H. 
Lindsay was president. He was fortunate in thus beginning his 
business career. Jesse H. Lindsay was one of the best and best- 
known bankers in his section of the State. Of methodical habits, 
unalloyed integrity, the strictest moral conduct, and a conspicu- 
ously consistent Christian character, he was in every way fitted 
to influence for the best the young men whom he trained in his 
bank. Not only did Mr. Gray come in contact with such a per- 
sonal influence in the beginning of his business life, but in com- 
ing to Greensboro he came to the most important business locality 
in that part of the State, and to a locality whose social life was 
unpretending, select, sincere, elevated, and elevating. 

After living three years amid these surroundings Mr. Gray 
was elected, in 1858, cashier of a bank in Danville, Virginia, and 
went to that town to live. In October of the same year he mar- 
ried Emma Victoria, a daughter of Governor John M. Morehead, 
and a niece of Jesse Lindsay, his former chief in the Greensboro 
bank. He remained in Danville but little more than two years, 



112 NORTH CAROLINA 

ill-health compelling him to resign his place in the Fall of i860 
and spend the Winter in Florida. He returned to North Caro- 
lina the following Spring, and took charge of his father-in-law's 
cotton mills at Leaksville. During the same year he was appointed 
to a position in the treasury department of the Confederate States 
Government, a position which he held until the fall of that gov- 
ernment. 

The Civil War, although adding to the burdens of Mr. Gray's 
life, did not so completely lessen its continuity as it did most men 
in his station. The family slaves, it is true, were lost, the value 
of the family property much decreased and made uncertain, and 
the social and political life of the section of country in which he 
lived radically changed. But he had remained in civil life and had 
kept his grip on business. He could, therefore, go on after the 
war with less of readjustment than the most of his friends and 
neighbors had to make. His duties, however, were onerous 
enough. During the war his father, his only brother, and his 
two brothers-in-law had died, his brother Robert, the lieutenant- 
colonel of the 2nd Regiment, North Carolina Troops, dying in 
camp near Fredericksburg, Virginia, in March, 1863. To settle 
the estates of these men, and to provide for their families, upon the 
conclusion of peace, was Mr. Gray's particular duty ; and to that 
he devoted the first few years immediately following the close of 
the war. 

In 1869, when the Bank of Greensboro was chartered by the 
State, with Jesse H. Lindsay as president, Julius A. Gray was 
made cashier; and, in 1876, when the bank was converted into the 
National Bank of Greensboro, he was continued in the same office. 

On the 3d of April, 1879, Mr. Gray was by an almost unani- 
mous vote elected president of the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley 
Railway, in which he owned forty-three and a half shares of stock. 
The task thus laid upon him was one which he might have hesi- 
tated a long time before accepting. The Cape Fear and Yadkin 
Valley Railway had been chartered originally as the "Western 
Railroad Company," to build a railway between Fayetteville "and 
the coal region in the counties of Moore and Chatham." But the 



JULIUS ALEXANDER GRAY 113 

company was only to an indifferent degree successful in its pro- 
jects. In 1861 it had become heavily involved in debt, the larger 
part of which was due the State, and had in operation only about 
forty miles of road poorly equipped. Diying the Civil War there 
could, of course, be no satisfactory management of the property — 
financial or constructional. In 1866 the company had little ready 
money at its command, it owed the State $600,000, and its prop- 
erty was so covered by mortgages that further borrowing was im- 
practicable. 

In December, 1866, the State Treasurer was authorized to ac- 
cept the company's stock for the debt due the State ; thereby can- 
celling this debt and putting the State in possession of the most 
of the stock. Charges of fraud in the management under State 
direction between 1869 and 1871 were freely made. To what 
extent or in what particulars they were true it is no part of this 
paper to discuss. It is sufficient to say that during the dozen years 
just preceding Mr. Gray's election to the presidency the road had 
slender assets, was heavily in debt, and was involved in what 
seemed to be a hopeless tangle of litigation. For keeping the prop- 
erty together during these critical years, and fighting to a suc- 
cessful finish nearly if not quite all of the legal battles, full credit 
is due the administration of L. C. Jones, Mr. Gray's immediate 
predecessor. But for his work, that of Mr. Gray, arduous though 
it was, would have been far more difficult. 

During these years the charter of the road had been from time 
to time amended to allow an extension from Fayetteville to the 
South Carolina line, there to connect with any road in South 
Carolina, and from the "coal region" to the Tennessee line by way 
of Wilkesboro, and to the Virginia line by way of Mount Airy. 
But upon the consolidation, early in 1879, of the Western Rail- 
road with a company organized to build a road from Greensboro 
to Mount Airy, the Tennessee route was abandoned, and a route 
from Fayetteville to Mount Airy by way of Greensboro de- 
termined upon as the main line, the whole system to be known 
as the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railroad. 

Mr. Gray prosecuted vigorously the work of finishing the road ; 



1 [4 NORTH CAROLINA 

but he found an insurmountable difficulty in the State's owner- 
ship of 5500 shares out of a total of 7170. He consequently, in 
1883, organized a company which purchased the State's stock, 
making possible the securing of the money needed to construct 
and equip the road. Thenceforward the president and directors 
could command with little difficulty the money they needed. 

At the time of this change of name and administration trains 
were running regularly between Fayetteville and "the Gulf," a 
distance of forty-four miles, and the roadbed was graded four 
miles beyond "the Gulf" towards Greensboro. It had earned the 
preceding year $30,512.49; and its operating expenses had been 
$26,837.40. When the State's interest was bought the grading 
had been completed to Greensboro, and almost completed beyond 
to Walnut Cove, from Fayetteville to the South Carolina line to- 
wards Bennettsville. The earnings the previous year had been 
$45,946.06; the expenses $37»i77i3- 

Mr. Gray put all of his energies, now unhampered by any 
political contingencies, into the finishing and equipping of the 
road. The route by Wilkesboro to the Tennessee line was aban- 
doned to make Mount Airy the northwestern terminus, with the 
idea of ultimately connecting with the Norfolk and Western Rail- 
way. Progress was rapid. April 16, 1884, regular trains went 
through from Fayetteville to Greensboro; and December 5th of 
that year from Fayetteville to Bennettsville , South Carolina. June 
II, 1888, the extension from Greensboro to Mount Airy was 
opened for business; and, February 17, 1890, from Fayetteville to 
Wilmington ; and by the middle of June, 1890, the Ramseur and 
Madison branches had been completed. In all there were in opera- 
tion about 338 miles, as against something over forty in 1879. 

Mr. Gray and his company planned largely for their road and 
its part in the material development of North Carolina. How suc- 
cessful they would have been is a matter for conjecture only. 
The company had borrowed money largely to do what had already 
been done; so when the road, in consequence of the business 
"panic" of 1893, failed, on account of decreased earnings, to pay 
the interest on its debt, Mr. Gray having died in 1891, it went 



JULIUS ALEXANDER GRAY 115 

into the hands of a receiver. But Mr. Gray's credit for what he 
did should not be, for this reason, the less. Under his manage- 
ment the road won the esteem and good-will of all who had any 
dealings with it. The employes were treated with kindness and 
consideration; shippers found an accommodating service and just 
rates; and passengers met with courtesy and found every pro- 
vision for their comfort and safety. 

Although the railway received Mr. Gray's closest attention and 
his best efforts during the last dozen years of his life, it by no 
means absorbed his energies. The demands of his social life were 
met in his home by a gracious and cordial hospitality, and else- 
where by a geniality of manner and unselfishness of spirit that 
made him a welcome guest wherever he went. In his mingling 
with men, whether his social and business equals or his sub- 
ordinates, his intercourse was uniformly marked by a dignified 
respect for himself and a considerate thoughtfulness of others. 
He was actively identified with all the phases of life in the com- 
munity in which he lived, supporting its business, educational, and 
reHgious enterprises with equal earnestness. He was the Vice- 
President and General Manager of the North State Improvement 
Company, the construction company which built the Cape Fear 
and Yadkin Valley Railway. In 1887 he was elected President 
of the National Bank of Greensboro, to succeed Jesse H. Lindsay, 
who had just died. He had been cashier of this bank since 1869, 
though only nominally so since his election to the presidency of 
the railway. He was the Vice-President and one of the original 
directors of the Guilford Battle Ground Company — ^an association 
organized to purchase and improve for the public the site of the 
battle of Guilford Court House. When the Greensboro Female 
College was sold for debt, he was one of the men who organized 
a stock company to purchase the property and equipment and to 
continue the same as a girls' school. Besides these, he was identi- 
fied in one way or another with numerous minor organizations, 
one of the most important being the Greensboro Chamber of Com- 
merce, of which he was President. 

In 1 88 1 Mr. Gray joined, upon confession of faith, the First 



ii6 NORTH CAROLINA 

Presbyterian Church of Greensboro, and remained in that com- 
munion for the rest of his life. He died April 14, 1891, of an at- 
tack of pneumonia, contracted a few days before, during a busi- 
ness trip to New York City. He left a wife and six children: 
Annie, the wife of J. W. Fry ; Robert Percy ; Jessie, the wife of 
E. E. Richardson ; Mary, the wife of Doctor J. Allison Hodges ; 
Eugenia, the wife of George C. Heck; and Morehead. The 
widow and all the children, except Percy and Mary, who lives in 
Richmond, Virginia, are now (1906) dead. 

In positions where the temptations to work primarily for one's 
self, and to use others as stepping-stones for one's own advance- 
ment, are so strong, Mr. Gray ever maintained his ideals. The 
daily papers of Greensboro and of the State at large, and resolu- 
tions of the organizations of which he was a member or with 
which he was in any way affiliated, and his friends and associates 
in private life, with one voice paid unqualified tribute to his in- 
tegrity of character, his gentleness, lovableness of manner and 
disposition, his regard for the feelings and the rights of others, 
and his patriotic devotion to whatever could promote the public 
welfare. Though not one of the leaders of men in the departments 
of life which historians usually emphasize — war and politics — ^he 
lived to the full his life in that direction which is at the foundation 
of all healthy commonwealths — loyal, public-spirited citizenship. 

George Stockton Wills. 






JOHN HALL 

OHN HALL, one of the Justices of the Su- 
preme Court of North Carolina at the time of 
its organization in 1818, was born in Augusta 
County, Virginia, on the 31st of May, 1767. 
His father, Edward Hall, was a native of Ire- 
land, who came first to Pennsylvania, later 
making his home in Virginia, about the year 1736. In the Spring 
of 1744 this Edward Hall was united in marriage with Eleanor 
Stuart, a daughter of Archibald Stuart, Sr., of the noted family 
from which sprang Judge Archibald Stuart, Jr., the Honorable 
A. H. H. Stuart, of President Fillmore's Cabinet, and General 
J. E. B. Stuart, of the Confederate Army. The above lady was 
mother of a large family, one of her sons being our present subject. 
After due preparation John Hall entered William and Mary 
College, and there formed the acquaintance (among other friends 
of later years) of John Stark Ravenscroft, a young law student 
who afterwards entered the ministry and was Bishop of North 
Carolina at the same time that Hall was a member of the Supreme 
Court of the State. Young Hall studied law at Staunton, Vir- 
ginia, under his kinsman, Judge Archibald Stuart. Of HalFs 
sentiments toward the latter gentleman it has been said : 

"He was fondly attached to his legal instructor, and cherished an ardent 
gratitude towards him for his assistance in the prosecution of his pro- 
fessional studies as well as for his uniform friendship and kindness. He 



ii8 NORTH CAROLINA 

often spoke of him with warm affection in subsequent life, and named 
a son after him. The intelligence of Judge Stuart's death was received 
by him with deep emotions of sorrow during his own last illness." 

When a young man about twenty-five years of age John Hall, 
having completed his legal studies, located at the town of War- 
renton, North Carolina,*which was his place of residence through- 
out the remainder of his life. In his new home the prospects 
of the young stranger were at first discouraging. He was of a 
rather diffident nature, and reserved in his intercourse with the 
public. Nor were his talents as an orator of a high order. But 
he had a splendid intellect which laborious study had richly stored 
with legal knowledge, and a profitable clientage was soon drawn 
to him. Judge Hall was not only ever grateful to those who had 
befriended him in his early struggles, but it is said that he never 
lost an opportunity to favor their descendants in after years when 
occasions offered. 

It was in 1800 that Judge Hall took his seat on the Superior 
Court Bench, and he remained theron until 1818, when the Su- 
preme Court was established. Then he became one of the Justices 
of that tribunal. 

Judge Hall was distinguished as a member of the Masonic 
Fraternity, and belonged to Johnston-Caswell Lodge No. 10 at 
Warrenton. He was Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge 
from December 18, 1802, till December 12, 1805, and Grand 
Master from December 12, 1805, till December 16, 1808. 

It was January i, 1818, that the Supreme Court was organized, 
John Louis Taylor being Chief- Justice, with Leonard Henderson 
and John Hall as Associate- Justices. This court first sat for the 
dispatch of business on January i, 18 19. Hall remained on the 
bench imtil December, 1832, when he sent in his resignation on 
account of ill-health. In 1829, while still a member of the Su- 
preme Court, he was chosen one of the Presidential Electors from 
North Carolina. Though the station he occupied prevented his 
active participation in the campaigns of that day, he was a pro- 
nounced Democrat of the Jeffersonian school. 

This sketch is largely drawn from an account of Judge Hall 



JOHN HALL 119 



written by William Eaton, Jr., and published (with portrait) in 
the North Carolina University Magazine for April, i860. Of the 
religious views of Judge Hall, Mr. Eaton said: 

"He did not become a professor of religion until a few months before 
he died, although he had at all times great respect for it. His early 
predilections were in favor of the Presbyterian Church, but he finally 
joined the Episcopal Church, and the sacrament was administered to him 
in his own chamber shortly before his death by the Reverend Joseph H. 
Saunders, then rector of Emmanuel Church at Warrenton, who removed 
to Florida a few. years afterwards and died there." 

An oil portrait of Judge Hall adorns the Supreme Court 
Chamber at Raleigh, and another is owned by the Masonic Grand 
Lodge of North Carolina. 

The death of Judge Hall occurred on the 29th of January, 1833. 
We copy the following obituary notice of him from the Star, a 
paper published in Raleigh : 

"Died, at his residence in Warrenton, on Tuesday, the 29th ult., the 
Honorable John Hall, for many years one of the Judges of the Circuit 
Court, and, since its organization, of the Supreme Court of North Caro- 
lina. Thus has the cruel and ungovernable disease of cancer of the throat, 
after a lingering progress of twelve months, at length destroyed one of 
the best and purest men that ever adorned humanity. Judge Hall was a 
native of Virginia, but for the last forty years had been a resident of 
Warrenton. Of the sternest and most scrupulous integrity, of the most 
unaffected simplicity of manners and feeling, possessing — 

**A heart where rich benevolence was found. 

That beat not for itself alone. 
But shed its warmth on all around," 

it may well be imagined that as living he was universally beloved, so in 
death he was sincerely lamented by all. But it is not as a private individual 
only that we deplore his loss — the State, the country, has been deprived 
of a useful, a valuable man. Judge Hall, when he lately tendered his 
resignation as a Judge of the Supreme Court, had occupied a seat on the 
bench for upwards of twenty years. During the whole time he gave the 
most entire satisfaction. Indeed, in all the essential qualities of a good 
Judge, in untiring patience, accurate intelligence, and incorruptible hon- 
esty of purpose, he never was surpassed. As a politician, he was well 
informed, frank, faithful and firm. In a word, in all the varied relations 
of life he was 'an Israelite indeed, in whom there was no guile.* Let 



I20 NORTH CAROLINA 

not, then, his amiable family indulge in useless sorrows for their loss — let 
them repose on the sympathy of a whole community — let them rest on the 
fair fame that has been bequeathed to them — let them reflect that this, at 
least, not even can time affect, but that it will prove a 'monument more 
lasting than brass.' ** 

On January 31st, when news of the death of Judge Hall reached 
Raleigh, a joint meeting of the Bench and Bar was held in honor 
of his memory. Over this meeting Chief Justice Leonard Hen- 
derson presided, and William H. Haywood, Jr., afterwards United 
States Senator, acted as Secretary. The following series of res- 
olutions, offered by the Honorable William Gaston, was adopted 
on this occasion : 

"Resolved: That the intelligence which has just been received of the 
death of the Honorable John Hall, lately a Judge of the Supreme Court 
of North Carolina, requires of us an expression of the sense we entertain 
of the merits of the deceased, and the regret we feel for his removal from 
among us. 

"Resolved: That the able, faithful and devoted services which the 
deceased rendered to the community during the thirty-two years in which 
he has acted as a Judge of the Superior and Supreme Courts of the State 
entitle his memory to our highest respect, while his private virtues com- 
mand for his name a firm place in our affections. 

"Resolved: That, in testimony of this respect and affection, we will 
wear the usual badge of mourning for thirty days." 

Judge Hall's wife was Mary Weldon, daughter of William 
Weldon, and granddaughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Wel- 
don, an officer of North Carolina Militia during the War of the 
Revolution. By her he left a large number of children, and has 
numerous descendants now living. Judge Edward Hall, one of 
the sons of Judge John Hall, occupied a seat on the Superior 
Court Bench in 1840-41. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood, 





JOHN HAMILTON 

HEN the last formidable force raised by the 
Royal House of Stuart was swept away in the 
carnage of CuUoden, many Jacobites, who had 
the good fortune to escape the battle and the 
axe of the executioner, began life anew in 
America. Of this number was John Hamil- 
ton, a mere youth at the time of the battle, which occurred on the 
i6th of April, 1746. At what time Hamilton came to North Caro- 
lina is not known. He was a merchant in Halifax when the 
troubles with Great Britain began, and during the succeeding 
war was a devoted adherent of King George. 

In Halifax, where Hamilton lived, he had for his friends and 
neighbors such men as Willie Jones, Thomas Eaton, and other 
fiery Whigs, and it took no small amount of courage to stand 
forth for the cause of King and Parliament amid such sur- 
roundings. 

Some time after the great American victory at Moore's Creek 
Bridge, North Carolina, on the 27th of February, 1776, Hamil- 
ton (who was probably not in that action) gathered together as 
many of the demoralized Loyalists as could be induced to join the 
King's standard, and repaired to St. Augustine, Florida, where 
he drilled his recruits and organized them into a formidable regi- 
ment. 
The chief scenes of Hamilton's military activities in 1779 and 



122 NORTH CAROLINA 

1780 were in South Carolina and Georgia. He held a command 
at the Battle of Kettle Creek, Georgia, on the 14th of February, 
1779, when the British were defeated ; but a short while thereafter 
(March 3d) was at Briar Creek, Georgia, where his side 
triumphed ; later, on June 20th, he materially aided in the victory 
of the Royal forces at the Battle of Stono. In the Fall of 
1779 he was at the siege of Savannah. He joined the army under 
Sir Henry Qinton in South Carolina in March, 1780; and, on 
the 27th of that month, was taken prisoner by the cavalry forces 
of Colonel William Washington. In recounting this occurrence, 
the South Carolina historian, McCrady, observes : "Colonel Ham- 
ilton, of whom we have before spoken, was a valuable prize, but 
Washington was hunting for much bigger game, and came near 
capturing Sir Henry Clinton himself." 

After being made a prisoner Colonel Hamilton was taken to 
Charleston, but his captivity was of short duration; for, on the 
1 2th of May, 1780, the American garrison there surrendered to 
Sir Henry Clinton. During the British occupation which fol- 
lowed Hamilton was indefatigable in his efforts to promote the 
comfort of American prisoners — especially his old friends from 
North Carolina — and thereby increased the respect in which he 
had always been held by the Whigs. 

In the Spring of 1780, the Americans being apparently over- 
awed by the great forces gathered against them in the South, 
James Moore, of Lincoln County, North Carolina, returned to 
his old home and announced himself a Lieutenant-Colonel of 
Hamilton's regiment, and that he was sent into North Carolina 
to raise the King's standard. He ordered a rendezvous of the 
Loyalists; but on news of this reaching the Whigs a force of 
the latter was gathered, and at the Battle of Ramseur's Mill (June 
20, 1780) the Tories were defeated and scattered. 

At the Battle of Hanging Rock, South Carolina, on the 6th 
of August, 1780, Colonel Hamilton was present, and he also aided 
in gaining the great British victory at Camden ten days later. 

Hamilton was with Cornwallis on his march through North 
Carolina, was present at the Battle of Guilford Court House 



JOHN HAMILTON 123 

(March 15, 1781), and his military career probably ended with 
the surrender of Comwallis at Yorktown. He was in St. Augus- 
tine, Florida, in the Fall of 1783, and in London in the Spring of 

1785. 

During the course of the war some of the hardest fighting done 
by Hamilton's regiment was when it was pitted against troops 
from North Carolina; and the latter were often commanded by 
former friends. At the Battle of Briar Creek, where the Ameri- 
cans were routed, Thomas Eaton was one of those who fled for 
life. Speaking of Eaton, McRee, in his biography of Iredell, 
says: 

"He had a very small foot and wore a boot of unusual finish and neat- 
ness. In the haste of his flight, he left his boots behind. They were 
recognized and purchased of a soldier by John Hamilton, who afterwards* 
commanded a regiment of Loyalists in the British service. After the war, 
at a dinner party at Willie Jones's, Hamilton, with some good-natured 
raillery, produced the boots and passed them to their former owner, who, 
greatly incensed, threw them across the table at Hamilton's head." 

Hamilton's estates in North Carolina were confiscated during 
the war along with those of many other Loyalists. 

As a reward for his fidelity to King George, Colonel Hamilton 
was appointed Consul at Norfolk, in Virginia, and there he re- 
mained for some years. The great poet, Thomas Moor^, visited 
him there during a tour through America. In a note on a piece 
of verse entitled "To George Morgan, Esq., of Norfolk, Virginia," 
who served in the consulate under Hamilton, Moore says : 

"The consul himself. Colonel Hamilton, is among the very few in- 
stances of a man ardently loyal to his King, and yet beloved by the Ameri- 
cans. His house is the very temple of hospitality; and I sincerely pity 
the heart of that stranger who, warm from the welcome of such a board, 
could sit down and write a libel on his host, in the true spirit of a modern 
philosophist. See the 'Travels of the Duke de la Rochefoucault-Lian- 
court,' Vol. n." 

Colonel Hamilton did not remain in Norfolk permanently, but 
finally returned to Great Britain. In his work on American Loyal- 
ists, Sabine says that Hamilton died in England in 1 817 at a very 
advanced age. Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 





GUSHING BIGGS HASSELL 

rUSHING BIGGS HASSELL was born near 
Williamston, in Martin County, North Caro- 
lina, on the 14th day of October, 1808. His 
father, John N. Hassell, was an honest and 
hospitable man. His death occurred in the 
year 1824. He left no property. His wife, 
Monha Biggs, was a woman of remarkable sagacity, energy 
and decision of character. For the thirty years prior to her 
death she was confined to her bed with severe rheumatism. In 
this affliction she displayed wonderful resignation and cheer- 
fulness. She was a zealous member of the Primitive Baptist 
Church. 

During the life of his father Gushing Biggs Hassell attended 
the neighborhood schools at irregular intervals. Here he im- 
bibed a thirst for knowledge and acquired habits of thoughtfulness 
and studiousness that became the ruling factor in his life. During 
his idle hours as a merchant he pursued his studies in the classical 
languages. "While at school he was noted above his fellows for 
aptness at learning, steady moral habits, and serious disposition. 
At the age of eighteen he entered into some excellent resolutions, 
to which he steadfastly adhered through life — ^to wit : To abstain 
from the use of liquor and tobacco; not to indulge in profanity 
or gaming ; and to be strictly honest, truthful and upright in all 
his dealings." 






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GUSHING BIGGS HASSELL 125 

Before attaining his majority he entered upon a mercantile 
career which he followed until his death. His business was large 
and generally prosperous. He was an indulgent creditor. He 
said that in this way he helped many needy persons. He preferred 
to suffer these losses "rather than grind the faces of the poor." 
At his death he left a comfortable fortune for his family. He was 
twice married. In 1832 he married Mary Davis, who bore him 
seven children and died in 1846. Three years afterward he mar- 
ried Martha Maria Jewett, widow of Elder Daniel E. Jewett, of 
Warwich, New York. She bore him four children. 

To illustrate his usefulness as a citizen, it may be stated that 
he energetically and successfully filled the following positions 
of usefulness and honor: Trustee of the University of North 
Carolina, trustee of Williamston Academy, founder, Secretary and 
Treasurer of Williamston Library Association ; Clerk and Master 
in Equity of Martin County ; Treasurer of Martin County ; Presi- 
dent of the Roanoke Steam Navigation Company ; member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1861 and also of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1875. These important positions show the versa- 
tility of his usefulness. When first elected treasurer of Martin 
County only four votes were cast against him. In politics he was 
a Democrat, and in the struggle of his party to redeem the State 
in 1875 ^^ exerted all his great power of mind and body. As a 
campaign speaker he was eloquent and convincing. His state- 
ments on public questions were not questioned by his opponents. 
But his great services to his community, county and State in sec- 
ular matters were all overshadowed by his work in the ministry- 
of his church. 

In the Winter of 1827-28 he felt himself arrested by some super- 
natural power. It is told by his son in an excellent sketch 
that he was first a religious skeptic, and read the Bible simply 
to demonstrate its inconsistencies and seeming absurdities. That 
Winter was a time of imusual religious excitement in his com- 
munity. He tried to hide his broken heart from the world. He 
fled to the law for refuge and safety, and resolved to live a still 
more moral life. These things were but dross, and bowing low 



126 NORTH CAROLINA 

to the stroke of the Master, on January 13, 1828, he arose a be- 
liever in His mercy and goodness and power. Then and there 
he felt the burden of sin removed and he experienced a sensation 
of joy unspeakable. He was then living in Halifax. There was 
no Baptist Church there. He was deeply impressed with his duty 
to be baptized. In March of that year he went to Williamston 
and was baptized by Elder Joseph Biggs and by him received 
into the fellowship of Skewarky Church. The great doctrines 
of that faith — election, total depravity, particular redemption, ef- 
fectual calling, and final preservation of the saints — were at an early 
period firmly settled in his mind. In 1833 he was chosen a deacon 
of Skewarky Church. In that year General William Clark, a 
man of wealth and talents and a minister of one of the churches 
of the Kehukee Association, withdrew from her communion and 
wrote a pamphlet defamatory of that body. Mr. Hassell replied 
in a pamphlet of sixty pages which the association adopted and 
circulated. The reply was crushing. Clark was silenced and went 
to the Southwest in new fields of labor. 

For many years he was an active worker in prayer meetings 
and church conferences. In 1840 he was licensed to preach, and 
in 1842 a presbytery composed of Elders James Osborn, Joseph 
Biggs, and William Whitaker ordained him. His first pastorates 
were at Skewarky and Spring Green churches. In 1859 he was 
chosen Moderator of the Kehukee Association, and to this honor- 
able and responsible office he was annually re-elected until his 
death. For the first ten years of his ministry he received no dona- 
tions from any one ; but he then concluded that for the donors and 
himself such a course was wrong, and during the last thirty years 
of his life he received from marriage fees and preachmg an 
average of less than a hundred dollars a year — an amount barely 
sufficient to defray his actual traveling expenses. He did not 
labor in his Master's vineyard for earthly reward. His own dona- 
tions to others amounted to large sums. His religious life was 
lived in his family, and at its altar daily morning and evening 
prayers were said, after Scripture reading and the singing of a 
hymn. He sang well and taught his children to sing. Each Sab- 



GUSHING BIGGS HASSELL 127 

bath morning after prayers it was the custom to instruct his chil- 
dren in Scripture history and the plan of salvation. 

For years the Primitive Baptist Church of his community held 
prayer meetings at each other's homes every Sunday night. After 
the war all these meetings were held at his home. 

Few excelled him in extemporaneous oratory. All the ser- 
mons were preached without written preparation and frequently 
without moments for forethought. He said he preferred to search 
the Scriptures before preaching. In order and method, in neatness 
and cleanliness of person and attire, in self-control and evenness 
of temper, in untiring industry, he had few equals. He wrote his 
autobiography up to the year 1847, ^"d kept a diary of his life 
ever afterward. He recorded in blank books, with interesting 
particulars, all his ordinations, baptisms, texts, marriages, and 
the donations made to him. He rarely retired before midnight 
and almost invariably arose at five o'clock in the morning. He 
frequently said he would rather wear out than rust out, and that 
he wished to live so that he would be missed when he was gone. 
He was appointed in 1876 by the Kehukee Association to write a 
history of that body and of the Church of God from the creation 
to the present time. He devoted most of the year 1879 ^^ this 
work. At the time of his death he had completed the history of 
the Kehukee Association and of the churches composing it, a 
statistical table of all the old school Baptist associations in 
America, a series of articles on the distinctive tenets and practices 
of his denomination and a history of the church for 4300 years — 
from the creation to the year A.D. 350. This was the crowning 
work of his life and it sapped his strength. He felt that his time 
was s/hort. He preached in his favorite pulpit — Skewarky — for 
the last time on February 8, 1880. His last discourse was the in- 
troductory sermon at the meeting of Skewarky Union meeting 
at Conoho, February 27, 1880. The next day his fatal illness 
seized him. In all those hours he exhibited no anxiety about the 
future state. Not a cloud dimmed his prospect for a blessed im- 
mortality. A little while before he died he said : "I am passing to 
a better world. I am going from the land of the dying to the land 



128 NORTH CAROLINA 

of the living." For almost every one that called to see him he had 
some special message and heavenly advice. When quite restless 
and tossing about, toward twelve o'clock Saturday night, April 
loth, he was asked if he wanted anything, and he said, "Nothing 
in the world.'' A little after midnight, just as the Sunday was 
coming in, without a struggle he died. A placid and heavenly 
smile rested upon his countenance, and he was at peace. 

Every store and shop of his town was closed at his burial, such 
was the universal esteem and love in which he was held by all 
classes. 

Gushing Biggs Hassell was a strong man, in mind, in body, in 
character, in love and in tenderness. He added to the sum of 
human happiness. His was a simple life. Hear his words on 
his death-bed: "Bury me in a plain wooden coffin, and without 
display, or ceremony, or preaching, in the simple manner of the 
Apostolic age. I have never engaged in funeral preaching. Just 
let my friends gather in silence around when my body is deposited 
in its last resting-place. Bury me at Skewarky by the side of 
my children." 

F. D, Winston. 






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SYLVESTER HASSELL 




JLDER SYLVESTER HASSELL was born in 
Williamston, Martin County, North Carolina, 
July 28, 1842. He was the son of Elder Cush- 
ing Biggs Hassell and Mary (Davis) Hassell, 
daughter of Colonel Durham Davis. His 
paternal and maternal ancestors were English, 
the former coming to Tyrrell County, North Carolina, in the eigh- 
teenth century, and the latter coming during the same century to 
Virginia. When he was four years old his mother died, and three 
years afterward his father was married to Mrs. Martha M. 
Jewett, of New Hampshire, widow of Elder D. E. Jewett, of New 
York. At the age of seven he was left to her care, and for forty- 
eight years she exercised her kind and motherly influence over 
him. He says of her : "She was the most spiritual-minded person 
I ever knew, and her teaching was a powerful inspiration to me, 
and her influence particularly strong on my moral life." In chil- 
hood he was healthy, but in youth he was frail and delicate. A 
great fondness for reading and much interest in religion were 
manifested early in life. He was very moral in his habits, having 
the noble example of his learned and pious father, who held in 
his family religious services twice each day, morning and evening. 
Early in life he sought to improve the excellent advantages 
given him by his father for acquiring an education. Entering 
the academy at Williamston, his home school, he was prepared for 



I30 NORTH CAROLINA 

the University of North Carolina. He matriculated at that in- 
stitution July, 1858, and remained there until August, 1861, when, 
on the fall of the forts at Cape Hatteras, he returned home to as- 
sist his father in his business. At the University he received first 
distinction, leading his class from the time he entered. At the 
commencement of 1867 the degree of A.M. was conferred on him 
by the University — it was then an honorary degree. In July, 
1889, he was called back to his Alma Mater to deliver illustrated 
lectures on astronomy at the Summer Normal School. 

At the beginning of the Civil War the subject of this sketch was 
in very low health. He was examined by a recruiting officer and 
exempted for physical disability. During the war he was similarly 
examined six times, and each time he was declared incapacitated 
for service by reason of an affection of the lungs and throat which 
continued for a year after the close of the war. Notwithstanding 
the extremely low state of his health, he served in the Winter of 
1862 as Secretary of Colonel Samuel Watts of the Martin County 
Militia, at Fort Hill, near Washington, North Carolina, for three 
weeks, until the disbanding of the regiment at the fall of Roanoke 
Island. During the remainder of the war he taught his younger 
brothers and sisters when he was physically able. An older 
brother, Theodore Hassell, was lieutenant of Company A, Seven- 
teenth Regiment and later Ordnance Officer of the Brigade and 
member of General Martin's staff. Lieutenant Hassell was killed 
in the battle of Kinston, March, 1865. 

After the fall of Roanoke Island, February 8, 1862, the people 
of this section were subject to continued raids of Federal troops, 
both by cavalry and marines on land and gunboats coming up the 
Roanoke River. At one time these gunboats bombarded Wil- 
liamston seventeen hours because of a few Confederate soldiers 
who had been seen in their retreat up the river; the finest resi- 
dence in town was burned by hot shot, and Elder C. B. Hassell*s 
house was pierced by the fragment of a bomb. At another time, 
November, 1862, an army of 10,000 men, under General J. G. 
Foster, marched from Washington, North Carolina, through Wil- 
liamston to the vicinity of Tarboro, and then returned to Wash- 



SYLVESTER HASSELL • 131 

ington. In their raid they plundered, shipped North, gave away, 
or destroyed all the goods of the merchants in Williamston — ^as 
they did in other towns in their path — and almost every other 
portable article of value. At yet another time a company of raid- 
ers brought light wood to burn the home of Elder C. B. Hassell 
because he was a friend of the Confederacy, but they were calmly 
dissuaded by him. from doing so. 

Elder Sylvester Hassell began his chosen profession — teaching 
— ^as principal of the Williamston Academy, where he remained 
from 1865 to 1868. In 1869 he went to the State Normal College 
of Delaware to fill the chair of Ancient Languages. While living 
in Wilmington, Delaware, he was married in 1870 to Miss Mary 
Isabella Garrell, daughter of Julius S. Garrell, of Martin County, 
North Carolina. He taught there and at New Castle, Delaware, 
until the last sickness and death of his wife in 1871, and resigned 
the principalship of the New Castle Graded School to rest a while 
and then teach in Wilson, North Carolina. Of this marriage one 
son, Paul, who died at the age of fifteen, was bom. In 1872 he es^ 
tablished the Wilson Collegiate Institute, at Wilson, North Caro- 
lina. For fourteen years he successfully managed this school. 
On May 3, 1876, he was married to Miss Frances Louisa Wood- 
ard, daughter of Calvin Woodard, of Wilson County. There 
were born to them seven children, four of whom, Francis, Charles, 
Mary, and Calvin, are now living. His wife died in January, 
1889. It was while living at Wilson that his father, Elder Gush- 
ing Biggs Hassell, was appointed by the Kehukee Primitive 
Baptist Association (in 1876) to prepare its third history, and to 
combine with it a history of the Church from the creation. The 
general history of the Church Elder C. B. Hassell requested his 
son, Elder Sylvester Hassell, to write. Accordingly the latter 
purchased the most valuable church histories published in Europe 
and America for this purpose. He did not have time for this work, 
as he had six or seven teachers and a large school. His father, 
who had retired from business, consequently undertook the whole 
work. For three years Elder C. B. Hassell labored at his task. 
On his death in 1880 he committed his manuscript to his son to 



132 NORTH CAROLINA 

complete the work. He at once set about the task, which was a 
great and laborious one, and devoted his great talents and almost 
his entire time for six years to the completion and revisal of the 
history, bringing it down to A.D. 1885. A close student and a 
finished scholar, he gave the very highest authorities where there 
was any question as to the position he was taking. At times, in 
deciding upon some particular point, he frequently had open be- 
fore him twenty authorities of the highest character. On com- 
pleting this monumental work in 1886, he gave up the school at' 
Wilson and returned to his old home in Williamston, North Caro- 
lina, to become again principal of the academy there and to serve 
the church near that place, of which he was a member and pastor. 
The history was published by Gilbert Beebe's sons, Middletown, 
New York, in 1886, in a closely printed octavo volume of 1032 
pages, with a very copious Table of Contents and Alphabetical 
Index. 

There had been two other histories of the Kehukee Association, 
one by Elders Burkett and Read, published in 1803, and one by 
Elder Joseph Biggs, father of Judge, and afterwards United 
States Senator, Asa Biggs, and published in 1834. These were 
confined chiefly to the association, and did not purport to be his- 
tories of the Christian Church. 

The "Church History" of Elders C. B. and S. Hassell contains 
succinctly an account of all the leading religions of the world and 
of all denominations of Christianity, and states substantially the 
fair and full truths as found by the authors, irrespective of the 
creeds of their Church or any other Church. They endeavored to 
write a non-sectarian history. The work passed through two 
editions, and a third edition is much in demand. It is a candid, 
faithful, truthful, and scriptural "History of the Church of God 
from the Creation" to A.D. 1885. 

After returning to his home, Williamston, and teaching there 
from 1886 to 1890, he, by reason of failing health, discontinued 
teaching and traveled and visited churches in several States. 

We have thus far given his history, and an account of his nat- 
ural services to his fellow-men. By far the greater and better part 



SYLVESTER HASSELL 133 

of his great and, useful life has been spent in his unselfish service 
to his God and the churches, in writing and preaching. Before 
proceeding further, it may be well to say just a word about the 
Church with which he has been allied. 

Before, during and since the war between the States there was 
and has been and is a wonderful unity of belief and affection be- 
tween Old School or Primitive Baptists, North, South, East and 
West, though of course there are some differences of expression 
and forms among some of them. The ministers are often led (as 
they believe of the Divine Spirit) to visit distant counties and 
States and sometimes other nations to preach the Gospel of the 
Son of God, and they are kindly received and treated, and the 
God of Providence sustains them and their families in these labors 
without the aid of any human societies. While the most of the 
churches do not have any large increase at any one time, still their 
numbers gradually increase with the population of the country. 
In 1892 Elder Hassell became associate editor of the Gospel Mes- 
senger — a monthly religious magazine founded in 1878, and at 
the time owned and published by Elder J. R. Respass, of Butler, 
Georgia. After the death of Elder Respess in 1895, he purchased 
the paper in 1896, and has continued its owner and editor-in-chief 
until the present time. It is now published in Williamston, North 
Carolina, and is devoted entirely to the defense and the dissemina- 
tion of the doctrine atid truths of the Word of God. There are 
four editors associated with him in the work, Elders J. G. W. 
Henderson and S. W. Stewart, of Alabama, Lee Hanks, of 
Georgia, and J. H. Oliphant, of Indiana. The paper's circula- 
tion extends to twenty-six States and Canada. 

Elder Hassell is an accomplished linguist. He has been a stu- 
dent all his life. His fine library of about 3000 volumes, which 
he has been many years collecting, is the library of a scholar and 
theologian. Most of his fellow-ministers know only the English 
language and have had very limited educations (though there 
are a few very highly educated) and have few books besides 
their Bibles and hymn-books, yet they are well acquainted with 
the spirit and letter of the Word of God. All the ministers of 



134 NORTH CAROLINA 

the Primitive Baptist Church serve their churches without any 
charge or stipulated salary. 

Elder Hassell has never been a member of any moral or re- 
ligious order or society other than his Church. His just convic- 
tions of a religious nature began when young ; and as he was ar- 
rested by supernatural power and shown the deep depravity of 
his carnal nature, he fled first to the Law and then to the Cross 
for mercy, and found peace and pardon in the atoning blood of 
the Lord Jesus Christ. He received the evidence that his sins were 
forgiven August 17, 1863, and joined the Church at Skewarky, 
near Williamston, January 7, 1864. He began his labors in the 
ministry December 10, 1871, at the age of twenty-nine, and was 
regularly ordained to the full work of the Gospel ministry August 
9, 1874, by a presbytery consisting of his father and Elders David 
House and William Whitaker. He has had the pastoral care of 
his home church, Skewarky, since 1881. Besides, he has labored 
extensively in his own State and Virginia, West Virginia, South 
Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Texas, Florida, Louisi- 
ana, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, New York, Massa- 
chusetts and Canada. He has been the Moderator of the Ke- 
hukee Association — the oldest Primitive Baptist Association in the 
United States, having been formed in Halifax County in 1765 — 
almost continuously since the death of his father, and has recently 
been chosen by that body as their permanent presiding officer. 
His wise and timely counsel is always faithful and always for 
peace and harmony. He is still laboring with tongue and pen for 
the glory of God and the good of the churches and his fellow- 
man, "speaking the truth in love" and publishing the glorious 
Gospel of Christ — "Glory to God in the highest: on earth peace 
and good-will to men." He is to-day justly regarded by many 
as one of the most learned, honest, able, and truthful expounders 
of the Word of God now living, and he is still humbly laboring 
for the cause which is dearer to him than life itself, without the 
promise or hope of any earthly reward, but with the desire for the 
triumph of truth, and with a conscience void of offence toward 
God and man. M. L. Lawrence. 




PHILEMON HAWKINS, SR. 




'HILEMON HAWKINS, first of his name to 
settle in North Carolina, resided in the colonial 
county of Bute, which was established in 1764 
out of the eastern part of Granville County and 
which was divided into Warren and Franklin 
Counties in 1779. He was bom in Virginia 
on the 28th of September, 171 7. His father was Philemon Haw- 
kins, who was bom in England in 1690, and emigrated in 1715 
to Virginia, where he died in 1725. The wife of this founder of 
the family in America (and the mother of Philemon Hawkins, 
later of North Carolina) was Ann Eleanor Howard. The Haw- 
kins family claims descent from the renowned Elizabethan ad- 
miral and explorer, Sir John Hawkins. 

One of the sons of Colonel Philemon Hawkins (subject of this 
sketch) was Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Jr., of Pleasant Hill, 
in Warren County, North Carolina. In a ponderous Family 
Bible, formerly owned by the latter, we find many interesting 
items about the subject of our present sketch and his family's 
early history in North Carolina. Following are some of the 
entries : 

"Philemon Hawkins, father of Philemon Hawkins of Pleasant Hill, 
was bom in Virginia. He removed to the mouth of Six Pound Creek in 
North Carolina ; was one of the first settlers there. He was an extremely 
active and industrious- man, an uncommonly good husband and father. 



136 NORTH CAROLINA 

and one of the best providers for a family. The Creator blessed him with 
a great share of chattels and wealth, and he lived to be nearly eighty-four 
years of age. He departed this life loth day of September, A.D. 1801." 

He came to North Carolina in his young manhood, about 1737, 
and settled in what was then the western part of. Edgecombe 
County, later Granville, afterwards Bute, and later still Warren : 
being among the first to settle in that section. 

Concerning the wife of the last-named is an entry in the above 
Family Bible which gives some account of her life and char- 
acteristics in the following words: 

"Delia Hawkins, mother of Philemon Hawkins of Pleasant Hill, de- 
parted this life the 20th day of August, A.D. 1794, respected and esteemed 
by all her acquaintances. She was the daughter of Zachariah Martin, a 
respectable planter and native of Virginia. She was one of the first set- 
tlers upon Six Pound Creek in North Carolina, where her husband, Phile- 
mon Hawkins, owned a mill. The country was then a wilderness, which 
occasioned corn to be extremely scarce; and, when the poorest of the 
people came with their corn to the mill, instead of taking toll, she would 
add to their morsel and have it ground into meal gratis. She was uni- 
versally kind to the poor. The great Creator of us all blessed her with a 
great share of health and wealth, and she lived to be seventy-three years 
of age." 

Next after the above entry is another recording the death of 
the family's most distinguished member, who was a son of Colonel 
Philemon Hawkins, subject of the present sketch. This was 
Colonel Benjamin Hawkins, the interpreter of French on the 
staff of General Washington during the Revolution, member of 
the Continental Congress, United States Senator, Agent for the 
Creek Nation, etc., who spent his last years at Fort Hawkins, 
Georgia. This reads: 

"Colonel Benjamin Hawkins, Agent for the Creek Indians, departed 
this life on the 6th of June, at eight o'clock in the evening, 18 16, in the 
sixty-second year of his age. He has served as a publick character in vari- 
ous departments and always discharged the trust faithfully for thirty-six 
years — a worthy, honest man." 

Colonel Philemon Hawkins, of Bute County, our present sub- 
ject, is usually styled Philemon Hawkins, Sr., in history, to dis- 
tinguish him from his son. Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Jr., of 



PHILEMON HAWKINS, SR. 137 

Pleasant Hill, in Warren County, a man of equal note, who will 
be the subject of a separate sketch in the present volume, as will 
also Benjamin and other members of the family. Both Philemon, 
Sr., and Philemon, Jr., fought under Governor Tryon at the bat- 
tle of Alamance, May 16, 1771. 

On September 28, 1829, Colonel Hawkins, the younger, 
gathered as many relatives and friends at Pleasant Hill in Warren 
County as could be gotten together, and celebrated the 112th an- 
niversary of his late father's birth. One of the chief features of 
this gathering was an oration on "Philemon Hawkins, Sr., De- 
ceased," delivered by Colonel John D. Hawkins, son of the 
younger Philemon. In this we find many interesting facts about 
the elder Colonel Hawkins. Concerning the distinguished part 
he took in the Battle of Alamance, the speaker said : 

"Upon this occasion His Excellency selected our venerated ancestor 
as his chief aid-de-camp and assigned to him the hazardous duty to read 
to the Regulators his proclamation, which he did promptly. And, after 
the battle commenced, he was the bearer of the Governor's commands 
throughout the whole action. This so exposed him to the fire of the ene- 
my that his hat was pierced by two balls, various balls passed through 
his clothes, and one bullet and two buckshot lodged in the breach of his 
gun, which he carried and used during the action. But he had the good 
fortune not to he wounded. After the battle was over, he was compli- 
mented by the Governor for the very efficient aid given him, and for the 
bravery and ability displayed during the engagement." 

At the family reimion, when the above quoted address was de- 
livered, the ceremonies were opened with prayer by Leonidas 
Polk, a young clergyman, whose mother was a daughter of the 
host. Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Jr. This youthful churchman 
later became renowned alike as bishop and general, and was killed 
while fighting for the Confederacy at Pine Mountain, Georgia, 
on the 14th of June, 1864. 

But recurring to the history of Colonel Philemon Hawkins: 
not only did he distinguish himself at the Battle of Alamance, as 
above noted, but he filled many public posts. In Bute County 
he was High Sheriff (an office of great honor and dignity under 
Royal rule), and he was also at one time sergeant-at-arms of the 



138 NORTH CAROLINA 

Colonial Assembly. At the outbreak of the Revolution, Gov- 
ernor Josiah Martin greatly desired to gain the Hawkins family 
for the King's cause. With this end in view he inserted the name 
of Philemon Hawkins, Sr., and of Philemon Hawkins, Jr., in a 
commission (January lo, 1776), directing a rendezvous of Royal 
forces at Cross Creek, now Fayetteville. Neither father nor son 
took notice of this action by Martin, and both became faithful 
patriots. Referring to the matter, Governor Swain, in one of his 
historical addresses, said : 

"These gentlemen were sturdy and well-tried Whigs throughout the 
Revolutionary War. Governor Martin may have been misinformed in 
relation to them, or may have inserted their names in order to render 
them objects of suspicion and strip them of their influence among the 
Whigs." 

By his wife, Delia Martin, six children were born to Colonel 
Philemon Hawkins, Sr. His two daughters were Delia, who mar- 
ried Leonard Bullock; and Ann, who married Micajah Thomas. 
Both of these ladies died without surviving issue. The four sons 
of Colonel Hawkins were Colonel John Hawkins, Colonel Phile- 
mon Hawkins, Jr. (subject of separate sketch in this work), 
Colonel Benjamin Hawkins (also subject of separate sketch), and 
Colonel Joseph Hawkins. 

The elder Colonel Philemon Hawkins, whose life we have at- 
tempted to portray herein, was offered a brigadier-general's com- 
mission in the beginning of the Revolution, but declined. For 
a short while, however, he was a lieutenant-colonel of militia. 
Some civil appointments were conferred upon Colonel Hawkins, 
and these he accepted. He was a Justice of the Court of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions, first for the county of Bute, and later of 
Warren County. As heretofore mentioned, his life was the sub- 
ject of a memorial address delivered in 1829 by his grandson. 
Colonel John D. Hawkins. A son of the latter. Doctor A. B. 
Hawkins, of Raleigh, recently had this address reprinted. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood, 




PHILEMON HA^A/KINS JR 




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PHILEMON HAWKINS, JR. 

fOLONEL PHILEMON HAWKINS, JR., of 
Pleasant Hill, in the county of Warren (for- 
merly Bute) was the second son of a gentle- 
man of the same name whose life has been de- 
picted in the foregoing sketch. He was bom 
on the* 3d- of December, 1752, "at two o'clock 
in the. afternoon," as his precise family record tells us. At the 
age of nineteen he rode as a trooper in his father's company of 
Bute County Light-Horse when Governor Tryon marched against 
the Regulators in 1771 ; and, on the i6th of May, in that year, was 
a courier attached to the staff of His Excellency at the Battle of 
Alamance. Tryon had a strong sense of the value of the services 
of both father and son in the fight here alluded to, and presented 
young Hawkins with a handsome rifle in recognition of his valor 
and good conduct. 

As mentioned in the foregoing sketch, Josiah Martin, Royal 
Governor, made vain efforts at the beginning of the Revolution 
to win over the services of Philemon Hawkins, Sr., and Philemon 
Hawkins, Jr., of the then county of Bute, by inserting their names 
in a commission directing a rendezvous of Loyalists at Cross 
Creek, where the town of Fayetteville now stands. Not only was 
Martin's commission ignored by father and son alike, but both en- 
tered heart and soul into the cause of the Colonies. 

In the Summer of 1775, after there had been a clash of arms 



140 NORTH CAROLINA 

at the North, there was a general arming throughout North Caro-. 
lina, and independent companies were then formed, which, how- 
ever, were disbanded by order of the Congress which met in Sep- 
tember, 1775, and arranged for a permanent military organiza- 
tion of the people of the State. It was apparently during that Sum- 
mer that a company was formed in Bute, the association paper 
being printed in the ninth volume of the Colonial Records, page 
1 104. As illustrating the sentiments of the people in those trying 
times, we make some condensed extracts from the same : 

"We, therefore, the trusty and well-beloved brothers and friends, to 
each other, of Bute County, North Carolina, .... do most seri- 
ously, religiously, join our hearts and hands in embodying ourselves into 
an Independent Company of Freemen, to be in readiness to defend our- 
selves against any violence that may be exerted against our persons and 
pioperties, to stand by and support to the utmost of our power the salva- 
tion of America; and do most humbly beseech our Lord Jesus Christ, 
of his great goodness, that he be pleased to govern and guide us to his 
glory, and to the good of our distressed country ; and with full dependence 
thereon, we the subscribers do constitute and agree that this Company 
consist of ninety rank and file, two drummers, eight sergeants, one en- 
sign, two lieutenants, and a captain to command, with full power, to our 

glory and our country's good We will coincide with the 

majority of the Company, should we ever be called for by the Command- 
ing Officer of the American Army. Being now cheerfully enlisted in this 
Independent Company of brothers, neighbors and friends, we do engage 
to stand by each other with life and fortune; and, through whatever fate 
should befall either, to cherish each other in sickness and in health; and 
do furthermore most cordially promise to each other, under all the ties of 
virtue and humanity, that should either of us survive the dreadful calami- 
ties of war, that we will religiously cherish and support to the utmost 
of our power each other's desolate and loving wife and tender, affec- 
tionate children, being poor orphans, from poverty and want; and for 
the faithful performance of this our brotherly and friendly covenant 
which we mean to perform, so help us God." 

The expressions in this paper show the solemnity of the enlist- 
ment. It appears that young Philemon Hawkins was captain 
of the company. 

When the Provincial Congress convened on April 4, 1776, the 
town of Halifax was its meeting-place, and Philemon Hawkins, 



PHILEMON HAWKINS, JR. 141 

Jr., was at the age of twenty-three a member of that body. On 
May 3d this Congress advanced Hawkins to the full rank of 
colonel, placing him in command of a regiment drafted from the 
districts of Edenton and Halifax for the special purpose of sup- 
pressing an insurrection in the Currituck district. On May 
9th the Committee on Claims in the above Congress recommended 
an allowance to Colonel Hawkins "for the services of his regi- 
ment of militia on the late Currituck expedition, and against 
the insurgents." Colonel Hawkins was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Congress at Halifax in November, 1776. While the Rev- 
olution was in progress he also served as a member of the Gov- 
ernor's Council and often sat in the Assembly both during and 
after the war. 

By Chapter 19 of the Laws of 1779 Bute County was divided, 
and out of it were created the counties of Warren and Franklin — 
the two latter named for Revolutionary patriots, Joseph Warren 
and Benjamin Franklin. The residence of Colonel Hawkins lay 
in that part of Bute which became Warren County ; but by sub- 
sequent enactments and re-enactments his home was at different 
times placed in the counties of Granville and Franklin, as well 
as Warren, but eventually his home place became permanently 
a part of Warren. At seven sessions of the General Assembly, 
beginning in 1779, and extending — ^with one intermission — ^till 
1787, Colonel Hawkins represented Granville in the North Caro- 
lina House of Commons; and was sent to the same body from 
Warren at the sessions of 1787, 1789, 1803, 1805, 1806, 1817 and 
1 818. He was also State Senator from Warren at the sessions 
of 1807, 1808, 1810, and 181 1. 

In the Convention which met at Fayetteville in November, 
1789, and ratified the Constitution of the United States, Colonel 
Hawkins represented Warren County, and two of his colleagues 
in the Warren delegation were his brother, Colonel Benjamin 
Hawkins, and Wyatt Hawkins, a more remote connection. 

The death of Colonel Hawkins occurred on the 28th of Jan- 
uary, 1833. An obituary, containing much valuable data concern- 
ing his life, appeared in the Raleigh Register of February 8, 1833 : 



142 NORTH CAROLINA 

"Died, at his residence at Pleasant Hill, in Warren County, on the 
28th ult, Colonel Philemon Hawkins, the last of the signers of the Con- 
stitution of North Carolina in 1776. He was born on the 3d of Decem- 
ber, 1752; and, at the early age of sixteen, was sworn in as a Deputy 
Sheriff of the county of Granville, and performed the whole of the duties 
of that office for his principal, Leonard Bullock. He belonged to the 
troop of cavalry at the Battle of Allemance [sic], which was fought on 
the i6th of May, 1771 ; and, for the distinction he merited on that oc- 
casion, was presented by the Commander-in-Chief, Governor Tryon, with 
a beautiful rifle. Before he was of age he was elected a member of the 
Greneral Assembly for the county of Bute. He continued as a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, with the intermission of two years only, 
for thirteen years. The last term of his service was at Fayette- 
ville in 1789. He raised the first volunteer company in the cause 
of American Independence that was raised in the county of Bute, and 
which consisted of 144 men. In the year 1776 he was elected a colonel 
of a regiment by the Convention at Halifax, and in that command per- 
formed many services; but ultimately left the army and continued to act 
as a member of the Legislature. He was a member of the Convention 
which ratified the Constitution of the United States, and was frequently 
a member of the Executive Council. He was a man of strong mental 
powers, which he retained to the last, and possessed an accuracy of rec- 
ollection which enabled him to be the living chronicle of his times. He 
raised twelve children to adult age, but six of them preceded him to the 
grave, and his six youngest sons graduated at the University of North 
Carolina. Full of years and of all the comforts of this world, he died 
after a short illness, in so much tranquillity of mind, and apparently so 
free from pain, that his final departure was like a man in a sleep." 

On the 31st of August, 1777, Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Jr., 
was united in marriage with Lucy Davis, and by her had thirteen 
children, as follows: William Hawkins (Governor of North Caro- 
lina), who married Ann Swepson Boyd, and is the subject of a 
separate sketch in this work; Eleanor Howard Hawkins, who 
married Sherwood Haywood, one of the early settlers of Raleigh ; 
Ann Hawkins, who married William Person Little, of Littleton ; 
John Davis Hawkins, who married Jane Boyd, and will be men- 
tioned later in a separate sketch; Delia Hawkins, who was the 
second wife of Stephen Haywood, of Raleigh; Sarah Hawkins, 
who was the second wife of Colonel William Polk ; Joseph Haw- 
kins, who married Mary Boyd ; Benjamin Franklin Hawkins, who 



PHILEMON HAWKINS, JR. 



143 



married Sally Person; Philemon Hawkins (Captain U. S. A.), 
who died unmarried; Frank Hawkins, who died unmarried; 
George Washington Hawkins, who died unmarried; Lucy Davis 
Ruffin Hawkins, who was the first wife of Honorable Louis D. 
Henry ; and Mildred Brehon Hawkins, who died unmarried. 

From the above children of Colonel Hawkins have descended 
a numerous posterity, including branches of the families of Polk, 
Haywood, Blount, Badger, Little, Andrews, etc., as well as those 
who still bear the surname of Hawkins. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 





BENJAMIN HAWKINS 




lENJAMIN HAWKINS, public servant in 
many capacities, was bom August 15, 1754, 
in what was then Granville, later Bute, and now 
Warren County, North Carolina. He was the 
son of Philemon and Delia (Martin) Hawkins 
and came of a family which has been well 
known in the State and has filled many positions of trust and 
honor. His father's life forms the subject of a separate sketch 
in the present work. Benjamin Hawkins, the son, was reared 
in what is now Warren County, and like his neighbor, Nat Macon, 
was sent, along with his younger brother, Joseph, to Princeton and 
was a student in the senior class when the war of the Revolution 
began. Having acquired a knowledge of French, he left Prince- 
ton, was appointed on the staff of General Washington, and acted 
as his interpreter. But his duties as a member of Washington's 
military family did not cease with translating. He braved the 
rigors of the campaign, participated in the Battle of Monmouth, 
and won the respect of his superiors. 

He soon returned to North Carolina, and in February, 1779, 
the State commissioned him as agent to obtain at home and abroad 
supplies of all kinds for the prosecution of the war, inclu3ing 
arms and ammunition, blankets, hats, clothing, tent cloth, com, 
salt, pork, etc. He was instructed to visit Holland, France and 
Spain (State Rec. XIII. 605-6) and did make a trip to St. Eustatia, 




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BENJAMIN HAWKINS 145 

a neutral island of the West Indies and a sort of Nassau of that 
day. Tobacco was used as a basis for purchases. It was bought 
in North Carolina and shipped to the West Indies and there ex- 
changed. Hawkins loaded a merchant ship and sent her to North 
Carolina with supplies, chiefly munitions of war, but she was 
captured by the British on the home trip, and her owner, John 
Wright Stanly, of New-Bern, failing to recover from the State, 
sued Hawkins in his personal capacity. The Courts decided that 
the purchases and contracts of the State's agent did not bind him 
personally (ist Haywood's Reports). His efforts at importa- 
tion from foreign ports were not entirely without success, for in 
February, 1780, he had imported 878 stands of arms from St. 
Eustatia, but adds : "I could not procure anything on the faith 
of the State, or by barter for provisions or tobacco, as was ex- 
pected." (State Rec. XV., p. 337.) At home he was also employed 
in procuring food supplies, especially corn, salt and pork, and met 
with more success than in his foreign enterprises, for there were 
fewer obstacles to overcome. 

He early impressed the Assembly with his fitness for activity 
on a wider field, for as early as February 3, 1779, he was nom- 
inated for, and on July 14, 1781, was elected a delegate to the 
Continental Congress in place of Charles Johnson, declined (State 
Rec. XIII. 585 ; XVII. 872). He first appears in the journals of 
that body on October 4, 1781 ; was re-elected May 3, 1782; again 
in May, 1783, and served until 1784. He was chosen December 
16, 1786, for the remainder of the year, which had begun Novem- 
ber 1st, to supply a place then vacant and was again elected in 
December, 1787, but seems not to have served this last appoint- 
ment. While in the Continental Congress he was particularly in- 
terested in the navigation of the Mississippi, in the protection of 
the frontiers from the Indians, in a southern post route, in trade 
and commerce, etc. In December, 1787, along with Robert But- 
ton and William Blount he gives a gloomy but accurate picture 
of the state of the Union. It was then on the eve of bankruptcy ; 
little had been paid on the foreign debt, and the Government was 
on the verge of dissolution. He resigned his post the same month. 



146 NORTH CAROLINA 

Hawkins had served in the North Carolina Assembly as early 
as the April and August sessions, 1778, and January session, 
1779. He was again in the Assembly in April, 1784, as a rep- 
resentative from Warren. He played here a conspicuous part, 
being often on the floor and serving on such committees as that 
on the tax to be levied by the Continental Congress and on the 
Continental Line, and on such special committees as those on con- 
fiscated estates, civil list, duties, Martinique debt, etc. He was 
nominated for membership in the Council of State this year, and 
it is known that he opposed the wholesale condemnation of Tories, 
acting in this connection with the conservatives and opposing 
such radicals as Blood worth, Rutherford and Martin (State Rec- 
ords XVn. 145). 

During the years immediately following the war the State was 
very much oppressed by the want of a fixed circulating medium. 
The paper money had depreciated till it was worth only 800 to i ; 
there was practically no gold and silver in circulation, and as a 
result the State was hard put to meet its current obligations, pay 
its officers, and raise its proportion of the foreign debt of the Con- 
federation. To meet this emergency State buyers of tobacco were 
appointed in various towns, who gathered and stored such amounts 
of merchantable tobacco as were available. This was then sold 
to the best advantage and the proceeds used in pa)rment of the 
foreign debt. In 1787 Hawkins and William Blount, in addition 
to their other duties as delegates in the Continental Congress, were 
charged with the sale of this tobacco, which work was successfully 
accomplished. 

In December, 1788, Hawkins was nominated along with Hugh 
Williamson and Abishai Thomas as agent to settle the accounts 
of North Carolina with the United States; the last two were 
chosen. In November of that year he was also nominated as a 
delegate to the proposed convention, whose work it was to be to 
further revise and democratize the new Federal Constitution. In 
November, 1789, he represented Warren County in the Fayette- 
ville Convention. He served on its committee on order and voted 
for the adoption of the Federal Constitution. 



BENJAMIN HAWKINS 147 

After the State entered the new Federal Union there was an- 
other struggle between the two parties of the day, conservatives 
and radicals, or Federalists and anti-Federalists, later Republi- 
cans, over the senators to the new Federal Congress. The slrug- 
gle began in the Assembly three days after the ratification of the 
Constitution. The nominees for senators were Samuel Johnston, 
Benjamin Hawkins, James White, Joseph McDowell, Timothy 
Bloodworth, Thomas Person, William Blount, John Williams, 
William Lenoir, John Stokes, Richard Dobbs Spaight and Wil- 
liam Polk, a goodly company, where the rankest Federalist was 
crowded and jostled by the extreme Radical. The Federals were 
in power, and it was proper that Samuel Johnston, the leading 
exponent of that party's political principles, should be chosen the 
first senator in Congress from North Carolina (November 27, 
1789). After some skirmishing Hawkins was chosen on Decem- 
ber 9th as the second senator. He was the first to enter upon his 
duties, having qualified January 13, 1790, and winning the long 
term served till March 3, 1795. Johnston drew the short term 
and served from January 29, 1790, to March 2, 1793. In the 
meantime the political tide changed in North Carolina, and the 
Federalist and ultra-conservative Johnston was succeeded in 1793 
by the more liberal Alexander Martin, while in 1795 Hawkins, 
aristocratic, conservative, proud and wealthy, gave way for the 
ultra-radical Bloodworth, who had begun life as a blacksmith 
and by sheer force of native intellect had worked his way to the 
front in public life. 

It is of interest to make note here, merely as a sign of the 
times, that in 1790 the "alarming secrecy" of the Senate caused 
the North Carolina Assembly to instruct its senators to use their 
influence to make the debates of the Senate public when sitting 
in its legislative capacity ; "to correspond regularly and constantly 
with the executive during the recess of the Legislature" and at 
other times with the Legislature itself, and to secure the publica- 
tion of the journals of the Senate. 

Hawkins had been appointed a commissioner on March 21, 
1785, to treat with the Cherokees and "all other Indians southward 



148 NORTH CAROLINA 

of them" in accord with the act of Congress of March 15, 1785. 
The other commissioners were Daniel Carroll, William Perry, 
Andrew Pickens and Joseph Martin (q. v.). Carroll and Perry 
did not serve and their place was taken by Lachlan Mcintosh. 
They were instructed to give due notice to the Governor of North 
Carolina. They were to treat with the Cherokees, and also with 
the Creeks, Chickasaws and Choctaws, and were authorized to 
draw on Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia 
for funds, and warned the executives of those States that funds 
must be forthcoming if the treaties were to be held. Caswell 
writes back that, while North Carolina was hard pressed, he would 
furnish one-third of the total sum asked for. The commissioners 
spent 1785 in making preparations; goods were purchased and 
sent to Charleston to go overland to Keowee. The Indians were 
slow in coming: the Creeks failed them entirely and the Con- 
tinental commissioners did not sign the treaty of Galphinton, 
which was the work of the agents of Georgia alone. On Novem- 
ber 28, 1785, Hawkins signed at Hopewell on Keowee with the 
Cherokees the treaty of Hopewell, than which perhaps no other 
Indian treaty was more roundly denounced by the whites. The 
object of this treaty was to define the claims of the whites and 
Indians respectively and so prevent encroachments of the former. 
William Blount was present as agent for North Carolina, and 
agents for Georgia w^re also in attendance. The treaty was 
mainly the work of Martin ; the chief question was that of bound- 
aries, and the Indians drafted a map showing their claims. They 
were induced to give up Transylvania, to leave out the Cumber- 
land section and the settlements on French Broad and Holston. 
The boundaries thus fixed were the most favorable it was possi- 
ble to obtain without regard to previous purchases and pretended 
purchases made by private individuals and others. The Indians 
yielded an extensive territory- to the United States, but on the 
other hand the commissioners conceded to them a considerable ex- 
tent of territory that had been purchased by private individuals, 
though by methods of more than doubtful legality. The com- 
missioners agreed to remove some families from the Indian lands. 



BENJAMIN HAWKINS 149 

but they did not agree to remove those between French Broad 
and Holston. This angered the Indians, who said that they had 
never sold those lands. The whites were angry because some 
favors had been shown the Indians and because there had not 
been further curtailment of territory, and the States were angry 
because the commissioners had encroached on their reserved 
rights. William Blount, as agent of North Carolina, protested, 
and efforts were made in Congress to destroy the treaty (State 
Rec, XVII. 578-9; XVIII. 49, 591-2, 490-1; XX. 762). En- 
croachments continued; orders were issued by North Carolina 
and by the Continental Congress that settlers should leave the In- 
dian lands. These settlers were even threatened with the army ; 
but treaties, proclamations and threats were alike in vain, for the 
terms of the treaty were never fully executed. Hawkins, Pickens 
and Martin signed treaties with the Choctaws on January 3d, and 
with the Chickasaws January 10, 1786, at the same place. 

With this preliminary experience Hawkins was somewhat pre- 
pared to undertake the difficult and dangerous work of an Indian 
agent. His term as senator expired March 3, 1795. In June of 
that year Washington appointed him along with George Clymer, 
of Pennsylvania, and Andrew Pickens, of South Carolina, to treat 
with the Creek Confederacy and to investigate the anomalous 
political relationship caused by the treaty of Galphinton in 1785, 
where the Creeks had acknowledged themselves as within the 
limits of Georgia and members of the same, and the treaty of New 
York, signed August 7, 1790, where they placed themselves under 
the protection of the United States alone and bound themselves 
not to enter into any treaty with any other individual. State or 
power. 

In 1796 Washington appointed Hawkins agent of the United 
States among the Creeks and general superintendent of all the 
tribes south of the Ohio River (Chappell's "Miscellanies;" his 
commission was renewed by Jefferson in 1801). From this time, 
1796, the remainder of the life of Benjamin Hawkins was de- 
voted entirely to the Indian. It is said that his family opposed this 
determination, for it was ambitious and wealthy. It is possible 



ISO NORTH CAROLINA 

that there was an element of pique at the change in the political 
tide in North Carolina, but it is certain that Hawkins had al- 
ready been much among the Indians; he had penetrated the 
mighty forests and had tasted the freedom that comes with life 
in the woods; he had felt what a modem novelist has keenly 
denominated the "call of the wild," and when this spirit has once 
entered into and mastered the soul of man it is seldom that he 
again willingly submits to the restraints of civilization. When 
Hawkins accepted this position as Indian agent he practically quit 
civilized society, buried himself in the remote and savage woods 
and among a still more savage people, with whom the remainder 
of his days were spent. 

On June 29, 1796, Hawkins negotiated with the Creeks the 
treaty of Coleraine which served as a useful supplement to the 
treaty of New York and by which the boundaries of the earlier 
treaty were confirmed. From this time for twenty years Colonel 
Hawkins as United States agent among the Creeks wielded a pro- 
consular sway over a scope of country regal in extent: Begin- 
ning at St. Mary's the Creek boundary ran across to the Altamaha ; 
thence it turned up and along the west bank of that river and of 
the Oconee to the High Shoals of the Appalachee, where it inter- 
sected the Cherokee line; thence through Georgia and Alabama 
to the Choctaw line in Mississippi ; thence south down the Choc- 
taw line to the 31st parallel; thence east to the Chattahoochee, 
and then down that river to its junction with the Flint; thence 
to the head of St. Mary's River, and thence to the beginning. 

Hawkins began his work as agent by a careful study of the 
people and of their country. He did much to initiate and encourage 
them in the lower forms, the basal elements, of civilization ; pastur- 
age was brought into use ; agriculture was encouraged by example 
as well as precept, for he brought his slaves from North Carolina 
and at the agency on Flint River cultivated a large plantation and 
raised immense crops of com and other provisions, thus setting 
a high example of how to do by doing. He owned great herds 
of hogs and cattle and practised towards the Indians a profuse 
hospitality which always wins their friendship and esteem. Other 



BENJAMIN HAWKINS 151 

treaties were negotiated with the Creeks at Fort Wilkinson, 
Georgia, in 1802 and at Washington, D. C, in 1805 1 also with the 
Chickasaws and Choctaws in 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1805, in which 
Hawkins was more or less of a participant and all of which meant 
a further cession of lands to the United States by the Indians who 
were under his control. But peaceful and friendly relations were 
generally maintained by Hawkins between advancing white and 
retreating Amerind for about sixteen years. With the war of 
1812 the times changed. It was no longer possible for him to 
control the Creeks, who fell under the influence of British emis- 
saries. Tecumseh had visited them in 181 1 on a mission of war. 
Hawkins met the great warrior of the north at Tuckabatchee, the 
Creek capital, while holding a great council of the nation, but 
Tecumseh kept silent as to the object of his mission till the de- 
parture of Hawkins. Then, through that fierce Indian eloquence 
of which he was master and by the fanatical religiosity of his 
brother, the Prophet, a great Indian war was kindled, which 
spread far and wide over the frontier. But that part of the Creek 
country bordering on Georgia and extending west from the Oc- 
mulgee to the Chattahoochee never became the seat of actual war- 
fare, and hence the eastern frontier was spared its horrors. This 
was due very largely to the fact that Hawkins's seat was on the 
Ocmulgee, opposite the present Macon, and afterwards on the 
Flint at the place since known as the Old Agency, and that his 
influence was naturally greater on the eastern than on the western 
border of the Creek country. The eastern Creeks were actually 
organized into a regiment of defence of which Hawkins became 
titular colonel, the actual command devolving on the half-breed 
chief, William Mcintosh. 

The uprising of the Creeks was crushed in fire and blood by 
Jackson early in 1814; by the treaty of Fort Jackson their limits 
were greatly reduced and their strength broken forever. This 
treaty was the death-knell of the nation ; even the friendly chiefs 
withered under its influence, and the passing of the people for 
whom he had so long and faithfully labored perhaps hastened 
the death of Hawkins himself, which occurred at Hawkinsville, 



152 NORTH CAROLINA 

Georgia, June 6, 1816. Wheeler states in his "Reminiscences" that 
Hawkins married and left one son, Madison, and three daughters. 

Colonel Hawkins was a man of liberal education, high attain- 
ments and much experience. He was far above the average In- 
dian agent of that day and of this in general culture and grasp of 
affairs. Further, he was a man of approved honesty, and his life, 
as seen in his published letters, shows clearly that he was de- 
voted to the material upbuilding of the Indians under his care 
and to their intellectual advancement. The eminent position that 
the Creeks, Cherokees, Chickasaws and Choctaws now occupy 
among the civilized tribes of the Indian Territory is to be traced 
beyond question in part to the fostering and fatherly care shown 
them a hundred years ago by one who sought not to exploit his 
proteges for his own material benefit, but strove rather, by ex- 
ample as well as precept, to lift them to a higher life, and whose 
efforts they recognized and rewarded in the significant title Iste- 
chate-lige-osetat-chemis-te-chaugo — Beloved Man of the Four 
Nations. 

Colonel Hawkins also devoted much time to the study of In- 
dian history, especially that of the Creeks. Much of his material 
was destroyed by fire, but eight manuscript volumes escaped and 
are in possession of the Georgia Historical Society. These vol- 
umes relate to the history of the various tribes with whom he 
treated and are filled with details of treaties, his correspondence 
on behalf of the Indians with the State and General Governments, 
vocabularies of Indian languages, records of the manners and 
customs, religious rites, civil polity, etc. His "Sketch of the Creek 
Country in 1798 and 1799" was published in 1848 as Part i of Vol- 
ume 3 of the Historical Collections of the Georgia Historical So- 
ciety. It is filled with matters relating to the life, manners and 
customs of the Creeks and to the natural features of their coun- 
try. His journal of a "Tour Through the Creek Country," 
November 19, 1796, to May 21, 1797, is still in manuscript and 
is owned by the same society. While in many respects Hawkins's 
studies have been superseded by later and more scientific ones, 
they are in others still of great value, and if published would 



BENJAMIN HAWKINS 



153 



serve as a valuable picture of Creek Indian life at a time when that 
powerful nation had come little in contact with the English-speak- 
ing world by whom they were to be in part destroyed, in part 
absorbed. 

This sketch is based on the sketch of Hawkins in his "Creek 
Country," on that in Chappell's "Miscellanies of Georgia," on the 
"North Carolina State Records" and on Royce's "Indian Land 
Cessions in the United States." 

Stephen B. Weeks, 






WILLIAM HAWKINS 

HEN hostilities between America and Great 
Britain opened for a second time in 1812, the 
Governor of North Carolina was William Haw- 
kins, a native of the county of Bute, and a citi- 
zen of the county of Granville at the time of 
his election as Chief Magistrate. Two years 
after the birth of Governor Hawkins the name of Bute County 
was expunged from the map, and its territory divided into the 
counties of Warren and Franklin. This action — taken while the 
Revolutionary War was in progress — was done to perpetuate the 
names of two honored patriots in lieu of that of Lord Bute, one 
of the ministers of King George. Upon the division of Bute, 
Warren County became the home of the Hawkins family. This 
family had stamped its name on the history of North Carolina 
long before William Hawkins added to its honors. Governor 
Hawkins was a son of Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Jr. (subject 
of one of the preceding sketches), and his wife, Lucy Davis. 

William Hawkins was bom on the loth of October, 1777, and 
was reared at Pleasant Hill, his father's seat in Warren County. 
His early childhood was passed in the troublous times of our War 
for Independence, but comparative quiet reigned in his native 
county, for "there were no Tories in Bute." After receiving a 
good preliminary education, he took up the study of law in Gran- 
ville County under Judge John Williams. About the time he be- 







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WILLIAM HAWKINS 155 

came of age, his uncle, Colonel Benjamin Hawkins, invited him 
to make his home at Fort Hawkins, Georgia, and offered him the 
office of Assistant Indian Agent. This office young Hawkins ac- 
cepted, and left North Carolina for his new home in the month 
of December, 1797. After two years spent at the Agency, Wil- 
liam Hawkins grew tired of the Indian country, and longed for his 
native State. At the suggestion of his uncle, however, he decided 
first to spend several years at Philadelphia, and there renew the 
study of law, besides perfecting himself in French and other 
branches of knowledge. Many of the friends made by Benjamin 
Hawkins while a member of the Continental Congress and Senate 
at Philadelphia were still residents of that city, so his favorite 
nephew did not go as an unknown stranger to Pennsylvania's 
metropolis. 

In 1801 young Hawkins returned to his native State, a finished 
scholar and a man of affairs. About a year after his arrival. Gov- 
ernor Turner made use of his experience in the Indian country 
by entrusting to his management the settlement of some troubles 
with the Tuscaroras. In 1804 William Hawkins was elected to 
represent Warren County in the North Carolina House of Com- 
mons; he was re-elected to the same post in 1805, his colleague 
being his father. Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Jr. At the sessions 
of 1809, 1810 and 181 1 he represented Granville County in the 
North Carolina House of Commons. The House of Commons for 

1810 elected him Speaker; he was also Speaker of the House in 

181 1 (November 9th) ; but during the latter session, on Decem- 
ber 7th, he was elected Governor of North Carolina. Two days 
later, on December 9th, he was duly inaugurated. He was twice 
re-elected — serving three annual terms in all — ^and retired on 
December 7, 1814, when Governor William Miller qualified. 

Nearly the whole of the second war with Great Britain fell 
within the administration of Governor Hawkins. On the 23d of 
June, 1812, an express messenger reached Raleigh, announcing 
the declaration of war. In his message to the General Assembly 
(November 18, 1812), Governor Hawkins said: 



156 NORTH CAROLINA 

"The insolence, the injustice and the complicated aggressions on the 
part of that nation [Great Britain] towards the United States not only 
afforded our Government abundant cause of an appeal to arms long be- 
fore the period when that event took place, but seemed in the most com- 
manding terms to call for the adoption of that alternative in order to 
convince the enemy and the world that we possessed the will and the 
power to maintain and defend that liberty and independence which 
emanated from and were secured to us by the glorious struggles of our 

Revolutionary fathers Let England be taught to know that 

the present race of Americans are not of spurious origin — that they are 
the legitimate offspring of the heroes of our Revolution. She will then 
respect our rights, and the savage warwhoop will cease to terrify the de- 
fenceless inhabitants of our extensive frontiers." 

Later on in this message Governor Hawkins stated that in the 
preceding April the President had directed him to detach from 
the militia of the State seven thousand men (including officers) 
for service when needed. This quota had been raised, said he, 
and consisted nearly altogether of volunteers, while many com- 
panies throughout the State were asking to be sent into the field 
whenever needed. 

On hearing that a landing on our seacoast had been effected 
in July, 1813, Governor Hawkins left Raleigh on the 19th of that 
month, accompanied by his aide-de-camp, Colonel Beverly Daniel, 
and the Wake Dragoons under Major Thomas Henderson, while 
General Calvin Jones preceded him with another detachment of 
troops. After inspecting the defences in the vicinity of New- 
Bern and then going to other points along our coast region. Gov- 
ernor Hawkins returned to Raleigh on August 20th, and later 
sent a report of his observations to the Secretary of War. 

In his message of November 17, 1813, to the General As- 
sembly, Governor Hawkins referred to the efforts for peace, say- 
ing: 

"If we weaken ourselves by cherishing internal divisions; if we exhibit 
ourselves to the enemy as a nation composed of two hostile parties, each 
endeavoring to destroy the other, we shall place that object at a distance 
from us. Great Britain, presuming upon our weakness, thus produced, 
will not only be more obstinate, but will be encouraged to indulge her 
ambition and arrogance. Is there an instance recorded where British 



WILLIAM HAWKINS 157 

rapacity has yielded to the supplications of the weak? We cannot expect 
that nation, whose Government is so hostile to ours, will ever grant us 
peace as a boon. Every American citizen, therefore, who is anxious that 
it should be restored, will deem it his imperative duty to give his support 
to the vigorous prosecution of the war as the only effectual means of 
obtaining it." 

The Adjutant-General of North Carolina (Robert Williams, 
of Surry) on November 24, 1813, reported that the State militia 
numbered 51,298 officers and men. At that time all able-bodied 
citizens were required to attend musters and were considered a 
part of the militia. 

In his message of November 23, 1814, to the last Lep^islature 
which met during his administration, Governor Hawkins con- 
tinues to pour forth his defiance against the enemy and to in- 
voke a spirited resistance to the unjust demands of England. 
After recounting some of the incidents of the war, he says : 

"When we view the effect which these outrages, and the arrogant and 
insulting demands of the British Government as the conditions of peace, 
have produced upon the two great contending parties of our country, we 
find real cause of exultation. The eyes of all are opened. The character 
of the enemy stands exposed. Party prejudices and distinctions are done 
away. The love of country predominates. That determined spirit which 
animated and nerved the arms of our Revolutionary fathers in achieving 
the liberty and independence which we now enjoy, pervades this exten- 
sive Continent. The resolution is now formed to bring into action the 
united energies of the nation to chastise our perfidious and insolent foe, 
and to compel him to abandon his iniquitous pretensions and give us 
peace upon honorable terms." 

Speaking of events in North Carolina, the Governor went on to 
say in this message : 

"Since the adjournment of the last Assembly the enemy in small plun- 
dering parties have made a few hasty incursions on the seacoast, but none 
of a character to render it necessary or even allow time to call out the 
local militia. One company, however, was ordered on duty for a short 
time to relieve a detachment of militia drafts which had garrisoned Fort 
Hampton, and whose term of service was about to expire. This company 
was subsequently recognized as being in the service of the United States 
by Colonel Long, of the United States Army, commanding in this State, 
who received their returns and informed me they would be paid. Several 



158 NORTH CAROLINA 

detachments of the requisition of the General Government have, however, 
been called into service. In the early part of the year a regiment under 
the command of Colonel Jesse A. Pearson marched to the Creek Nation 
to aid in suppressing the hostile part of these Indians. I had the grati- 
fication to learn from the commanding general, and it gives me pleasure 
to communicate to the Legislature, that this regiment — in point of dis- 
cipline, soldier-like demeanor, and promptness in the execution of every 
command that was given them — could not have been surpassed by any 
troops who have been no longer in the service. After their term of ser- 
vice had expired, they were marched to this State, received their pay, and 
were honorably discharged. Another regiment is now in the service of 
this State, a third at Norfolk, Virginia, and a fourth is ordered to ren- 
dezvous on the 28th inst. to reinforce the garrison of -that place." 

As heretofore noted, the third and last administration of Gov- 
ernor Hawkins ended on December 7, 1814. On the 24th of the 
same month a Treaty of Peace was signed at Ghent, and hos- 
tilities ceased when news of this event reached America. 

The erection of the Governor's mansion, which formerly stood 
at the southern end of Fayetteville Street in Raleigh, but which 
has since been demolished, was begun during the administration 
of Governor Hawkins; and his successor, Governor Miller, was 
its first occupant. As late as December, 181 5, the building com- 
mittee reported to the State Senate: "The edifice intended for 
the Governor's dwelling is not yet completed." 

For many years — from 1803 until his death in 18 19 — Hawkins 
was one of the trustees of the University of North Carolina, and 
was eX'OMcio President of the Board during his term as Governor. 

About the year 1805, some years before his election to the office 
of Governor, William Hawkins removed from Warren to Gran- 
ville County, and took up his residence on a plantation on Nut- 
bush Creek, not far from the town of Williamsboro. Previous 
to this time, on the 24th of December, 1803, he had been united 
in marriage with Ann Swepson Boyd. To this union were bom 
seven children. They were : Emily, who married James Nuttall ; 
Matilda, who married Doctor Joseph Nuttall; Lucy, who first 
married Doctor Littleton W. Coleman, and afterwards Honorable 
Henry W. Connor, M.C. ; William, who married Miss Carson; 



WILLIAM HAWKINS 159 

Celestia, who married Junius Amis; Henrietta, who married 
Junius Amis after the death of her sister, who was his first wife; 
Mary Jane, who married Major Benjamin Morrow. 

As heretofore noted, William Hawkins spent some of his early 
years at the Indian Agency in Georgia, as assistant to his uncle. 
Colonel Benjamin Hawkins. A younger brother of William was 
Captain Philemon Hawkins, who served in the Army of the 
United States during the second war with Great Britain, and was 
honorably mustered out on June 15, 1815. At the urgent desire 
of his uncle, this young gentleman went to the Creek Agency at 
Fort Hawkins, but died soon after, March 22, 1817. Colonel 
Benjamin Hawkins himself had died before this, on the 6th of 
June, 1 8 16, leaving a large fortune to his wife and children, with 
the further provision that a child's share should go to his nephew 
William, who was appointed executor. Governor Hawkins gen- 
erously declined this legacy, but qualified as his uncle's executor. 
After this he made visits to Georgia for the purpose of winding 
up the estate; but being attacked with a pulmonary disease, he 
himself did not long survive. His death occurred at Sparta, 
Georgia, on the 17th of May, 1819, while returning from Fort 
Hawkins to North Carolina. 

The career of Governor Hawkins forms an interesting chapter 
in the history of North Carolina, filling as he did the highest office 
in the State at the time of America's second war with Great 
Britain. In the discharge of his duties he united the wisdom of 
a statesman with the firmness, energy and incorruptibility of a 
patriot. Nature endowed him with a pleasing countenance and 
graceful figure, but denied him the robust constitution which 
usually marked the members of his family. He was brave when 
bravery was needed, but the "small sweet courtesies of life" shone 
brightly in his daily intercourse. Of his ancestry he was proud, 
but it was a quiet, wholesome pride, far removed from arrogance, 
and a stimulus to high thoughts, gentle manners and generous 
actions. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood, 




JOHN D. HAWKINS 




POHN DAVIS HAWKINS, a son of Colonel 
Philemon Hawkins, Jr., of the Revolutionary 
War, and his wife, Lucy Davis, was born at 
his father's country seat. Pleasant Hill, in the 
county of Warren, on the 15th of April, 1781. 
After necessary preparation therefor, he en- 
tered the University of North Carolina, and graduated therefrom 
in 1 801. He always felt a deep interest in the welfare of his Alma 
Mater and was a member of its Board of Trustees for more than 
fifty years, from 1807 until his death in 1858. Having determined 
to study law, he became a pupil of Judge John Haywood in Frank- 
lin County. One of his fellow-students during the time occupied 
by his legal course was John Branch, afterwards Governor, United 
States Senator and Secretary of the Navy. 

Mr. Hawkins practised law in Raleigh for a brief period and 
then removed to a plantation owned by him in Franklin County, 
near the corners of Granville and Warren Counties. This place 
is now in the county of Vance. He engaged in planting on an 
extensive scale a single tract owned by him, embracing nearly 
10,000 acres. He was one of the foremost men of his section, 
and for many years was Presiding Justice of the Court of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions. 

Mr. Hawkins was a Democrat in politics, and an adherent of 
Andrew Jackson. Like his brother, William Hawkins (then 





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JOHN D. HAWKINS i6i 

Governor of the State) he was a vigorous supporter of war meas- 
ures during the second conflict with Great Britain. At the ses- 
sions of the General Assembly for the years 1834, 1836, 1838 and 
1840, Mr. Hawkins represented Franklin County with marked 
ability in the State Senate of North Carolina. 

Jn Warren County, as well as in Franklin, Mr. Hawkins owned 
large agricultural interests. On Sandy Creek, in Warren County, 
he owned a large flouring mill where wheat was ground on toll. 
He was also extensively engaged in the cultivation of tobacco, 
shipping this product to Petersburg for market. 

Realizing the benefits which would accrue from internal im- 
provements to citizens of the State in general, and especially to 
those like himself who were compelled to have products shipped 
over rough scanty roads in order to reach a market, Mr. Hawkins 
was an early advocate of railroads in North Carolina. In 1848 
his kinsman, General Micajah Thomas Hawkins (former Member 
of Congress) was a candidate for the ofiice of State Senator from 
Warren County, and was known to be opposed to the policy of 
internal improvements. As the question of chartering the North 
Carolina Railroad Company and giving it State aid was to come 
up at the ensuing session, his kinsman's attitude was a source of 
a good deal of uneasiness to John D. Hawkins, who finally pre- 
vailed on A. B. Hawkins (a son of Doctor Joseph Hawkins and 
not to be confused with Doctor A. B. Hawkins, son of John D. 
Hawkins) to become a candidate on a platform favorable to the 
proposed charter and subscription to stock by the State. In the 
election A. B. Hawkins was successful, and it was well for the rail- 
road company and for the State that such was the case ; for, in the 
Senate, a tie vote resulted, and the casting vote of the Speaker, 
Honorable Calvin Graves, won the fight for the road. Had A. B. 
Hawkins been defeated by M. T. Hawkins in Warren, a majority 
of one vote in the Senate against the charter would have resulted. 
About that time John D. Hawkins, Joseph Hawkins, and George 
W. Mordecai went personal security to the extent of $400,000 
to aid the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad in its building operations. 
Subsequently the State came to the rescue by making an addi- 



i62 NORTH CAROLINA 

tional subscription of $400,000 to its stock, and these public- 
spirited gentlemen were thereby saved from loss. After this 
$400,000 had been subscribed, the State owned one-half the road, 
and private stockholders the other half. 

At a Hawkins family re-union at Pleasant Hill, the country 
home of his father, Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Jr., in Warren 
County, in 1829, John D. Hawkins delivered an address on the 
life and career of his grandfather. Colonel Philemon Hawkins, 
Sr. This pamphlet was one of the earliest works of its kind in 
America, and in 1906 was reprinted by Doctor A. B. Hawkins, of 
Raleigh, one of the sons of John D. Hawkins, its author. 

The death of John D. Hawkins occurred on December 5, 1838. 
He was buried in Franklin County, but later his remains were re- 
moved to Oakwood Cemetery, near Raleigh, where they now re- 
pose. The wife of Mr. Hawkins (who is buried by his side) was 
Jane A. Boyd, a daughter of Alexander Boyd, of Boydton, in 
Mecklenburg County, Virginia. This lady was born December 25, 
1784, and died November 30, 1875. 

The sons of John D. Hawkins were James Boyd Hawkins, of 
Matagorda County, Texas, who was a sugar-planter, and left 
descendants, among whom is James B. Brodie, of Henderson, 
North Carolina; Frank Hawkins (mentioned below). Doctor 
William J. Hawkins, of Raleigh, of whom there is a separate 
sketch; John Davis Hawkins, of New Orleans, who married 
Miss Ann Clark and was a large commission merchant in New 
Orleans; he left two sons, Weldon Edwards Hawkins, who was 
a planter at Swann Lake in Mississippi, and Edward Hawkins, 
a lawyer, residing at Seattle. Philemon Benjamin Hawkins 
(another son of John D.) married his cousin, Fanny Hawkins, 
and had a daughter Bettie, who became the wife of Mr. Walter 
Boyd, of Warrenton ; this P. B. Hawkins was State Senator from 
Franklin County. Doctor Alexander Boyd Hawkins was the 
youngest son of John D. Hawkins, and his biography will appear 
elsewhere in this work. Besides these sons John D. Hawkins 
left the following daughters : Ann Hawkins, who married Colonel 
Wesley Young ; Lucy, who married Thomas Kean, of New-Bern ; 



JOHN D. HAWKINS 163 

Mary, who married Protheus E. A. Jones; Virginia, who mar- 
ried William J. Andrews, one of their sons being Colonel A. B. 
Andrews, Vice-President of the Southern Railroad ; and Jane A. 
Hawkins, who died unmarried. 

The members of this family have been particularly noteworthy 
for their culture and high social station in life. While inheriting 
the fine qualities of their father, the influence of their mother 
on them was most decided and of great advantage. She was a 
lady of surpassing excellence, and inspired her children with 
unusual devotion, with the happiest results in elevating their 
characters and fostering a refinement that distinguished them in 
after life. 

Frank Hawkins married Ann Read, of Halifax, North 
Carolina, and located at Winona, Montgomery County, Miss- 
issippi. They had a son, John, who early died in Winona, 
Mississippi. He married Miss Sallie Falkner, of Warrenton, and 
left Frank Read and Ann Read Hawkins. A second son, Rhesa, 
while yet a boy, volunteered in the Confederate Army and served 
with patriotic devotion. He married Miss Herring and resided at 
Vaiden, Mississippi ; Frank, a third son, who also married a Miss 
Herring, and on her death married Miss Alberta Coleman, of 
Macon, Georgia, is now the President of the Third National Bank 
of Atlanta. 

Besides these sons, the elder Frank Hawkins left a daughter, 
Jane Boyd, who married Mr. James C. Pumell, of Winona, 
Mississippi. He also is a planter and banker. Indeed the suc- 
cess of Rhesa Hawkins, Mr. Frank Hawkins and Mr. Pumell 
in life has been most noteworthy. They are all bankers and have 
been very prosperous, and are men of culture and influence 
both in church and State matters. Rhesa Hawkins and Mr. Pur- 
nell are esteemed among the foremost laymen in the diocese of 
Mississippi. They enjoy the highest reputation for their zeal 
as churchmen and their practical Christianity. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 




ALEXANDER BOYD HAWKINS 




^MONG the sons of John Davis Hawkins and 
Jane A. Boyd was Doctor A. B. Hawkins, who 
was born at his father's residence in Franklin 
County on January 25, 1825. There he passed 
his youth in the midst of a circle of cultured 
kinspeople and friends and surrounded by all the 
happy circurnstances that affluence and prosperity bring to a coun- 
try home. He was taught by a private tutor and then for a year 
studied under the famous teacher, John B. Bobbitt, at Louisburg. 
When sixteen years of age he was sufficiently advanced to enter 
the University, and he took his degree of A.B. at that institution 
in 1845. 

His purpose was to pursue a professional career, and so on 
graduating he entered on the study of medicine at the Jefferson 
Medical School in Philadelphia, whose faculty at that time were 
men whose names are still honored for their distinguished ability 
and professional learning. After graduating at that institution, 
Doctor Hawkins remained in Philadelphia attending the hospitals, 
and profited much by this experience. In 1847 ^^ returned home, 
and began the practice of his profession in Warren County. 

It so happened that Doctor John Malone, who had a good prac- 
tice in the vicinity of Shocco Springs, desired to remove to an- 
other State, and Doctor Hawkins was fortunately able to purchase 
his business, and thus from the first had a practice that closely 







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ALEXANDER BOYD HAWKINS 165 

engaged him and was amply remunerative. For seven years he 
remained the physician of that community, enjoying the esteem 
of a large clientage and realizing a handsome remtmeration for 
his services and constantly growing in reputation and usefulness. 

In April, 1858, he married Miss Martha L. Bailey, a daughter 
of General William Bailey, of Jefferson County, Florida, who 
was one of Florida's most successful and distinguished citizens; 
and he abandoned his practice and removed to Florida, where he 
engaged in the business of planting. He made his home in Leon 
County, and soon entered on as successful a career as a planter 
as had distinguished him as a physician. His planting operations 
yielded him an ample income and he devoted himself assiduously 
to the improvement of his estate. It was not long before his suc- 
cessful management was so pronounced that his reputation became 
extended as a sagacious planter, and he attained a high standing 
in his new home. 

One who knew him well at that time says : 

"He resided for some years on his plantation in Leon County, where 
he and his most estimable wife dispensed a generous hospitality, known 
only to the plantation life of antebellum days. Doctor Hawkins was not 
only a genial gentleman, but one of the fine business men of the South. 
His success as a large planter was soon demonstrated, and he at once 
took a stand as one of the successful young men of the county." 

The management of a large plantation indeed called for the 
exercise of a high order of ability, and gave a mental training 
that developed the business capacity of Southern gentlemen. 
Prudence, carefulness, patience, a thoughtful consideration of the 
elements involved in the problems of plantation culture, were all 
requisite to achieve success and to bring good results. And so 
plantation life, while full of enjoyments and admitting of the finest 
hospitality, yet developed administrative abilities, fostered busi- 
ness habits and business sagacity. Thus it has been that Southern 
planters have from time immemorial been well versed in affairs 
and of superior excellence in those characteristics that lead to 
success. 

After the war Doctor Hawkins removed to Tallahassee, where 



i66 NORTH CAROLINA 

he resided in the palatial brick building on Park Avenue, now 
known as "The Columns." There the hospitality which he had 
dispensed on his plantation broadened out, and "few public men 
of note who visited the capital cannot but recall with pleasure the 
cordial greetings of Doctor and Mrs. Hawkins at their elegant 
home." "He displayed remarkable ability in everything he under- 
took. Indeed he was soon recognized throughout the State as one 
of Florida's most reliable and successful business men. His use- 
fulness as a citizen was demonstrated in many and various chan- 
nels, and everything he touched felt the quickening influences of a 
well-trained business intellect." 

Honorable P. W. White, a gentleman of large experience and 
now of great age, in a letter speaks in the most approving terms 
of the part Doctor Hawkins took "in the most trying times of our 
history." He says, in speaking of his eventful career while a citi- 
zen of Florida : 

"Doctor Hawkins's political affiliations were with the Democratic Party, 
of which he was a conservative member, and he always stood firmly for 
the old States Rights doctrines and principles of the party. I do not 
think he ever sought or accepted a political office; but as a private citizen 
he always showed his interest for the public good by taking an active part 
in all of the proceedings and conventions of his party. In this manner he 
exerted a strong influence in the selection of men best qualified for public 
office." 

He was frequently a delegate to the State Democratic Conven- 
tion, and his influence was always felt in poUtical action. 

His standing as a man of high character throughout the State 
and his recognized sound judgment as a financier gave him great 
influence in public affairs — of which indeed the State still feels the 
beneficial effect. Judge White continues: 

"Doctor Hawkins's business habits were ever characterized by prudence 
and careful thought, and in whatever business he engaged he always acted 
on business principles. In the destructive days of Reconstruction he 
saved not only his own but many other estates from wreck. He excelled 
all the men of my acquaintance in the wise and successful administration of 
all estates and trusts committed to his management." 



ALEXANDER BOYD HAWKINS 167 

It had happened indeed that Doctor Hawkins had become 
guardian to many orphans, and was trustee of many large landed 
estates, and he managed them so well that in many cases he added 
to their value and, in addition to the income, when the trust was 
over surrendered the property more valuable than when he re- 
ceived it 

When he removed to Florida he retained his fine plantation 
in Franklin County and owned a large flouring mill on Sandy 
Creek in Warren County, and all during the war he continued this 
mill in successful operation, and for several years afterward, 
when he sold it. His reputation as a business man was unsur- 
passed in Florida. For more than five years he held the position 
of receiver of the Florida Central and Peninsula Railroad, under 
appointment of the United States District Court. This road was 
at that period one of the most important in the State, and as re- 
ceiver Doctor Hawkins had the management not only of its finan- 
cial affairs, but had practical charge of all the details of its opera- 
tion. His administration gave entire satisfaction to all interested 
in its proper management, and he displayed not only unusual 
financial ability but administrative capacity of a high order. His 
accounts were large, varied and difficult but were kept with such 
fidelity, carefulness and skill that when audited they excited the 
admiration of the auditors and received the praise of the Court. 

In 1884 Doctor Hawkins began the culture of sweet oranges 
and grape-fruit, and he was very successful in this enterprise, that 
business having since become so important to the State of Florida. 
However, in 1895 that region was visited by a severe frost, which 
killed his trees, and he then largely abandoned it. In 1884 he 
began to make his Summer home in Raleigh, and built his hand- 
some residence on Blount Street, where he has since permanently 
resided. 

Judge White, speaking of his life in Florida, says: 

"In social life he was frank and cordial and had the happy faculty of 
winning friends wherever he went. His hospitality was dispensed in a 
free and easy manner, and his guests ever felt honored by the kind and 
gracious reception accorded them by his charming family. It was in his 



i68 NORTH CAROLINA 

home life where his character shone in its true and brightest light. He 
has been more missed, and his loss more felt, than any other citizen who 
has left our State." 

Judge White then speaks of the many useful days Doctor Haw- 
kins spent "among the people of Florida, whom he loved, and 
who still love and honor him for the good he has done." 

Locating permanently in 1894 in Raleigh, Doctor Hawkins 
at once became an influential factor in the affairs of the city, and 
for some ten or twelve years has been a director in the Citizens' 
Bank, which is one of the greatest financial institutions in North 
Carolina. He has large and varied interests and is justly esteemed 
not merely for his financial abilities, but for his fine social quali- 
ties and admirable characteristics. 

S. A. Ashe. 








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WILLIAM J. HAWKINS 

'HE third son of Colonel John Davis Hawkins 
was Doctor William J. Hawkins, who for many 
years was President of the Raleigh and Gaston 
Railroad Company, and was a well-known 
business man of Raleigh. While all the sons 
of Colonel Hawkins were men of fine intellect- 
uality and filled a large place in business affairs in their respective 
communities, none of the brothers surpassed Doctor William 
Hawkins in capacity and in administrative ability. To them all 
great success came in life, but Doctor Hawkins's career was par- 
ticularly remarkable, and indeed it has been vouchsafed to but 
few North Carolinians to equal him in business affairs and master- 
ful management. 

Doctor Hawkins was born at his father's residence in Franklin 
County, North Carolina, on the 27th day of May, 1819. His 
father being in affluent circumstances, and his family one that 
cherished culture and rightfully appreciated the advantages of 
mental training, at an early age the subject of this sketch was 
placed under the guidance of private tutors, and when ready for 
college, he entered the University of North Carolina in 1837. He 
remained at the University two years, and then it was thought ex- 
pedient for him to go to William and Mary College in Virginia. 
He was so well advanced in his studies that after a single year's 
course at William and Mary he graduated at that institution with 
distinction. It was proposed that he should seek a professional 



170 NORTH CAROLINA 

career, and although gifted with a mind Ihat eminently fitted him 
for the bar, he chose the study of medicine, and in 1842 he grad- 
uated in the medical department of the Universitj^ of Pennsyl- 
vania. Indeed his gentle manner, his habit of thought, his astute 
apprehension and his unusual powers of observation well quali- 
fied him for the duties of the bedside. He located at Ridgeway, not 
far distant from his childhood's home, and being admirably 
equipped, entered on the successful practice of his profession. 
His skill and talents and accomplishments soon found apprecia- 
tion and he won his way steadily in the confidence of the com- 
munity. But he was destined to a career in a larger and more 
useful field. 

His father, Colonel Hawkins, and other members of the family^ 
animated by a progressive spirit and an intelligent apprehension 
of the needs and requirements of the section in which they livedo 
had for many years been warm promoters of internal improve- 
ments. They were largely interested particularly in the construc- 
tion of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, and had given important 
financial aid in the completion and operation of that road. 
Doctor Hawkins had been one of the directors of the company and 
represented a considerable private interest. His fine sense, his 
unerring judgment and unusual capacity gave him a prominence 
in the affairs of the company that in 1855 led to his election as 
its president. He was now in a field well suited for the develop- 
ment of his particular talents. There were three great railroads 
in North Carolina at that time : the Wilmington and Weldon, the 
North Carolina, and the Raleigh and Gaston. The president of each 
stood high in railroad circles, but Doctor Hawkins enjoyed a rep- 
utation for management equal to the best. Under his direction 
the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company entered on a new career 
of prosperity. 

The benefit that accrued to the State from his placing the 
Raleigh and Gaston Railroad in a condition of high efficiency was 
incalculable. When the war came on he was ardently attached 
to the Confederate cause and he threw his whole soul into render- 
ing efficient service to his State and country. His line was a most 



WILLIAM J. HAWKINS 171 

important link in transportation, for there was no road then from 
Greensboro to Danville ; and all the troops from the South, stores 
and supplies had to pass through Weldon. In those days of emer- 
gency he strained every nerve to maintain his line in a good run- 
ning order. The difficulties that beset the railroads of the Con- 
federacy during that period were beyond conception. The de- 
mands for transportation were largely increased and in many in- 
stances pressing necessity compelled the greatest haste. There 
were no facilities to renew either rolling stock or the railroad iron 
or any of the appliances requisite to maintain the engines, cars or 
road bed in repair. The problems that came up daily taxed the 
energies of the railroad managers to their utmost, and as the work 
of the transportation lines was most important, so the services 
rendered to the cause of the Confederacy by Doctor Hawkins and 
the other presidents of the railroad companies were not less use- 
ful than those of successful generals on the field of battle. To- 
ward the end of the struggle the various roads were indeed worn 
out, and it was with difficulty that trains could be run at all. 
Military necessity had pushed the construction of the Chatham 
road to the coal fields in Deep River, and after peace was declared 
that road fell into possession of the Raleigh and Gaston, that 
sought to complete it under the name of the Raleigh and Augusta 
Air Line. 

Doctor Hawkins had comprehensive ideas of railroad manage- 
ment. He sought to bring about a close business connection be- 
tween his roads and the North Carolina Railroad, and had the 
design to lease the North Carolina Railroad, which should in 
its turn lease a line from Charlotte to Atlanta. His great ideas 
were somewhat in advance of his time, but his policy has since 
been adopted and carried into effect by others. While he did not 
secure for the Raleigh and Gaston the control of the North Caro- 
lina, his Seaboard system has been pressed to the South and has 
become one of the three great systems of the South Atlantic 
States; and it should not be forgotten that he was the original 
projector of this closer connection of the several lines that have 
since his day been consolidated. Indeed it may be said that he was 



172 NORTH CAROLINA 

one of the wisest, most progressive and far-seeing of the railroad 
men of the South ; and it was only because of the limited financial 
facilities of his time, when the South was still in an impoverished 
condition, before the era of its great prosperity, that he did not 
carry into effect the large projects which he realized would be so 
much to the advantage of his lines and of the people. 

He remained president of his company until October, 1875, 
when because of ill-health, for he was a great sufferer from 
rheumatism, he retired, and, abandoning his railroad business, 
devoted himself to his private affairs. 

IXKtor Hawkins was a large stockholder and a director in the 
Raleigh National Bank, which was the first bank organized under 
the Ignited States Banking Law in this State; and in 1870 he 
founded the Citizens* National Bank of Raleigh. He selected 
as the president of that institution Colonel William E. Anderson, 
who was a well-trained bank officer, and had been connected with 
the Raleigh National Bank ; and on Colonel Anderson's death in 
i8i)0 he himself took the position of president. From the first 
the bank was a success* and his management was most advan- 
tagtxnis. No one enjoyed a higher reputation for skill and finan- 
cial ability than he did, and his achievement in connection with 
the Citixens* National Bank was indeed remarkable. Since his 
death the institution has o^ntinued to flourish, and under the direc- 
tion of Joseph G, Brown has attained a standing not surpassed 
by any other financial institution in the South, But it must be re- 
n>ember^i that its unvarNing success is only the fruition of his 
w\>rk. He laid tlK foimdations and set the course that has since 
been pursueil. 

As a busint^ss man, IXvtor Hawkins was unsurpassed. ''Al- 
ways cvx>l and seh-ix^isevi. cautious and clear-headed, deliberate 
in c\Hins<^, but fim\ when a cvMKlusion had been reached, gifted 
with quick percej^tions and pots^^essing a ren"*arkaWy sound judg- 
ment, he cvvtibitK\l thv>se elen^nts that hjive entered into the char- 
acter v^f the distii>^\iishevl n^rti^.bers of hts family in past genera- 
tk^\s arvl which wvuM haN-e asstired htn^ consptcoous success in 
an> v!vi\ir::txnt of activity that he nticht ha^-e chc^seiL** His 



WILLIAM J. HAWKINS 173 

tastes, however, led him to a business career and not into public 
life. He did not care to take part in the scramble for office, and 
though always warmly interested in political contests, he never 
held any official station in Government. Nevertheless, he had 
a strong influence, and this he exerted in public affairs always for 
the advantage of the public interests. When he had leisure frc»n 
the pressing calls of his business, in 1881 he became a trustee of 
the University and continued as such until his death ; and he at- 
tended with much interest to the affairs of that institution, warmly 
promoting all plans for its improvement. 

Doctor Hawkins was united in marriage to Miss Mary Alethea 
Qark, a daughter of David Clark, Esq., of Halifax County, on 
January 4, 1844. By her he had two sons : Colin M. Hawkins, 
an esteemed citizen of Raleigh, and Marmaduke J. Hawkins, of 
Ridgeway. Mrs. Hawkins died in September, 1850, and on De- 
cember 27, 1855, Doctor Hawkins married Miss Lucy N. Qark, 
by whom he had two daughters — Loula, who became the wife 
of William T. McGee, of Raleigh ; and Alethea, who married J. M. 
Lamar, of Monticello, Florida. On October 9, 1867, Mrs. Lucy 
Hawkins died; and on the 12th of May, 1869, Doctor Hawkins 
married Miss Mary A. White, a daughter of Andrew B. White, 
of Pottsville, Pennsylvania. By this marriage Doctor Hawkins 
had one daughter, Miss Lucy C. Hawkins, who became the wife of 
Mr. Sherwood Higgs, of Raleigh. 

Toward the end of his life Doctor Hawkins was a great 
sufferer from his old enemy, rheumatism, but his mind re- 
mained ever clear and strong, and his judgment was unclouded 
and he continued to transact business with a sagacity that marked 
him as one of the foremost men of North Carolina. On October 
28, 1894, while on a visit to Philadelphia, he passed away, mourned 
by all who knew him. 

5". A. Ashe. 




ANDREW JACKSON 




(HE most notable and most famous man ever 
born in North Carolina was Andrew Jackson. 
He was of Scotch-Irish descent. His grand- 
father, Hugh Jackson, was a linen draper, in the 
old town of Carrickfergus, near Belfast, Ire- 
land. A son of Hugh Jackson, Andrew married 
in Ireland Elizabeth Hutchinson, and had by her, born in Ireland, 
two sons, Hugh and Robert. He was a farmer and a poor man, 
and his wife's family were also poor, her sisters being linen 
weavers. In 1765, Andrew Jackson, his brother-in-law, James 
Crawford, and his wife's brother-in-law, George McKemey, and 
other relatives moved with their families to America. Arriving 
at Charleston they located in the Waxhaw settlement, where many 
of their Scotch-Irish friends had preceded them. George Mc- 
Kemey bought land on Waxhaw Creek, some six miles from the 
Catawba River and about a quarter of a mile north of the bound- 
ary line between North and South Carolina. Andrew Jackson set- 
tled on Twelve Mile Creek (a few miles from the site of the town 
of Monroe, the county seat of Union County), then in Anson 
County, North Carolina. He was too poor to obtain title to his 
land ; and having built a log house and cleared some fields, in the 
Spring of 1767 he sickened and died. His remains were borne 
to the old Waxhaw Churchyard and there interred. His widow 
did not return home from the interment, but went to the house of 



ANDREW JACKSON 175 

her sister, Mrs. McKemey, near-by, and there a few days later, on 
the 15th of March, 1767, Andrew Jackson was bom. Governor 
Swain says that in a journey in June, 1849, ^^ ^^ok some pains 
to ascertain the precise locality which gave birth to General Jack- 
son and to James K. Polk, who were bom in the same county, 
Mecklenburg. The spot where Jackson was born could be identi- 
fied. It was about twenty-eight miles south of Charlotte, and the 
birthplace of President Polk was eleven miles south of Charlotte. 
Mrs. Jackson remained with Mrs. McKemey some weeks, and then 
moved to the house of another sister, Mrs. Crawford, some two 
miles distant, but in South Carolina; and there she remained as 
one of that family until her death in 1781. Her son Andrew, al- 
though born in North Carolina, passed his younger years just 
across the line. He attended the old field schools and did such 
work as a country boy would do, until at length, in 1780, war 
came close to their doors. His brother Hugh was in the battle of 
Stono and died there. Andrew, then thirteen years of age, and 
his brother Robert were with the patriots in the attack on Hang- 
ing Rock, but were not regularly attached to any command. After 
the battle of Camden, Mrs. Jackson, seeking a more secure lo- 
cality, left the Waxhaw settlement, and took her two boys to a 
relative's house some miles north of Charlotte; but she retumed 
to Waxhaw in February, 1781, Cornwallis having then retired. 
At that time Andrew Jackson was tall and had outgrown his 
strength, but he had the spirit of a man. In the partizan warfare 
which ensued when Lord Rawdon approached Waxhaw, both 
Robert and Andrew Jackson participated. They were taken 
prisoners in a raid made by Tories and British dragoons, were 
bmtally wounded, and were confined at Camden. Mrs. Jackson, 
however, was able to secure their exchange after they had suffered 
much from their confinement and from their wounds ; and in the 
meantime they had besides contracted the smallpox. With great 
difficulty she managed to get them home. Two days later Robert 
died ; and it was only after several months that Andrew recovered. 
In the Summer of 1781, says Parton, in his admirable Life 
of Andrew Jackson, *'a great cry of anguish and despair came up 



176 NORTH CAROLINA 

to Waxhaw from the Charleston prison ships, wherein, among 
many hundreds of other prisoners, were confined some of the sons 
of Mrs. Jackson's sisters, and other friends and neighbors of hers 
from the Waxhaw country. Andrew was no sooner quite out of 
danger than his brave mother resolved to go to Charleston and do 
what she could for the comfort of the prisoners there. While 
stopping at the house of a relative, William Barton by name, who 
lived two miles and a half from Charleston, Mrs. Jackson was 
seized with ship fever, and after a short illness died. And so 
Andrew, before reaching his fifteenth birthday, was an orphan, 
a sick and sorrowful orphan, bereft of parents and without 
brother or sister, homeless and dependent. It has been said 
that he taught school for a year or two ; and then after one year 
of hesitancy, during which he gave rein to his horse-racing in- 
clinations, he concluded to study law. At the age of eighteen, he 
began the study of the law with Spruce Macay at Salisbury. He 
seems, however, to have devoted more thought to amusement and 
pleasure than to his books. After studying a year or so with 
Judge Macay, he finished his course under Colonel John Stokes, 
in Surry, and then passed a year at Martinsburg, the old county 
seat of Guilford County. 

At the November Term, 1787, of the Court of Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions of Surry County, the following minute was made: 

"William Cupples and Andrew Jackson, Esquires, each produced a license 
from the Honorable Samuel Ashe and John Williams, Esquires, two of 
the judges of the Superior Court of Law and Equity, authorizing and em- 
powering them to practice as attorneys in the several Courts of Pleas and 
Quarter Sessions within this State, with testimonials of their having here- 
tofore taken the necessary oaths, and are admitted to practice in this 
court." 

In the Spring of 1788, having his license to practice law, An- 
drew Jackson was appointed prosecuting officer of the Superior 
Court, then just established in the Nashville district of Tennessee, 
which Judge John McNairy was appointed to hold. Shortly after- 
ward the judge, Jackson, and some other young lawyers met at 
Morganton and began their horseback ride to Tennessee. It was 



ANDREW JACKSON 177 

a perilous journey, particularly between Campbell Station and 
Nashville ; and in that part of the route they were attended by a 
guard, and about sixty families were of the party. 

Arriving at Nashville, Jackson at once entered on the practice, 
which from the beginning was lucrative. His position as prose- 
cuting officer was one of importance and brought him speedy 
reputation and influence, and for years he was employed in the 
greater part of the civil litigation in his courts. 

The experiences of the war had made their impress on his char- 
acter and disposition, which was fiery, brave and determined ; and 
now in the wilderness of Tennessee he was brought into close con- 
tact with unfriendly Indians. Between 1780 and 1794, within seven 
miles of Nashville, the Indians killed one person in about every ten 
days. In Jackson's travels he was constantly in peril from the 
murderous red man. And so the circumstances of his life de- 
veloped in him courage, coolness and intrepidity, and his natural 
combative characteristics were fostered and became so fixed that 
they dominated his course throughout his entire career. Whether 
engaged in the court-house or in military operations, or in the ad- 
ministration of civil affairs in the high positions to which he at- 
tained, he would brook no opposition and was a fighter of the 
most determined character. An incident is recorded that will il- 
lustrate his promptness to right a wrong. In the trial of a cause in' 
a court in Tennessee, he conceived that Honorable Waightstill 
Avery had insulted him, and tearing the flyleaf from a law book, 
he wrote him in a minute a challenge and handed it to him. The 
duel came off on the adjournment of court, but fortunately neither 
was wounded. 

His education was not a finished one ; he did not have the ad- 
vantage of collegiate training, and while he never overcame his 
deficiencies in the use of words, and never perfected himself in 
spelling or pronunciation according to the most correct standards, 
yet his ideas were clear, and he could express them with a vigor 
and force that begot a natural eloquence. 

In 1791 Andrew Jackson married a Mrs. Robards, a daughter 
of a Mrs. Donelson, with whom he fotmd board on first reaching 



178 NORTH CAROLINA 

Nashville ; and although they had no children, they were devotedly 
attached to each other throughout life. She, however, died just 
before his inauguration as President in 1829. 

In 1796 the Territory of Tennessee formed a State Constitution. 
Jackson was elected a delegate from Davidson County to the 
Constitutional Convention, and was a member of the special com- 
mittee that framed the Constitution. By that time he had attained 
a high position in Tennessee, and doubtless he impressed himself 
strongly on the Constitution, which was a very admirable funda- 
mental law of a new State. Tennessee being admitted to the 
Union, Jackson was in the same year elected the only representa- 
tive in Congress the State was entitled to, and took his seat in 
that body. His political views were strongly Republican, and he 
voted with Macon and others who thought like Jefferson. A va- 
cancy occurring in the Senate the next year, Jackson was elected 
by the Tennessee Legislature to that body, but after one session 
as Senator, he resigned and returned home. It was in 1796, while 
Jackson was on his way to Philadelphia, that he accidentally ob- 
tained information that the land frauds, in which Glasgow and 
his associates were engaged, were being perpetrated, and his 
honest nature at once led him to bring the matter to the attention 
of Governor Ashe of North Carolina. The explosion of which 
he was thus the innocent cause was attended with great consterna- 
tion among those holding fraudulent titles in Tennessee, and 
Jackson became an object of their malevolence. But soon after 
he retired from the Senate the Legislature elected him a Judge of 
the Supreme Court of Tennessee, a court that tried causes in the 
different counties ; and he served on the bench for six years. 

At the age of thirtj'-seven Jackson had served some eight years 
as Solicitor, t^^'0 years as Representative and Senator in Congress, 
and six years on the highest court of his State. Retiring from the 
bench in 1804, he devoted himself more particularly to planting, 
his home being then near the subsequently famous Hermitage, in 
the vicinity of Nashville. He also engaged in mercantile business, 
which, however, was chiefly conducted by his partner. General 
Coffee. 



ANDREW JACKSON 179 

He had always kept in touch with military affairs, and was gen- 
eral of the Tennessee militia. His influential position led Aaron 
Burr, when contemplating his movement at the Southwest, to visit 
Jackson and seek to enlist his aid in the enterprise. To some ex- 
tent Jackson helped him, but on learning that there was a pos- 
sibility of a treasonable intent, he warned Governor Claiborne at 
New Orleans. However, he became reassured that Burr had not 
contemplated treason, and on being summoned as a witness against 
Burr at the trial at Richmond, he was loud in Burr's defence, and 
he then broke with President Jefferson, but continued to be a Re- 
publican in his political views. It is not proposed here to develop 
those events in his career which belong to general history and 
have but little bearing on North Carolina matters ; suffice it to say 
that Jackson allowed no man to excel him in devotion to the Union, 
in lofty patriotism, in personal honor, and high ideals, while his 
military career was fortunate and glorious, and he became the 
hero of his day because of his victory at New Orleans and un- 
varying success on every field of battle. 

Whatever had been Andrew Jackson's early deficiencies of edu- 
cation, they had almost entirely disappeared, and he took rank 
among the first men of America. He was not only a popular hero, 
but was recognized as a clear-headed statesman. 

After the War of 1812 the Federalist Party ceased to exist as 
an organization, although a large element remained faithful to their 
principles. But the great leaders being all Republicans, it was a 
period of fierce factional warfare, fostered by the personal ambi- 
tions of men. 

In 1822 and 1823 Major William B. Lewis, of Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, undertook to bring General Jackson out as a candidate for 
the Presidency to succeed Monroe. It so happened that in 1816 
General Jackson had written a letter to President Monroe, sug- 
gesting that he should disregard old party differences in making 
appointments, and Major Lewis possessed a copy of that letter. 
Colonel William Polk, of Raleigh, a strong Federalist, being on 
a visit to Major Lewis, was shown a copy of that letter, and admir- 
ing its sentiments, warmly espoused Jackson's candidacy. United 



i8o NORTH CAROLINA 

States Senator Montfort Stokes, of North Carolina, was the 
father-in-law of Major Lewis, and an ardent Republican. He, too, 
agreed to support Jackson, should Calhoun not be in the field. 
The joinder of the old Federalists under Polk with the influence 
of Stokes and other friends in North Carolina assured that State 
to Jackson. Notwithstanding Macon supported Crawford, who 
was the caucus nominee, and notwithstanding the efforts made in 
behalf of Clay and of Adams, North Carolina gave Jackson 
5000 majority. Elsewhere similar influences prevailed, the Fed- 
eralists giving Jackson a cordial support. 

But althougli at the election Jackson received a much greater 
popular vote than any other candidate and a considerable plurality 
in the Electoral College, the choice of the President was thrown 
into the House of Representatives, and Henry Qay giving his in- 
fluence to Adams, a minority candidate, succeeded in electing him. 
Jackson never forgave Qay for this action, which he regarded as 
a great wrong. He and his friends crucified Clay for having de- 
feated him in opposition to the will of the people. 

At the next election, in 1828, Jackson was elected by an over- 
whelming vote, and John C. Calhoun was chosen Vice-President 
on the same ticket. On forming his Cabinet, President Jackson 
appointed Senator John Branch, of North Carolina, Secretary of 
the Navy. In 1830, however. General Jackson broke with Cal- 
houn because of some developments made of matters occurring 
when Jackson invaded Florida; and in the Spring of 1831 Cal- 
houn made a publication that led to implacable hostility between 
them. Governor Branch and two other members of the Cabinet 
were friends of Calhoun, and Jackson, proposing to form a new 
Cabinet, asked all of the Cabinet to resign, and they did so, Branch 
retiring on April 19,* 1831. Prior to that time the North Caro- 
lina public men had generally been warm supporters of the ad- 
ministration. Now divisions began to manifest themselves. The 
same result followed elsewhere. Qay's followers had been called 
National Republicans to distinguish them from the administration 
Republicans. Calhoun preferred the name of Democrat. In 1832, 
the year following his breach with the President, Calhoun influ- 



ANDREW JACKSON i8i 

enced South Carolina to adopt an Ordinance to nullify the Tariff 
Act of 1828, and to threaten to secede from the Union. Jack- 
son, on the other hand, announced a resolute determination to pre- 
serve the Union and enforce the laws of the United States, and 
a great breach was made between the administration and the State's 
Rights men of the South. In addition to these matters of contro- 
versy, the President's opposition to granting a new charter to the 
bank of the United States, his removal of the Government de- 
posits, and his fierce war on the bank, and on all those who sus- 
tained that institution, drove off friends from him ; and beginning 
with 1 83 1 these various questions engendered bitter feuds from 
which the public men of North Carolina were not exempt. 

Jackson's course had been so arbitrary, partaking of the nature 
of the prerogative of kings that Clay classed his followers as the 
Tories of England, and likened the opponents of the administration 
to the "Whigs," and this gave the name to the party that rallied 
around that leader. 

When the Senate met in December, 1833, a majority of the 
Senators were in the opposition, and on March 28, 1834, the Senate 
passed a Resolution of Censure, proposed by Mr. Qay, by a vote 
of 26 to 20. Among those who voted for this Resolution was 
Senator Mangum, who in 1831 had succeeded Senator James 
Iredell. The Legislature of North Carolina had, however, re- 
mained faithful to Jackson, whose principles and policies com- 
mended him to the masses of the people. Indeed in 183 1, when 
Jonathan Worth and a few other members of the Assembly re- 
fused to vote for a resolution sustaining Jackson, they were de- 
nounced "almost as traitors." Senator Mangum's vote on Clay's 
Resolution led to resolutions of instructions which resulted in his 
resignation ; and in 1836 Robert Strange succeeded him. In that 
year North Carolina gave her electoral votes to Van Buren, who 
was Jackson's choice for his successor, although in the same year 
Edward B. Dudley, who was not a friend to the administration, 
was elected governor of the State. 

On March 16, 1837, Benton's Resolution to expunge from the 
records of the Senate the Resolution of Censure was adopted by 



i82 NORTH CAROLINA 

a vote of 25 to 19, Senators Strange and Brown, of North Caro- 
lina, voting for it. The Assembly of 1838 was, however, in op- 
position to the administration and adopted in its turn resolutions 
of instructions that resulted in the resignation of the two Demo- 
cratic senators. Strange and Brown; and Mangum and Graham 
were elected in their stead. 

Indeed that decade, covering Jackson's public life, was one of 
the most stirring eras in the history of our people. It was marked 
by the beginning of internal improvements, by the erection of a 
new Capitol building, by the Constitutional Convention of 1835, 
the culmination of the intense bitter feeling between the East and 
the West, by the rise of gjeat sectional animosity between the 
North and the South on the slavery question and on the Tariff 
question. There was likewise great bitterness developed among 
the public men, because of Jackson's measures, and some of the 
States Rights men affiliating with the Whigs, eventually, in 1840, 
the opposition to the Van Buren administration became so strong 
in North Carolina that the electoral votes of the States were given 
to Harrison, who, badly defeated in 1836, now was overwhelmingly 
triumphant. To the end, however, the Democratic followers of 
Jackson were ardent in sustaining him, and were fiercely opposed 
to Clay and those North Carolina statesmen who followed the 
fortunes of that gallant leader. It thus came about that this son 
of Carolina, Jackson, who in his early manhood had left the State, 
exerted in his subsequent career a powerful influence on her af- 
fairs. Because of him and his measures her public men became 
widely estranged and her people divided. In this way he entered 
as a powerful factor into the life of the State. 

At the expiration of his second term as President, in 1837, Gen- 
eral Jackson retired to his residence, the Hermitage, which many, 
years before he had erected in the vicinity of Nashville, and he was 
known among his friends as "The Sage of the Hermitage." His 
remaining years, after one of the stormiest lives that ever marked 
the career of any American statesman, were passed in a quiet dig- 
nity, befitting so illustrious a character. He died June 8, 1845. 

S. A, Ashe, 





JOHN JENKINS 

tHEN Governor Carteret left Albemarle in the 
Spring of 1673 and went to England, he trans- 
ferred the administration to Colonel John Jen- 
kins, as Deputy-Governor. "Captain John 
Jenkins" was one of the first settlers of Caro- 
lina. He had located on the Perquimans River 
before the grant to the Lords Proprietors, and conformably with 
the instructions of the King, he took out a patent for his land 
from Governor Berkeley, as Governor of Virginia. This was on 
September 25, 1663, ^"^ before Berkeley had been informed of the 
grant to himself and the other Proprietors. Captain Jenkins was 
a man of some consequence, bringing into the province at that 
time fourteen persons, and from the first he was an important 
personage in the settlement. In 1670 he was the Deputy of the 
Earl of Craven, and had risen to the dignity of Colonel and was 
the senior member of the Council. 

At the time of his accession to power, his interests were those of 
the community, but he was the representative of the Proprietors, 
and one of the nobility according to Carteret's instructions, and 
thus had to sustain government. Discontent was rife because of the 
new Navigation Acts and custom duties interfering with the es- 
tablished trade with New England, whence alone the planters had 
been accustomed to draw their needed supplies. Some time 
elapsed, however, before any attempt was made to enforce these 



i84 NORTH CAROLINA 

acts. At length commissions came for Copely and Birch to be 
respectively the King's Collector and Surveyor of Customs; 
but the men themselves did not come and the duty devolved on 
Governor Jenkins to have the offices filled and the law observed. 
There was opposition, but Jenkins reconciled the people and the 
appointments were made. Valentine Bird, a rich planter, was 
made Collector, and Timothy Biggs, who had married the widow 
of George Catchmaid, the Surveyor of Customs. Bird probably 
was not diligent in the execution of his office. It was said that 
many hogsheads of tobacco went out marked as "bait** for the 
New England fishermen ; and European merchandise was landed 
that did not come direct from London. Still there was cause for 
irritation. In addition, the terms of the Fundamental Constitu- 
tions raising the quit rents gave uneasiness, and there were rumors 
that the province was to be apportioned among the Proprietors and 
that Albemarle was to be allotted to Governor Berkeley, a sugges- 
tion that was abhorrent to the people. About that time an Indian 
war set in, and just when needed Captain Gilliam brought his ves- 
sel into port with a cargo of arms and ammunition, and a force was 
organized to suppress the Indians. On the return from this cam- 
paign, the people, being armed, demanded that the export tax on 
tobacco should not be collected. Chief among the insurgents was 
George Durant, and in alliance with him was Valentine Bird him- 
self. Governor Jenkins, unable to resist, offered a compromise, 
and consented that only one-half the required tax should be col- 
lected. This action was without authority, and it is an evidence 
of the difficulties of his situation. In discharging his duties, bad 
blood arose between him and Thomas Miller, who was probably 
an agitator. Miller was arrested on the charge of uttering treason- 
able words against the King's person and the monarchy, and blas- 
phemy. He was sent to Virginia for trial, but was acquitted. In 
the meantime the General Assembly deposed Jenkins from office 
as Governor and President of the Council, and imprisoned him, 
and on Miller's going to England, they sent to the Proprietors 
for instructions. In this conflict between the Assembly and Jen- 
kins, the latter was sustained by a majority of the deputies, and 



JOHN JENKINS 185 

the exact lines of divergence between them cannot be traced. 
During this interregnum, the Assembly seemed to have governed, 
perhaps aided by the councillors who assented to their authority. 
When Miller arrived in London, he was joined by Eastchurch, 
the Speaker of the Assembly, and the latter was appointed Gov- 
ernor and Miller was appointed Collector of Customs. George 
Durant being in London at the time told the Proprietors that 
Eastchurch should never be Governor. Hastening back, Durant 
organized opposition. On their return voyage, Eastchurch stopped 
at the island of Nevis, and sent Miller on with authority to exer- 
cise the office of Governor, as well as Collector of Customs. Hav- 
ing information of Durant's threat, Miller resorted to arbitrary 
measures, made limitations on the choice of Assemblymen, and 
succeeded in having himself invested with the power of imposing 
fines at his own pleasure. Armed with this authority, he issued 
warrants to have some of the most considerable men in the colony 
brought before him dead or alive. These proceedings led to gjeat 
commotions, and Valentine Bird, with John Culpepper and some 
other coadjutors, embodied a force, seized Biggs and Miller, called 
a free Parliament, which deputed five of its members, among them 
John Jenkins and Valentine Bird, to form a court to try the pris- 
oners, who were charged with treason. In all these proceedings 
Jenkins was an actor, although John Culpepper, who in 1671 had 
been Surveyor of the Province and then claimed to be Collector, 
was the chief director, and Durant was also a manager. East- 
church arrived in Virginia, but died, and the Assembly continued 
to govern. At length, to compose all differences, the Proprietors 
appointed Seth Sothel Governor, who on his way fell into the 
hands of the Algerines; and then they appointed John Harvey 
Governor, and re-appointed the old deputies, and the Assembly 
elected the other members of the Council ; Harvey's instructions 
dated February 5, 1679, being similar to those given to Carteret. 
Harvey, however, died within a few months after his administra- 
tion began, and Jenkins was again elected Governor, and now had 
the support of the Legislature, Durant being the Attorney-Gen- 
eral and the manager of affairs. During his first administration, 



i86 NORTH CAROLINA 

Durant seems to have been opposed to Jenkins, but on Miller's 
return to the colony, Jenkins and Durant made common cause 
against him. In these turmoils it does not appear that the au- 
thority of the Lords Proprietors was questioned or that their 
policy and management was a principal factor in events, but rather 
that there was a popular demonstration against the enforcement 
of the navigation laws and the new custom duties of 1672. It 
was rebellion against the Crown and not against the Proprietors ; 
or rather a purpose to displace some Crown officers and substitute 
others who would not vigorously enforce the obnoxious laws. On 
learning of the death of Harvey, the Proprietors sent Captain 
Henry Wilkinson over as Governor, who, appearing in the colony 
in 1681, relieved Jenkins of the administration. During this last 
administration of Jenkins, order was maintained m the colony, al- 
though the Quakers, who had then become quite numerous, com- 
plained that Durant was pursuing them with a strong hand and 
oppressing them because they had not sympathized with the re- 
bellion. 

Colonel Jenkins did not long survive his last term of office as 
Governor. He died in December, 1681. 

S. A, Ashe, 






GABRIEL JOHNSTON 

?OVERNOR BURRINGTON on his return to 
North Carolina in 1731, as the first Royal Gov- 
ernor, soon found that the inhabitants would 
not acquiesce in the claims of powers and pre- 
rogatives made on behalf of the Crown; and 
political divergences quickly developed per- 
sonal antagonisms. As a result of his asperity of temper, he was 
removed, and in 1733 Gabriel Johnston was appointed to succeed 
him. 

The Johnstons were of an ancient family and derived their 
name from the Barony of Johnston, in Annandale, Scotland. 
Gabriel Johnston was a native of Scotland, and had received his 
education in the University of St. Andrews. After spending a 
few years studying medicine, he was appointed Professor of 
Oriental Languages in the University, but later removed to Lon- 
don and entered into politics as a political writer. He contributed 
to the Craftsman, a periodical opposed to the ministry, and was 
associated with Bolingbroke and William Johnston, afterward 
Earl of Bath, a relative of the subject of this sketch. From 1726 
to the time of his departure from England, he lived almost con* 
stantly with Spencer Compton, Baron of Wilmington, Lord Presi- 
dent of the Privy Council, and was intimately thrown with many 
persons of distinction. 

Governor Johnston was well advanced in years, a man of learn- 



i88 NORTH CAROLINA 

ing, and something of a politician. Unlike his immediate prede- 
cessors, he was neither given to profanity nor to drink, and he had 
the purpose to promote the interests and prosperity of the prov- 
ince committed to his care, but at the same time to govern it ac- 
cording to his notions. He arrived at Brunswick on October 2jy 
1734, and on November 2d took the oaths of office. The 
Legislature at that time was in session at Edenton, and receiving 
notice of Governor Johnston's arrival, on November 13th it 
adjourned. 

The end of Burrington's administration had been very stormy. 
Several members of the Council had fled from the province from 
fear of personal violence. These now returned and gave their 
version of their differences with Burrington into willing ears, and 
Johnston readily espoused their cause. He showed but slight 
favor to Governor Burrington. It was not long, however, before 
he himself became embroiled with the inhabitants. 

The little hamlet of New Liverpool had been begun at the con^ 
fluence of the two branches of the Cape Fear, and its fame had 
reached Great Britain. Later, in 1732, the town of Newton was 
laid off by Caleb Grainger and others about a mile lower down the 
river. Competition had already set in between this nascent village 
and Brunswick, then nearly ten years old. Governor Johnston 
took sides with Newton, and determined to make it the metropolis 
of that section. He directed in May, 1735, that the Council should 
be held there, and designated it as the place for holding courts and 
for payment of taxes, and other public purposes. He bought 
land in the vicinity, promoted its settlement and identified himself 
with its growth, naming it in honor of his patron, the Earl of Wil- 
mington. Thus at the very outset he threw himself into antago- 
nism with the powerful interests that were centered at Brunswick. 

Besides, his instructions with reference to annulling patents that 
had been issued in blank without actual survey, also arrayed op- 
position against him. His purpose to have the quit rents collected 
and his efforts to remodel the form of government, fashioning it 
after that of England, were likewise causes of controversy. 

These were the chief occasions of the political troubles that 



GABRIEL JOHNSTON 189 

marked the early years of his administration. The quit rents had 
from time immemorial been payable on the farms and in com- 
modities and at a valuation fixed by the Act of 171 5. Now they 
were demanded at some certain central points ; and when the reg- 
ulations were not complied with, they were levied by distress with 
extravagant charges. Edward Moseley himself refused to observe 
those regulations, and others followed his example, so that the 
rents were not collected. The Governor, however, in 1739, agreed 
to a compromise, and a bill was passed whereby concessions were 
made on each side ; but the Crown disallowed that Act, and it was 
years before any quit rent law was passed. 

In 1744 Lord Granville's share of Carolina was set apart, the 
line running from Cape Hatteras West, so that the northern coun- 
ties were in Granville's territory, and the people there had interests 
different from the inhabitants of the southern portion of the 
province. 

The various officers of the Government had been required by 
the Act of 1722 to keep their several offices open at Edenton, and, 
now that the southern part of the province was somewhat settled, 
that location of the capital was inconvenient, and the inhabitants 
of the southern counties preferred New-Bern as being much more 
accessible to them. To this the northern counties would not as- 
sent; and having five representatives each, while the southern 
counties had only two, they held the majority and their objection 
prevented any change. 

Governor Johnston was anxious for the progress of the prov- 
ince, and sought to promote all measures that tended in that di- 
rection; and particularly was he solicitous for the establishment 
of the seat of government at New-Bern as being more central than 
Edenton. Thwarted in his desire, he resorted to "management" to 
accomplish the purpose. He convened the Assembly to meet at 
Wilmington. It was not convenient for the northern members to 
attend, and they remained at home. The southern members were 
in full sympathy with the Governor, for it was a sectional fight 
between the counties. It seemed^unreasonable that the inhabitants 
of the Cape Fear should have to travel 150 miles through the 



I90 NORTH CAROLINA 

wilderness to Edenton in order to transact public business; and 
entirely unjust that the six small northern counties should have 
thirty assemblymen, while the eleven larger counties had only 
twenty-two. They proposed to remedy these political evils. 

When the members of the Assembly came together at Wilming- 
ton, they were so few in numbers that the question presented it- 
self — could the House proceed with less than a majority? Speaker 
Swann determined that a majority was not necessary. The mem- 
bership of the House of Commons in England was 540, and forty 
members constituted the quorum of that body. Basing his ruling 
on that, the Speaker held that fifteen members were sufficient to 
constitute a quorum in the province, and he proceeded to business. 
Two Acts only were passed: one equalizing representation, and 
allowing only two representatives to each county ; the other fixing 
the capital at New-Bern and providing for a court system, fash- 
ioned after that in vogue in England, and laying taxes to carry the 
Act into effect. 

These Acts, passed by less than a majority of the House, were 
held by the northern counties as null and void, and they were so 
obnoxious to them that they would not recognize their validity 
in any respect. When writs were issued for a new assembly, each 
northern county voted as formerly for five members, which the 
Governor and Assembly would not admit, and so it came about 
that the northern counties ceased to send members to represent 
them ; nor would the people there attend any General Court or pay 
any taxes. 

The condition in the northern counties was that of an unarmed 
rebellion against the Provincial Government; but yet the county 
courts were held as usual, and local matters were administered. 
From 1746 to 1752 the same Assembly continued to meet, holding 
eleven sessions. Then the questions raised by the northern coun- 
ties were decided by the Crown officers in their favor, and the Acts 
complained of were declared void, and the small northern counties 
were represented in the Assembly by five representatives, each, 
until the Revolution. 

But notwithstanding the political differences that marked his 



GABRIEL JOHNSTON 191 

administration, Governor Johnston, who thought himself a wise 
politician, was seldom embroiled in personal controversies; and 
so in many matters he was able to exert an influence which other- 
wise he would not have done. 

Thus in 1740, when there was much political disaffection, on 
the war breaking out with Spain he was able to raise companies 
of men, both in the Albemarle and on the Cape Fear, that served 
in the expedition against Carthagena, where nearly all of the 
colonial troops either fell victims by disease, or were destroyed 
in battle. Captain Innes went with one of these companies, and 
gained a high reputation by his fine conduct. 

Governor Johnston sought to promote the settlement of the 
province, and in 1736 efforts were made to locate foreign Protest- 
ants in the interior. Henry McCulloh, who had been appointed 
Receiver-General of the King's rents in both North and South 
Carolina, associated with himself Huey and Crimble and obtained 
from the King grants for many thousand acres of land that were 
located on the Catawba, on the Pedee, Cape Fear and Neuse 
rivers, under an agreement to settle them with Protestants. They 
first sought to secure Irish tenants ; and almost contemporaneously 
with the arrival of Governor Johnston came the forerunners of a 
settlement of Irish Protestants, who located in upper New Han- 
over, now Duplin and Sampson, and Scotchmen, who settled at 
Wilmington and in Bladen. Because of the Irish settling on the 
Cape Fear, the new county there laid off for them was named 
after Lord Dupplin, but in time one of the p's was omitted ; and 
on the waters of the Neuse a new county was contemplated, called 
Essex, but when established, it was named in honor of the Gov- 
ernor himself, Johnston. 

In September, 1739, a large body of Scotchmen arrived on the 
Cape Fear, accompanied by Dugald McNeal, Colonel McAlister, 
and several other Scotch gentlemen; and the Legislature appro- 
priated a thousand pounds to aid them, and resolved that ''wher- 
ever forty persons shall arrive in one company and settle in the 
province, they shall be exempt from all taxes for ten y^ears." Gov- 
ernor Johnston fostered this immigration from Scotland and from 



192 NORTH CAROLINA 

the north of Ireland, and a stream of Scotch settlers poured in, 
taking possession of the upper waters of the Cape Fear ; and this 
migration continued for thirty-five years, 350 Scotchmen having 
come in at one time as late as 1775. 

During his administration also the Moravians settled at Salem, 
and there was a great influx of population into Edgecombe and 
other counties near the Virginia line, while from South Carolina 
immigrants pressed up into Bladen and Anson counties. But 
separate and distinct from these settlements was a stream of im- 
migrants from Pennsylvania, Scotch-Irish and Germans, that took 
possession of the western portion of the province. When Johnston 
came in, only the land near the great sounds and about the vicinity 
of Wilmington was occupied. At his death population had ex- 
tended almost to the foot of the mountains, although necessarily 
there were large tracts unoccupied ; and the number of people in 
the province were somewhere about 90,000. 

But notwithstanding the great increase in population in the 
province and the rapid progress made in development during 
Johnston's administration, the hands of Government were very 
much weakened because of the divergences incident to the strug- 
gle between the northern and southern counties. The Act creating 
a rent roll and providing for the collection of quit rents passed in 
1739, having been disallowed by the Crown, and no other passed, 
no rents were collected and for fourteen years before the Gov- 
ernor's death he received no salary, which was payable out of the 
quit rents. Toward the end of his administration efforts were made 
by McCulloh and others to have him dismissed from his post, and 
various charges were made against him before the Board of Trade 
in London, but he successfully defended himself from the attacks 
of his enemies and continued in office until the day of his death, 
July 17, 1752, when Nathaniel Rice, the senior member of the 
Council, succeeded to the administration. 

Governor Johnston was accompanied to North Carolina by his 
brother, who was the father of Governor Samuel Johnston of the 
Revolution. He married Penelope Golland, a daughter of the 
wife of Governor Eden by a former marriage. This lady had al- 



GABRIEL JOHNSTON 193 

ready been married three times, Governor Johnston being her 
fourth husband. She received from Govenor Eden the Eden 
House and plantation in Bertie County; and although Governor 
Johnston had originally intended to reside in Bladen County, 
where a mansion was erected on the Cape Fear River for him, he 
took up his abode at the Eden House. 

By this wife Governor Johnston had one daughter, who mar- 
ried John Dawson, Esq., and resided at Eden House. His first 
wife dying, he married again, and in his will he mentions his wife, 
Frances Johnston, and earnestly requests her to be a kind, tender 
mother to his dear little girl. He also mentions his brother, Sam- 
uel Johnston, and "my brother's two sons, Henry and Samuel 
Johnston." 

His widow, Frances, later married John Rutherford, Esq., of 
New Hanover County. 

5*. A, Ashe, 





WILLIAM R. KING 




ILLIAM R. KING, Vice-President of the 
United States, was a native of Sampson County, 
and attained eminence while a representative 
of the Cape Fear District in Congress. Mr. 
William S. Ashe, who represented the same 
district in Congress in 1853, ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ of 

Vice-President King's death, in the course of a eulogy delivered 

in the House of Representatives, said : 

"Colonel King was born in Sampson County in April, 1786. His father, 
William King, was a gentleman of fortune and character. During the 
Revolutionary War he rendered important services to his country's cause, 
both by personal service and the generous use of his fortune. After the 
conclusion of the war he was a member of the Convention which was 
called to adopt the Federal Constitution, and he was repeatedly elected 
a delegate to the General Assembly from his county. His situation in life 
enabled him to bestow on his children all the advantages of education which 
our country at that time afforded. 

"Colonel King was sent at an early age to the University of North Caro- 
lina, which institution he left in his seventeenth year, bearing with him the 
happy consolation of having commanded the respect of his professors, the 
love and esteem of his associates. He studied law with William Duffy, an 
eminent jurist, residing in the town of Fayetteville, where he formed 
friendships which he preserved with affection till the day of his death. 

"On being admitted to the bar, he settled in his native county, from 
which he was returned the following year (1808) as a member of the Leg- 
islature. By this body he was, at the age of twenty-two, elected solicitor for 



WILLIAM R. KING 195 

the Wilmington District. In the year 1810, before he was twenty-five years 
of age, he was elected to the Congress of the United States. This was a 
most important crisis in our national affairs. France dominant in Europe, 
England mistress of the ocean, our neutrality was grossly disregarded by 
each of these supercilious powers. To our manacing protests France 
ultimately yielded respect. England continued her career of haughty in- 
solence. War or national degradation was inevitable. 

"True Republicans avoided not the issue, but met it boldly. Colonel 
King acted with them with his whole soul ; and though one of the young- 
est members of the Congress, he was distinguished for the firm and fervid 
earnestness with which he supported the illustrious Madison in his patri- 
otic efforts to sustain the honor of our country. He continued a membei; 
of Congress until after the conclusion of the war, when, in 1816, he ac- 
cepted a diplomatic position abroad, associated with that scholar and 
statesman, William Pinckney, the Envoy-Extraordinary atod Minister 
Plenipotentiary to Russia." 

This brief resunii of Colonel King's career up to his thirtieth 
year indicates at once his high patriotism and his intellectual ca- 
pacity. He came from stock which during the Revolutionary War 
had been baptized in patriotism, his ancestors having fought with 
Colonel Kenan and made strenuous endeavors to secure the in- 
dependence of their country. Animated by the spirit of his Rev- 
olutionary sires, Colonel King in Congress during the War of 1812 
cast lustre upon his North Carolina constituents and won for him- 
self the respect and esteem of those conversant with his career. 

At the time of his return from abroad the territory of Alabama 
was being organized, and he determined to cast his fortunes in that 
attractive country Hardly had he arrived in his new home when 
he was elected a delegate to the convention which was to form a 
State Government. To the performance of the delicate and re- 
sponsible duties now cast upon him, he brought the matured ex- 
perience he had gathered in the councils of the Union, and the 
wisdom of the illustrious statesmen of North Carolina, and he was 
one of the most active and efficient of those who laid the founda- 
tions of Alabama's fundamental law. At that time North Caro- 
lina's sons were spreading themselves throughout the West, every- 
where being received with cordiality and good will, for North 
Carolina spirit and honorable conduct were proverbial, and the 



K/i NORTH CAROLINA 

fttatnle^s career of her public men gained for tbem the higbest 
consideration. But in addition Colonel King had an individuality 
that at once commended him to the esteem and confidence of the 
people of Alabama. As soon as the Constitution was adopted, he 
was chosen a Senator from that State in the Congress of the 
United States, and for thirt>' years, except a brief period of two 
years, when abroad, he represented Alabama in the Senate. In 
1844, at a critical period, he accepted the mission as Minister to 
France, and by his address rendered extraordinary service to his 
country in securing the acquiescence of France and of England 
in the annexation of Texas to the United States. Both of those 
countries were disposed to object to this extension of the United 
States, and ominous clouds, betokening war, were gathering, when 
by his decision and characteristic resolution, he dispelled them. 

In the Senate, on all occasions when a great issue was before 
the country, calling for the exerdse of firmness, courage and 
patriotism, Colonel King was abreast of those who stood foremost 
for the safety and glory of the Republic 

It has been said of him "that he g^ced the chair of the Senate 
longer than any other man that ever occupied it — not continuously, 
or by virtue merely of repeated elections as temporary President, 
but often also at the request of the presiding officer." He was 
thus engaged in the performance of the duties of President of the 
Senate during the greater part of the terms of five vice-presi- 
dents ; and that at a time "when party spirit raged in torrents of 
fire," and the master spirits of that era were among the members 
of the Senate, Qay, Calhoun, Webster and their associates, who 
made that period of our history illustrious. 

Colonel King was from principle and conviction a State's Rights 
man, but he loved the Union and believed that harmony between 
the Federal and State powers were the essence of the Union. In 
the memorable session of 1849 ^^^ 1850, he voted for nearly all 
of the Compromise measures then proposed by Clay, because of 
his devotion to the Union. 

In 1852 Colonel King, while still in the Senate, was nominated 
for the Vice- Presidency by the Democratic Party on the ticket 



WILLIAM R. KING 197 

with Franklin Pierce, and was elected to that high position ; but 
a mortal malady had already seized him. He spent that Winter in 
Cuba seeking renewed vitality ; but losing hope, he hurried home to 
die in the midst of his friends. On March 4, 1853, he took the 
oath of office of Vice-President in Cuba, the oath being adminis- 
tered by the American Consul. He reached his home at Cahawba, 
Alabama, on April 17th following, and died the next day. 

A North Carolinian by birth, educated and trained among her 
people, he attained prominence as one of North Carolina's Repre- 
sentatives in Congress, and voiced her sentiments at a critical 
period in the history of our country ; and although transplanted 
to a new home, it was still his North Carolina characteristics that 
made his career honorable and brought him such high distinction 
among the public men of the Union. 

5*. A. Ashe, 






RUFUS YANCEY McADEN 

UFUS YANCEY McADEN was born in Cas- 
well County, North Carolina, March 4, 1833. 
He was the son of Doctor Henry McAden, and 
the grandson of Doctor John McAden, both of 
whom were distinguished physicians of Cas- 
well County. His great-grandfather was the 
Reverend Hugh McAden, a Presbyterian minister and mission- 
ary, who came to this State from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a 
few years before the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, and 
preached the gospel throughout the entire State, and was the 
founder of many churches, several of which are now in existence, 
notably Sugar Creek in Mecklenburg County, Haw Fields in 
Alamance, and Red House in Caswell. This g^and old pioneer 
preacher was a decided Whig, and he took such a prominent part 
on the American side of that great struggle for liberty, that the 
British burned his home, together with all his out houses, and 
destroyed or carried away all his stock. 

Doctor John McAden married Miss Betsy Murphey, a sister of 
Archibald D. Murphey, one of North Carolina's most distinguished 
citizens and prominent educators, and for whom the Murphey 
school building in the city of Raleigh is named. Doctor Henry 
McAden, the father of Honorable R. Y. McAden, married Miss 
Frances Yancey, the daughter of Honorable Bartlet Yancey, so 
that the name of R. Y. McAden represents two of the oldest and 




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RUFUS YANCEY McADEN 199 

most distinguished families of North Carolina. The name of 
Yancey is prominent not only in North Carolina, but also in Ala- 
bama, Mississippi and Virginia. 

R. Y. McAden was left an orphan when quite young, and his 
grandmother, Mrs, Bartlet Yancey, took him to her home and 
adopted him into her family, and he was reared and educated 
chiefly by this queenly woman. His boyhood was spent in the 
country amid the scenes and with the environments which tend to 
make great men. There is no place on earth better suited to the 
raising and training of boys and girls than a good country home, 
where the people believe in God and the angels, and where the 
great heart of nature beats strong amid her hills. Young McAden 
lived like other country boys, and spent his time in breaking colts, 
fishing in the streams, working in the fields, attending the country 
schools, until he was prepared for college. He entered Wake 
Forest College and graduated therefrom in his twentieth year, and 
subsequently read law with Judges Nash and Bailey in the old his- 
toric town of Hillsboro, and began the practice of his chosen 
profession in his native county of Caswell. When he was twenty- 
five years old he married the beautiful and accomplished Mary F. 
Terry, daughter of Doctor B. F. Terry, of Prince Edward County, 
Virginia, and moved the next year from Caswell to Alamance and 
settled in Graham. His popularit}' and his ability were soon rec- 
ognized in his adopted home, and friends prevailed upon him to 
become a candidate on the Whig ticket for the Legislature in 
i860. He was defeated, but succeeded in reducing the Democratic 
majority from 300 to 13. In 1861 he was almost unanimously 
elected to the State Convention, on the Whig or Union Ticket, but 
the Convention was not called. In 1862 he was elected to the Leg- 
islature, and re-elected each year until 1867. In 1866 he was 
elected Speaker of the House of Representatives over Colonel 
R. H. Cowan, of Wilmington. He made a model Speaker. Dur- 
ing the exciting times of that period, and the bitter party opposi- 
tion, he was so absolutely fair and just in his rulings that no ap- 
peal was ever taken from them. He knew men and he knew how 
to manage men. 



200 NORTH CAROLINA 

The First National Bank of Charlotte in 1867 was looking 
around to find a suitable man for its President. R. Y. McAden 
was the man selected, and no better man could have been secured, 
as the subsequent history of that bank clearly showed. He con- 
tinued in the Presidency of the bank until his death. Mr. Mc- 
Aden soon tired of politics and law, consequently in 1867 he began 
a career of business prosperity almost without a parallel in the 
history of North Carolina. In the following year he became as- 
sociated with that great railroad builder, Colonel A. S. Buford, 
in the construction of the Atlantic and Charlotte Airline Railroad, 
and was elected Vice-President of that corporation. He also or- 
ganized and constructed the Spartanburg and Asheville Railroad, 
for without his untiring efforts and indomitable perseverance the 
road never would have been built. Both of the roads are now 
a part of the great Southern Railway, which has done so much 
in the development of the Piedmont Section of North and South 
Carolina. Both States owe him a debt of lasting gratitude for 
his devoted work in carrying on this great work. In the year 1881 
Mr. McAden went into the cotton milling business, his wondrous 
foresight causing him to be a pioneer in the marvelous develop- 
ment of cotton manufacturing in the old North State. He built 
a large cotton mill at McAdensville, in Gaston County, around 
which has sprung up a beautiful and picturesque town on the 
banks of the south fork of the Catawba River. That mill is still 
in successful operation, and the whirr of its spindles and the 
thunder of its looms still bear witness to the wisdom and foresight 
of its founder. 

Mr. McAden was a gifted man intellectually, and his great en- 
dowments were directed to achievement The most distinguished 
characteristic of his mind, and that which elevated him above his 
contemporaries, was the brilliancy of his intellect, the quickness and 
rapidity of his thoughts and his almost instantaneous conclusion 
upon any proposition submitted to his consideration. The slow 
process of reason and deduction employed by others in reaching 
conclusions were by him leaped over, at a single bound, as mere 
impediments for delay ; yet the accuracy of his conclusions, so ob- 



RUFUS YANCEY McADEN 201 

tained, seldom failed to reach the goal, while others were working 
their slow way by the old and well-trod methods of logic. 

Not only was his mental activity such in reaching conclusions, 
but as a man of action, as well, he was no less alert and rapid in 
the execution of them. To decide upon an enterprise and to be- 
gin its execution were words almost of equivalent meaning, so 
quickly one followed the other. In the prosecution of his work 
no obstacles such as would stagger men of ordinary nerve could 
halt, deter or depress him. Such was his abounding faith and 
fertility of resource, that not only was his confidence unshaken 
where others despaired, but his buoyancy and cheerfulness never 
deserted him. A single instance of this unconquerable will-power 
occurred in the construction of the Spartanburg and Asheville 
Railroad. Such were the obstacles, the lack of funds, repudia- 
tion of contracts, complicated litigations and other hindrances, 
that but for his unwavering faith, courage, energy, resources of 
mind and unconquerable perseverance, that road, now so popular 
and useful, would not have been constructed. Such were the char- 
acteristics of Mr. McAden in all his enterprises and such were the 
secrets of his success. 

Another trait of his mind and moral nature was his fidelity to 
his friends. When he chose friends, he gave them his unbounded 
confidence and trust and never forsook or doubted them. No 
favor that they could ask or that appeared to him to be agreeable 
to them was ever denied them or withheld by him. This fidelity 
and loyalty to his friends was almost romantic in its simplicity and 
beauty. 

Another, but not the least, amiable trait in this man's character 
was his cherished domestic felicity. His inner domestic home life 
around the family altar is too sacred for intrusion in this sketch ; 
but that happiness, unity and love between father, mother and 
children were supreme in the household, could not be concealed. 
Nor did he ever fail to respond to any call for public or private 
charity, or to lend his aid to any enterprise for the honor and pros- 
perity of the public and his native State. 

In person Mr. McAden was of medium height, a compact and 



202 NORTH CAROLINA 

well-knit body, a fine bead, firmly set upon bis shoulders, brilliant 
blue eyes, inquisitive and searching. His walk was quick, firm and 
decisive, indicative of business. His manners were easy, cordial 
and cheerful, devoid of stiffness or ceremony and one of the most 
approachable of men. 

After a life full of the largest service to his native State, R. Y. 
McAden died January 29, 1889, at his beautiful home in the city 
of Charlotte, leaving a devoted wife and five children. At the 
time of his death he was President of the First National Bank of 
Charlotte, President of the Spartanburg, Union and Columbia 
Railroad, the Asheville and Spartanburg Railway, the Falls of 
Neuse Manufacturing Company, and the McAden Cotton Mills. 
He was still in the prime of a vigorous manhood, with his mind 
clear and his natural force unabated. In a letter which the writer 
received from Mr. Henry M. McAden, a son of R. Y. McAden, 
and President of the Piedmont Fire Insurance Company, of Char- 
lotte, North Carolina, he says: "In writing the sketch of my 
father I shall highly appreciate your treating the subject with per- 
fect fairness and candor." This I have tried to do. Colonel A. B. 
Andrews, First Vice-President of the Southern Railway, says: 
"Mr. McAden was one of the finest business men I ever knew, and 
in everything that tended to the internal improvement of North 
Carolina he was a brave and fearless leader." This is high praise 
when it comes from a man who knows so well how to weigh his 
words. McAden was a brave and strong man in every phase 
of his character. From his Scotch ancestry he inherited char- 
acteristics of promptness, truth, and industry, which doubtless 
had much to do in shaping his great business career, and crowning 
his life work with success. His motto was "Whatever is worth 
doing at all is worth doing well," hence he did everything thor- 
oughly, and finished the matter entirely before leaving it. Thus 
he was able to do an immense amount of work with less worry 
than it would give other men. When he died Charlotte lost her 
greatest financier, and the State lost a true and loyal son. 

B. F, Dixon. 





JOHN NEWLAND MAFFITT 

\ HE most picturesque character in the annals o£ 
North Carolina, perhaps, was John Newland 
Maffitt, a captain in the Confederate Navy, who 
during his eventful career was particularly dis- 
tinguished for his charming personality, his ac- 
complishments, skill and heroism. 
His father, who bore the same name as the son, was born in 
Ireland on December 25, 1795. He was a clerg3rman, lecturer, 
author and poet, a man unusually endowed by nature and thor- 
oughly educated. He was the author of "Tears of Contrition," 
"Pulpit Sketches," and also a volume of poems. For two years he 
was chaplain of the United States Congress. As an evangelist, he 
made extended tours throughout the United States, and was 
regarded as one of the most powerful pulpit orators of his day. 
Although so many years have passed since he visited Raleigh, tra- 
dition still exists in that community of his wonderful preaching. 
He married in Ireland Ann Camick, and the subject of this 
sketch, their third child, was bom February 22, 1819, at sea, dur- 
ing their voyage to America. Eventually Mr. Maffitt located at 
Mobile, Alabama, where he died May 28, 1850. 

It was convenient because of his father's career for the son to 
live with his uncle. Doctor William Maffitt, who resided near 
Fayetteville, North Carolina, on a plantation which he called 
"EUeslie" ; and at the age of five years the subject of this sketch 
passed from his father's care and became a member of his uncle's 



204 NORTH CAROLINA 



household. His education was begun at schools in Fayetteville. 
His friend and playmate in those days, the brilliant Duncan K. 
McRae, even late in life well remembered that among the adven- 
turous boys of his age young Maffitt was always a leader — "a bom 
leader/' 

When only nine years old his uncle placed him at school at 
White Plains, New York, under the care of Professor Swinburn ; 
and it is worthy of remark that the little boy, in that era of stage 
coaches, made the trip from Fayetteville unattended. At school 
he diligently applied himself, was well taught, was strong and 
capable, so that on reaching his thirteenth year he was appointed 
a Midshipman in the United States Navy ; and the following Sep- 
tember he joined his ship in the West Indies. Thus at that early 
period of his life he entered on a career destined to be remarkable, 
in the very theater where he was to win applause. 

In 1835 he joined the Constitution, the old Ironsides, the flag-- 
ship of the Mediterranean squadron, being then sixteen years of 
age; and in his entertaining book, "The Nautilus," he has pre- 
served some account of the exciting incidents of his three years' 
experience while on that station, visiting and becoming familiar 
with historic countries and places of renown. 

Promoted to Past-Midshipman, in 1838 he was again in the 
Gulf of Mexico ; and there, at Pensacola, he met Miss Murrell, of 
Mobile, a lady remarkable for her beauty and loveliness of char- 
acter, to whom he was united in marriage in 1840, when just 
twenty-one years of age. 

Mr. Maffitt's reputation as a competent and skillful officer had 
now become well known, and in the Spring of 1842 he was de- 
tached from ordinary service and ordered on Coast Survey duty. 
In this new field of work he won the highest praise from the Super- 
intendent, Professor A. D. Bache, LL.D., who reported to the 
department that Lieutenant Maffitt "as a surveying officer has not 
been excelled by any one with whom I have come in contact, and 
has been equaled by few. The quantity and quality of his work 
IS remarkable indeed. I cannot speak too highly of the capacity, 
efficiency and zeal of Lieutenant Maffitt." 



JOHN NEWLAND MAFFITT 205 

When the Mexican War broke out, Lieutenant Maffitt, anxious 
for an opportunity to participate in its perils and honors, earnestly 
applied for orders to the seat of war, but Professor Bache inter- 
fered, and he was retained on the Coast Survey work. His 
operations extended from Maine to Florida ; at the North during 
the Summer, at the South during the Winter, incessantly at work, 
and so competent and efficient that at length he was appointed as- 
sistant to the Superintendent. His charts of the coast proved of 
great value, and his Southern work was of particular use during 
the war between the States. 

His first wife, who passed much of her time at EUeslie, bore 
him two children : Florence, who became the wife of Mr. J. G. 
Wright, of Wilmington; and Eugene Maffitt. His wife dying 
on August 3, 1852, he married Mrs. Caroline Laurens Read, a 
member of the distinguished Laurens family of South Carolina. 
At first their residence was near Fayetteville, but after a year 
or so Mr. Maffitt purchased a home on the James River, 
establishing his family in the vicinity of that of Colonel John 
Jones, the father of Captain J. Pembroke Jones, and of other 
friends. 

In 1858, being then Assistant Superintendent of the Coast Sur- 
vey, he moved to Washington City, where his home was fre- 
quented by a circle of choice friends — Honorable Jeremiah Black, 
Judge Ratcliffe, Professor Bache, etc., and their families — social 
life at the Federal capital being then in the zenith of perfection. 
Here, however, in 1859, Mrs. Maffitt succumbed to disease; but 
his family continued to occupy his home. 

After sixteen years of distinguished service in Coast Survey 
work, during which Mr. Maffitt won the highest encomiums, on 
June I, 1858, he was given command of the brig Dolphin and 
ordered to cruise in the Gulf to suppress piracy and to capture 
slavers, vessels carrying cargoes of Negroes from Africa to the 
Spanish Islands. These slavers were for the most part fitted out 
in New England, and while their cargoes were intended for Cuba 
and other communities to the South chiefly, yet on one or two oc- 
casions it was thought that a cargo had been landed in some of the 



2o6 NORTH CAROLINA 

slave-holding districts of the United States. His cruise was suc- 
cessful, and Lieutenant Maffitt was the first American Navy of- 
ficer to capture a slaver with her cargo. It was the brig Echo 
which, having captured, he sent into Charleston, South Carolina, 
for condemnation. A year later he was assigned to the command 
of the steamer Crusader, and continued on the same duty. With 
her he captured three more slavers, the last falling into his hands 
in August, i860. 

The secession of some of the Southern States made the opening* 
of the year 1861 ominous. The future seemed full of trouble. 
Officers whose lives had been passed under the flag of their coun- 
try, whose honor and glory was as dear to them as life, were now 
much perplexed. Many of the army officers of Southern birth re- 
signed their commissions; the navy officers, abroad on the high 
seas, were placed in the most delicate situation. Honor required 
the strictest fidelity to the flag of their country until relieved of 
their obligations. At his request Lieutenant Maffitt was on 
March i, 1861, detached from his command, and he returned home 
to settle his accounts. All of his property was at the North ; and 
the South, with no ships, offered no active employment to Navy 
officers. But Lieutenant Maffitt did not hesitate. Resolved to 
share the fortunes of the Southern people, he made every sacri- 
fice. Early in April he sent his children to the home of his cousin, 
Mrs. Eliza Hybart, at Elleslie (near Fayetteville, North Carolina), 
where they remained during the period of the war, and which he 
regarded as his own home, always saying, **I love every blade of 
grass about it." And then, on May 2d, having tendered his resig- 
nation in the United States Navy, he turned his face Southward, 
and five days later offered his services to the Southern Confed- 
eracy. His resignation was accepted by the Federal Government 
on June 4th to date on May 2d. 

President Davis commissioned him Lieutenant in the Confed- 
erate States Navy, and assigned him to duty with Commodore 
Tatnall, who was organizing a fleet of small vessels on the coast 
of South Carolina: and Lieutenant Maffitt bore a distinguished 
part in the battle of Hilton Head, when the Federal fleet took pos- 



JOHN NEWLAND MAFFITT 207 

session of Port Royal. In the same battle his son, Eugene, re- 
ceived his baptism in blood. 

That Fall General R. E. Lee was assigned to the command of 
the coast, and on November 11, 1861, Lieutenant Maffitt joined his 
staff and was employed on the special duty of mapping roads, con- 
structing forts and obstructing the Coosaw River. His associa- 
tion with the great chieftain was most agreeable. Some three 
years later he brought through the blockade a sword belt which 
he intended to present to General Lee, and having sent it, General 
Lee wrote him the following letter : 

"I have received the sword belt you were so kind as to send me. It is 
very handsome, and I appreciate it highly as a token of your remembrance. 
I recall with great pleasure the days of our association in Carolina — with 
equal admiration your brilliant career since, in defence of your country. 
Wishing you all happiness and prosperity, etc" 

The war had broken out suddenly without any preparation for 
it either at the North or the South. The conditions at the North, 
however, readily admitted of the organization of both military and 
naval forces and their speedy equipment. At the South it was very 
different, there being neither ships of war nor any naval or mili- 
tary stores. The first movement of the Federal Government was 
to declare the ports of the South in a state of blockade, but for 
some months there was no adequate force to intercept commerce. 
For sometime ordinary sailing vessels were engaged in carrying 
out Southern products and bringing in needed cargoes. At length, 
at the opening of 1862, the Confederate Government determined 
to engage in that enterprise, and on January 7, 1862, Captain 
Maffitt was ordered to the Confederate States steamer Cecile 
to nm the blockade and bring in arms, ammunition and military 
stores. He was selected for this particular work because of his 
superior knowledge of the harbors of the coast, and well did he 
perform the service with which he was charged. He continued 
to run the blockade until May, when he was ordered to take com- 
mand of the Florida, a Confederate steamer then at Nassau. This 
vessel had been built in England and had sailed under the name of 
Oreto. Receiving her, an empty hull. Captain Maffitt equipped 



2o8 NORTH CAROLINA 

her under difficult circumstances near a desolate and uninhabited 
island known as Green Kay, some ninety miles southward of New 
Providence ; and boldly took the sea. But yellow fever breaking 
out, it became necessary to enter a Confederate port, and he de- 
termined to proceed to Mobile. The draught of the Florida made 
it perilous to cross the bar at night, and he preferred the dangers 
of a naval encounter. At 3 o'clock on the afternoon of Sep- 
tember 4th he sighted Fort Morgan, and three Federal men-of-war 
hastened to contest his entrance. Oftentimes boldness is the best 
policy. Resolutely he pressed forward under a full head of steam, 
steering directly for the flagship Oneida. When eighty yards from 
that vessel she and the other two blockaders opened furiously upon 
the Florida, Without firing a gun the Florida kept on, through 
roar of shot and bursting shell, with crashing spars and rigging, 
mingled with the moans of the wounded, silently pursuing her 
course. Simultaneously two heavy shells entered the hull of the 
Florida with a thud that caused a vibration from stem to stern, but 
nothing vital had been injured; and with calmness Maffitt pressed 
on, finally clearing the circle of his foes, whose artillery roared 
still more furiously, and denser became the black clouds from their 
smoke stacks as they fed their fires with rosin to increase their 
speed and overtake their prey But the dangers were passed,' and 
the Florida successfully came to anchor under the guns of Fort 
Morgan. 

Admiral Porter in his "Naval History" recounts the wonderful 
story of this perilous run through Commander Preble's fleet in 
broad daylight, with a crew decimated by yellow fever, and Maffitt 
himself scarcely able to stand, owing to its prostrating effects ; he 
and the man at the wheel being alone on deck. He describes 
Captain Maffitt as standing "amid the storm of shot and shell per- 
fectly unmoved, keenly watching the marks for entering the port,'* 
and says : 

"During the whole war there was not a more exciting adventure than 
this escape of the Florida into Mobile Bay. The gallant manner in which 
it was conducted excited great admiration, even among the men who were 
responsible for permitting it. We do not suppose that there ever was a 



JOHN NEWLAND MAFFITT 209 

case where a man, under all the attending circumstances, displayed more 
energy and more bravery." 

Commodore Preble was dismissed from the service for permit- 
ting the Florida to pass through his lines; subsequently, how- 
ever, he was reinstated. The Federal Government bent on keep- 
ing the Florida hermetically sealed up in Mobile Bay, increased 
the blockading force, and gave stringent orders to prevent her 
escape. Captain Maffitt, having repaired his vessel and perfected 
her equipment, awaited his opportunity to return to the sea. A 
perfect master of his profession and at home in the fiercest storms, 
he awaited a heavy gale to leave his port. On January 14, 1863, 
a terrible storm set in. It was so violent that it was impossible 
to get under way until two o'clock at night, and then he passed 
the bar, was discovered and pursued by half a dozen swift block- 
aders. **From stormy mom till stormy eve the chase was vigilantly 
continued;" but when nightfall came Maffitt, fertile in expedients, 
furled his sails, stopped his engines, and allowed his pursuers to 
pass him by. And then he made sail and entered on his career, 
which extended from opposite New York to a thousand miles 
south of the Equator. Many vessels of great value were seized 
by him and disposed of according to his instructions ; but he never 
was forgetful of the dictates of humanity in providing for those 
whose misfortune it was to fall into his power. He soon cap- 
tured a vessel freighted with a heavy cargo of anthracite coal and 
converted her into a cruising storehouse. Having captured a fast 
brig, the Clarence, he turned her over to one of his lieutenants, 
C. W. Read, equipping her as an armed tender. Read subse- 
quently exchanged her for the Tacony, and made many captures 
on the coast of Maine, even entering the harbor of Portland at 
night. Alone on the great deep, without friends, unable to ask 
assistance in time of distress, he braved the storms and hurricanes 
that swept the seas, and proudly bearing the Confederate flag, he 
pursued his perilous way, and drove American commerce from the 
highways of the ocean. After an eight months' cruise, during 
which Captain Mafiitt and his tenders made many captures and 
destroyed property to the value of about ten millions of dollars. 



210 NORTH CAROLINA 

he put into the harbor of Brest, in France, for repairs. He him- 
self was still debilitated from the effects of yellow fever, and so he 
applied to be detached. As soon as his health permitted, he took 
command of a blockade runner in England, the Florie, named for 
his beautiful daughter, and brought her into Wilmington. He 
later made several trips in command of the Luetic, bringing in a 
large amount of needed stores. During the brief periods when 
his vessel was being loaded, he made visits to his family at 
Fayetteville. 

In the Fall of 1864 he was ordered to the command of the 
Ironclad, Albemarle, at Plymouth, but toward the end of 
December, 1864, he was given the command of the Owl, and car- 
ried out successfully 780 bales of cotton. On his return he found 
that the Federals had captured Fort Fisher, but he did not learn 
of this catastrophe until he had anchored off the wharf of Fort 
Caswell, and it became necessary to depart. He sought to enter 
Charleston,. but the blockading squadron attacked him so furiously 
that he withdrew from that harbor. He then steamed to Galves- 
ton, which, however, he found already in the possession of the 
Federals. Almost in despair he made his way to Havana, and 
from there to Halifax, still hoping to make a Confederate port. 
At last, abandoning the hope, he obeyed the last order of the Navy 
Department, given when all hope for the cause had departed, and 
sailed for Liverpool, where he turned over the Owl to Messrs. 
Frasier, Trenholm and Company. 

On September 12, 1865, he wrote to his cousin, Mrs. Hybart: 
"My stomach is too delicate as yet to take the nauseous dose of 
asking for pardon." Indeed, the bitterness of the Federal people 
and authorities toward the Confederate Navy officers was beyond 
expression. These gentlemen, who were ornaments of their pro- 
fession, were habitually stigmatized as pirates, and regarded as 
irresponsible corsairs beyond the pale of civilized warfare; and 
yet Federal Navy officers and others bore cheerful testimony to the 
humanity and superior excellence and chivalrous bearing of 
Captain Maffitt. 

On March 7, 1865, Captain Maffitt, having passed his examina- 



JOHN NEWLAND MAFFITT 211 

tion as a British captain, received command of the British merchant 
steamer Widgeon, trading between Liverpool and Rio Janeiro, 
and that vessel being sold to the Brazilian Government, he sur- 
rendered her on March 27, 1867, and finally returned to the United 
States. He soon located at Wilmington, where he bought a farm 
on the sound, which he named the Moorings, and there he gathered 
his family around him. Admired and beloved in that community 
where he was so well known and so justly esteemed, his life now 
became most agreeable in its tranquillity. A charming conversa- 
tionalist, a man of lofty sentiments and a gentleman distinguished 
for refinement and courtesy, he made the Moorings a resort where 
congenial spirits loved to assemble. On November 23, 1870, he 
was married to Miss Emma Martin, and in her delightful com- 
panionship he prepared for publication his own reminiscences 
under the title of "The Nautilus," and wrote an admirable account 
of his experiences in running the blockade, and various other 
valuable sketches, among them biographical notices of Admiral 
Semmes and of Captain James W. Cooke, of the Confederate 
States' Navy, who built the Albemarle and commanded her in the 
famous battle of Plymouth. By his second wife Captain Maffitt 
had two sons, John Laurens and Colden Rhind, and his last mar- 
riage was blessed by three children, Mary Read, Clarence Dudley 
and Robert Strange. At length, in the early Spring of 1885, he 
became a sufferer from Bright's disease, and on May 15, 1886, he 
passed away, lamented by the entire community. 

S, A. Ashe. 





CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 




' T times more or less critical in the history of our 
State, it has now and then fallen to our lot to 
pause in the toilsome journey of progress while 
we awaited the coming of a master spirit who 
should guide us safely and surely in the direc- 
tion of some wished for goal. Nor have we at 
such times long waited in vain, for, North Carolina, whatever 
else she may have lacked, has not been wanting in men able and 
willing to dedicate themselves to the service of that State whose 
glories are her sacrifices and whose spirit finds truthful expression 
in her motto, "To be rather than to seem." Thus, whether the 
call came in war or peace it mattered not. It was sufficient to 
know that there was service to be rendered, and it followed that 
what men could do was done. 

Among those who have thus faithfully and efficiently served 
the Mother State in time of need is to be included the name of 
Charles Duncan Mclver. Bom September 27, i860, on a farm 
near Sanford, in Moore County, North Carolina, he was ushered 
into the world in the midst of the most exciting Presidential 
campaign in the history of our country. But all unnoticed by him 
passed the partizan and political strife then absorbing the attention 
of State and nation ; nor was his child-mind old enough to com- 
prehend the momentous significance of the years which followed, 
when fratricidal war wrought havoc in the land and left in its 



CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 213 

desolating wake ravages scarce repaired by a long thirty years of 
matchless striving. The aftermath of war it was given him to 
know and feel, not through a morbid recounting of its incurable 
evils, nor through the handing down of a heritage of hate, but by 
means of the saner teachings of economy, self-denial and bodily 
toil, lessons hard in the learning, but mighty in the making of 
men. 

The region around what is now the town of Sanford was 
peopled largely by settlers whose ancestors came from the High- 
lands of Scotland. Evander Mclver, when eight years old, bade 
farewell to his rugged birthplace, the Isle of Skye, and with his 
father made his new home in the pleasant sand hills of North 
Carolina. In his son, Matthew Henry, the father of Charles D. 
Mclver, were exemplified the many sterling traits that history 
shows to be characteristic of the Highland Scotch. Among these 
traits may be mentioned earnest piety, devotion to liberty, respect 
for law and order, and love for education. A successful farmer, a 
respected elder in the Presbyterian Church, a useful and influential 
citizen, he was an admirable type of that class upon which in great- 
est measure rests the stability of State and society. A similar 
description applies to the maternal ancestors of Charles D. Mclver, 
who were of Scotch and English descent. To his mother, whose 
maiden name was Harrington, and who on her maternal side is 
descended from the McNeills of Scotland, the son ascribes the 
formative and directive influences of his early years. No small 
measure of the fruit of his useful life is of seed of her careful 
sowing. Leal and true — these Scotch and English ancestors de- 
cided in their convictions on questions of church and State, yet 
tolerant and charitable ; patriotically responding to the call of the 
South in her hour of need, and bravely giving themselves to the 
rebuilding of waste places in the dark years that followed ; fearers 
of God, and supporters of schools and churches, it is worth some- 
thing to be bom in a community of which such men are citizens, 
and to reckon them among one's neighbors and personal friends. 

Amid the thrifty and orderly influences of this Christian home 
and community, in attendance upon the excellent private schools 



214 NORTH CAROLINA 

of the neighborhood, and in the daily performance of all the vari- 
ous labors that fall to the lot of the healthy farmer boy, the sub- 
ject of this sketch spent the first seventeen years of his life. Here 
were laid the foundations of that vigorous health that has enabled 
him to stand so well the mental and physical strain of later years, 
and here were implanted that love for man and nature, and that 
intelligent and sympathetic appreciation of the needs of our rural 
commonwealth which have proved valuable forces in fitting him 
to become an able champion of the great cause of universal 
education. 

The Fall of 1877 found our farmer lad enrolled as a student of 
the University of North Carolina. Here he spent four profitable 
years, graduating in 1881 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 
In scholarship he took high rank, leading his class in Greek and 
French, and sharing with three others the honors in Latin. 

Undecided as yet upon his life work, he turned to the profession 
of teaching, and in the Fall of 188 1 became assistant in a private 
school in Durham, North Carolina. His ability won quick rec- 
ognition, and in the Spring of the same scholastic year he was 
made principal of the school. In May, 1882, he cast his first vote, 
this being in favor of a local tax for the support of the Durham 
public school system. The fact is worthy of record in that as a 
private school man he voted for a measure which, though for the 
public good, seemed decidedly against his own personal interests. 
He assisted in the establishment of the Durham graded schools, 
and, after serving them as principal for one and one-half years, 
resigned to accept a similar position and to perform a similar 
work in the schools of Winston. Here he remained from 
Febmary, 1884, until September, 1886, at which time he accepted 
a call to Peace Institute, Raleigh, North Carolina, where, as prin- 
cipal of the literary department, he remained until June, 1889. 

In the meantime he had fully decided upon his life-work, and 
rejecting attractive oflfers of partnerships in business and law 
strove to make himself master of his chosen profession — ^teaching. 
He put himself in touch with the quickening forces of the time, 
and sought to add to the strength of the old, the inspiration of 



CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 215 

the new, era. Visits of inspection were made to schools of prom- 
ise, and conferences sought with able educational leaders. The 
ideas thus obtained were accepted, modified, or rejected, as the 
actual work of the schoolroom proved them valuable and prac- 
ticablie, or the reverse. He early associated himself with the North 
Carolina Teachers' Assembly as one of its active members and 
supporters. The vacation periods of every year were devoted 
to work in county institutes and in State Summer schools. In 
addition to his labors as teacher and lecturer, he served as prin- 
cipal of the State Summer Normal School at Wilson, and for two 
successive terms as superintendent of the Summer Normal School 
at Sparta. While thus availing himself of the means at hand to 
promote the interests of public education, he was quick to realize 
the inadequacy of the work as then conducted. "The majority 
of teachers," he reports in 1887, "cannot go a great distance to 
attend normal schools. Small salaries and short school terms 
render it in many cases impossible. Efficient county insti- 
tutes should be brought within the reach of every teacher in the 
State."* 

Here we have presented in few words the lines of future edu- 
cational reform. Institutes within the reach of every teacher — 
will he do aught to accomplish this ? Larger salaries for teachers, 
a longer school term, with the increased appropriations which 
these imply and the higher professional equipment and better ser- 
vice which they in turn demand — will he do more than call the 
attention of the State Superintendent to these needs? But we 
must not anticipate. 

To the urgent need of better qualified teachers those interested 
in education now began to give earnest attention. Through the 
agency of the Teachers' Assembly petitions for the establishment 
of a normal training school were several times presented to the 
Legislature — but without effect. Feeling that more active steps 
should be taken, Charles D. Mclver, in 1889, made a stirring 
speech before his fellow-educators at their annual meeting, which 

♦Bennial Report of State Superintendent of Public Instruction 1887-88, 
page 40. 



2i6 NORTH CAROLINA 

resulted in the appointment of a committee, of which he was made 
chairman, to appear before the Legislature at its next session and 
personally present and urge the adoption of a bill for the estab- 
lishment of a training school for teachers. 

On a day agreed upon the members of the committee appeared 
before the General Assembly, presented the bill and earnestly advo- 
cated its passage. The Chairman, being at the time a resident of 
Raleigh, was in a position to labor continuously in behalf of the 
measure of which henceforth he was the recognized champion. 
He met with little encouragement and with much opposition, but 
so convincingly did he press home his arguments in personal con- 
ferences with members of the Legislature, that, to the surprise of 
all, the bill passed the Senate by a large majority and failed in 
the House by only a few votes. 

Although the General Assembly did not at this time provide 
for the establishment of a State normal college, it wisely trans- 
ferred the appropriation hitherto devoted to the eight Summer 
normal schools to the maintenance of a system of county insti- 
tutes. Thus provision was made for carrying into effect the rec- 
ommendation urged by our Sparta normal school superintendent 
of bringing institutes within reach of every teacher in the State. 
Charles D. Mclver and Edwin A. Alderman, then superintendent 
of the Goldsboro schools, were induced to take charge of this 
work, and were therefore appointed State institute conductors. 

Now began one of the most important campaigns ever con- 
ducted in the State, and perhaps one of the most interesting in 
the history of public education. For three years, from September, 
1889, to September, 1892, Winter and Summer, these men 
preached a crusade in behalf of universal education. In every 
county and in every important city and town in the State, by lec- 
tures, by teaching, by public addresses, by conferences with teach- 
ers and school committeemen, by talks with farmers, editors, 
county officials and politicians, by every approved method, in 
short, known to advocate and reformer, the work was diligently 
and vigorously prosecuted. The good results of their labors are 
with us to-day, and will continue to bless the commonwealth when 



CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 217 

we, our children, and our children's children have finished life's 
appointed lessons and put the books away. 

"My work," declares the man whose career we are following, "is con- 
ducted with a view to stimulating and encouraging the teachers, and to 
making friends to the cause of public education among the people. . . . 
My institutes last five days. The first four days are devoted mainly to the 
professional work of the teacher. Lectures are delivered on the different 
branches taught in the public schools; on school organization, discipline, 
methods of teaching, and methods of studying ; on school law, and on the 
proper use of the books on the State list. Friday, the fifth day, is, in a 
special sense, 'People's Day.* The school committeemen and people gen- 
erally are urged to attend, and the exercises are arranged with a view to 
interesting and instructing them in the work of public education. Besides 
various other exercises, a special address is made on that day, showing 
the necessity for education by taxation, and answering objections to it com- 
monly heard among the people."* 

Amid the arduous duties of his campaign work the necessity 
of a training school for teachers was not forgotten. In truth, this 
may be reckoned one of the means on which more and more he 
came to rely as promising most surely to secure the great end he 
had in view — universal education. Another problem now pre- 
sented itself — namely, where should volunteers for this needful 
service be found in largest numbers, who, when trained, would make 
the best and most sympathetic instructors of the State's children? 
Wider and more varied experience and a deeper insight into the 
real sources of the mental and moral progress of the human race 
convinced him that his syllogism, which before had been — Edu- 
cation a State necessity, the teacher the chief means of education ; 
therefore, the teacher a primary object of State concern, might 
be carried logically further and made to read : Universal education 
a necessity, woman the universal educator; therefore, the educa- 
tion of woman the foundation of human progress. 

This advocacy of the more liberal education of woman is shown 
not only in his public addresses of that period, but in his written 
reports and recommendations to the State Superintendent of Pub- 

♦Report of Conductors of County Institutes in North Carolina, 1889-90, 
page 15. 



2i8 NORTH CAROLINA 

He Instruction. His report of June 30, 1890, contains this sig- 
nificant utterance relating to the establishment of a State normal 
college : 

"To those who are still skeptical as to the wisdom of the training-school 
movement, I would add one more reason why the school should be es- 
tablished and be liberally supported by the State. Under our present sys- 
tem of higher and collegiate education, a white girl, unless her father is 
comparatively wealthy, cannot, as a rule, get the scholarship necessary to 
make her a first-rate teacher. Her brother can get it at the University 
and colleges of the State, because in those institutions about three-fourths 
of his tuition is paid by the State and the churches. Up to the present 
time the State and our leading churches have adopted the suicidal policy 
of refusing to help educate white girls, except in the public schools. . . . 
The girls who would, if prepared, make the best teachers for the State's 
children, cannot even get the scholarship necessary to become teachers. 
One of the results of this is that two-thirds of our public school teachers 
are men, whereas two-thirds, at least, ought to be women. The State ap- 
propriates nothing for the training of white women, except the $4000 for 
the Institutes. It appropriates $8000 to the training of colored teachers 
and uses it in helping — both sexes. In this way the State appropriates as 
much to train one negro woman as it does to train four white women, for 
there are about twice as many white as negro women in the State. By the 
help of the State, the churches and the philanthropists, a fair opportunity 
of getting an education is given to every white boy, negro boy and negro 
girl in North Carolina. Neither of the three has to pay more than one-fifth 
of the expenses of tuition; but the white girl must pay for every cent of 
hers. If the training school shall be established for white girls, it will 
make education possible to thousands of girls who, under present condi- 
tions, must grow up in a state of ignorance and dependence worse than al- 
most any other form of slavery. In addition. North Carolina will secure 
teachers better than she has ever had and who will bless her because she 
has blessed them."* 

His report thus emphasizes the justice and the wisdom of State 
provision for the higher education of white women. An objection 
urged against the former bill for the establishment of a teachers' 
training school was its co-educational feature. In 1891 Mr. Mc- 
Iver and his friend and associate, Mr. Alderman, were again before 

♦Reports of Conductors of County Institutes in North Carolina, 1889-90, 
pages 20, 21. 



CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 219 

the Legislature with a bill for the establishment of the much needed 
institution, but this time, with the co-educational feature omitted. 
The bill passed almost without opposition, and thus, more than 
one hundred years after the University was chartered, the State 
established its college for women. Of this college the board of 
directors, consisting of one member from each Congressional dis- 
trict, elected Charles Duncan Mclver President. 

Now it was that this people's servant sought to build a people's 
college, not a thing of brick and stone, but an institution both 
worthy of and representative of the State that gave it birth. It 
should be an open door of opportunity to every worthy white girl, 
however poor, however rich, within the borders of the common- 
wealth — ^a means of fitting her for good and useful citizenship. 
A woman's college for North Carolina women it should be, char- 
acterized by sound learning, liberal culture, earnest living and 
high thinking, but not by narrow specialization on the one hand, 
nor by a profitless striving for showy accomplishments on the 
other. The best that a State could give should be theirs ; the best 
that educated woman could give should be the State's. In 
this spirit was the institution conceived, and in this spirit has the 
State Normal and Industrial College lived, and grown and 
labored, presided over, inspired, guided and led, by one who has 
not spared to give to it all that man may give. 

It is doubtful if any other public institution was ever in so true 
a sense the product of the unselfish love and labor of one man. 
As to him in largest measure are owing its conception and crea- 
tion, so to him are due its internal and external workings, the policy 
which characterizes it, and the success which' it has achieved. 
And this is true not merely in the larger matters pertaining to its 
general management, but in all the details relating to its work and 
administration. The college plant and its equipment, the depart- 
ments of instruction, the courses of study, the various organiza- 
tions, the ideas for which the institution stands, the spirit it ex- 
emplifies, the work it seeks to accomplish, its relation to the pub- 
lic and the relation of the public to the college — all these, in a very 
true sense, find in him their source and sustenance, and this, not 



220 NORTH CAROLINA 

in a spirit of formal oversight and official dictation, but through 
the living spirit of creative work and felldw service. 

And to what extent have these ideas been realized, and what 
fruit have these labors borne ? Let him answer who can estimate 
the value to State and nation of over 3000 women, who, in the 
short space of fourteen years, have availed themselves of the ad- 
vantages here provided, and with increased power of usefulness 
and enlightened zeal for service have passed on teaching lessons 
of right thinking and right living to more than 200,000 North 
Carolina children. Let him consider that the students have come 
from every county in the State, that they represent every respecta- 
ble calling, profession and industry, and every form of honest 
labor in which the people of North Carolina are engaged; that 
there is not a county in the State in which representatives of the 
college are not to be found actively engaged in public service ; and, 
finally, that two-thirds of all the students enrolled, and more than 
nine-tenths of those who graduate become teachers in North Caro- 
lina. A veritable fulfilling of his prophecy this — education made 
possible to thousands, and the State blessed in her teachers because 
she has blessed them ! 

We would willingly dwell at length upon this phase of 
Doctor Mclver's work, on the intimate relations he sustains to 
the State's College for Women, and on the influences which 
through it he has exerted upon public education. What this 
virile man has done in supplying strength where of old existed 
finishing-school superficiality, how he has inculcated ideas of ser- 
vice, how he has made vital the conception of woman as a citizen, 
how he has diffused abroad a spirit of wholesome democracy — 
and all this through constructive labors, preserving, strengthen- 
ing, and multiplying the influences that make for culture and true 
womanliness — ^this, did space permit, we would willingly em* 
phasize. But the mere suggestion must suffice, for things unsaid 
press upon us and on details we may not linger. 

Important as are these services, they constitute but a part of 
the faithful labors which have won for him State and national 
recognition as an educational leader and statesman. State appre- 



CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 221 

ciation may be said to find expression in an editorial appearing 
in one of our leading North Carolina daily newspapers which, 
under date of January 24, 1904, asserts that he "has been a leading 
force in every movement lookfng for progress, educational or 
otherwise, in North Carolina," . . . and concludes by saying, 
"When the history of this decade is written, the story of the public 
service rendered his State by Charles Duncan Mclver will be one 
of the brightest pages in that splendid volume of patriotic achieve* 
ment. There is not a man in the State who has made himself felt 
so powerfully and so helpfully for progress." 

The national point of view may be taken as indicated in an 
article on Public School Leaders appearing in the July, 1905, 
magazine number of the Outlook. Relative to the topic under 
consideration it says : 

"In the Southern States there is no man better entitled to be called a 
champion of the public schools, and of the whole idea of popular educa- 
tion, than Charles Duncan Mclver, of North Carolina. . . . He is a 
man of intense earnestness, energy, insight and common sense. For the past 
twenty years his voice has been raised in behalf of popular education, not 
only in every county of his own State, but throughout the South and in 
great national assemblies. There is no abler speaker on this subject than 
Doctor Mclver. He has been the soul of the forward movement in his 
region, and he is now chairman of the Campaign Committee inaugurated 
by the Southern Education Board for the promotion of universal 
education." 

The wide variety of this public service is indicated by the posi- 
tions of honor and influence thus far held by Doctor Mclver in 
the course of his busy life. In addition to the fourteen years of 
his college Presidency and the work already referred to as con- 
ductor of State and county institutes, superintendent of Summer 
normal schools, and chairman of the committee that secured the 
establishment of the Normal and Industrial College, he has been 
a participant in all the important work of the North Carolina 
Teachers' Assembly and its President in 1892; a worker in the 
Southern Educational Association and its President in 1905, and 
an active member of the National Educational Association, serving 
at various times as chairman of its Committee on Resolutions, 



222 NORTH CAROLINA 

member of its Committee on Education and Taxation, President 
of its Normal School Department, and member of its National 
Council. During the administration of Governor Elias Carr he 
served as Proxy to represent the State stock in the North Caro- 
lina Railroad Company. He was one of the organizers of the 
Southern Education Board and is the efficient chairman of its 
Campaign Committee and a leader in the movement for local taxa- 
tion for public schools throughout North Carolina. To him is 
owing the organization of the Woman's Association for the Bet- 
terment of Public Schools. He has since its organization been a 
member of the State Literary and Historical Association, and is 
Vice-President of the State Library Association. A loyal son of 
his Alma Mater, the University of North Carolina, he has served 
it officially as trustee and member of its Executive Committee, and 
has liberally and heartily supported every movement for the pro- 
motion of its influences and welfare. In recognition of his public 
services the University has conferred on him the honorary degrees 
of Doctor of Letters and Doctor of Laws. In presenting him for 
the latter degree. Doctor Charles Alphonso Smith, dean of the 
graduate department, said: 

"I have the honor to present ... for the degree of Doctor of 
Laws . . . Charles Duncan Mclver, President of the North Caro- 
lina State Normal and Industrial College for Women. As State Institute 
Conductor from 1889 to 1892, he first showed himself peculiarly fitted to 
be a molder of educational thought. A firm believer in the education of 
all the people, he has devoted his rare powers of organization and appeal 
more especially to the education of women. 'No State,' he declares, 'which 
will educate its mothers need have any fear about future illiteracy.' That 
this sentiment has at last found recognition not only in the educational 
creed, but also in the educational policy of North Carolina is due more 
to Doctor Mclver than to any other one man." 

To add to this already long list the various local organizations, 
city and county, to which he has belonged, such, for example, as 
the Young Men's Business Association, the Industrial and Im- 
migration Association, the Chamber of Commerce, the Guilford 
County Board of School Improvement, and the North Carolina 



CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 223 

Reunion Association — ^to mention all such organizations and to 
specify the committees on which he has served would be to convert 
the latter part of this sketch largely into a catalogue of society 
and committee names. Interpreted aright there is a profound sig- 
nificance in this long array of social, industrial, educational, busi- 
ness, literary and historical associations, since it indicates not only 
a healthful interest in national. State and local affairs, but a wide 
and intimate familiarity with the agencies of progress and a whole* 
souled enlistment of his energies in all movements that promise 
to promote the public good. 

It is as a public speaker and orator that Doctor Mclver is most 
widely known to the general public both in his own State and be- 
yond its borders. The demands thus made upon him are frequent 
and at times almost continuous. It is his custom to carry with him 
a pocket calendar on which are noted the dates of promised ad- 
dresses. When a new appointment is sought, he consults his 
calendar, names the nearest unfilled date, and thus, by an unending 
process, adds to what he calls his "incidental and vacation work." 
Appointments are often made several months in advance and it is 
not unusual for him to have every available date filled for six 
weeks in succession. The acceptance of these invitations is de- 
termined by the opportunity for service afforded by the particular 
town, city or community from which comes the call. If any doubt 
arises the chances are nearly always in favor of the smaller and 
weaker community, and the message is carried to the few hun- 
dreds that gather at the cross-roads, store or country church rather 
than to the larger number who assemble in opera house or city hall. 
The message, too, has reference to the needs and special condi- 
tions of time and place, and thus constitutes a sowing of good 
seed in suitable soil, for it is safe to say that Charles D. Mclver 
never addressed an audience without having a distinct end in view 
and that end the provoking to good works. There are few places 
in North Carolina where his voice has not been raised in behalf of 
some public measure. Large audiences, too, in great cities far 
removed from his native State, have greeted this educational 
leader, and from his lips heard wholesome truths relative to our 



224 NORTH CAROLINA 

educational progress. Thus he has been invited to make educa- 
tional addresses in more than one-half of the States in the Union. 

His favorite topics are, of course, those that relate to education, 
but as this is among the most comprehensive of subjects, his ad- 
dresses may be said to embody a wide range of themes. He is 
not a man to deal in generalities, but with a particular purpose 
in view selects a timely theme, appropriate to a given audience, 
and seeks by means of a clear and forceful presentation of facts 
to accomplish a definite result. He will, for example, address 
a body of lawmakers on the duty of the State to make liberal pro- 
vision for the education of its citizens — ^the citizens themselves 
on the advantages of local taxation for public schools. Or, the 
"Teacher as a Citizen" will perhaps be the subject of a talk to 
teachers, and when urged to repeat it before a general audience, 
he will respond with an address on the Citizen as a Teacher. 
Although an interested student of our past history, he seldom 
draws upon its storehouse for the materials of his public dis- 
courses, but prefers to live in the present and in it to find the chief 
objects of public concern. With him the past is our heritage, the 
present our opportunity, and the future — a result of the labors of 
to-day. To the work at hand he therefore addresses himself, and 
though he sometimes sees visions, he never dreams dreams. All 
his speeches, whether intended primarily for men or women, and 
whether addressed to students, teachers, civic organizations, or the 
general public, have this one thing in common — they all, without 
exception, emphasize the duty of public and community service. 

While relying chiefly upon the power of the spoken word as 
an agency in conveying his message to mankind, he has not been 
unmindful of the influence of the pen. Amid the duties of 
official life and the numerous outside calls made upon him, he has 
found time to write much that is of more than passing value. His 
newspaper and magazine articles, his educational campaign docu- 
ments and official reports, and his speeches, revised and prepared 
for publication, these, if gathered together, would doubtless com- 
prise several goodly volumes, and would constitute a valuable ad- 
dition to the literature relating to education and civic ideals. His 



CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 225 

writings, like his speeches, are clear and forceful discussions of 
topics pertaining to education and public service. 

The life here sketched would seem to leave little opportunity 
for the enjoyment of the quieter pleasures of home, and the leisure 
and happiness which home suggests. But the life here sketched is 
but the outer and visible workings of an innner life which finds its 
center in the home and family. In Miss Lula V. Martin, of Win- 
ston, North Carolina, Charles D. Mclver found a life companion 
whose Christian graces of character and powers of intellectual 
sympathy render her the true encourager of worthy efforts and a 
wise judge and rewarder of success. Four children, a son and 
three daughters, add happiness to their union. A simple home 
is theirs, blessed by generous affection and pervaded by an atmos- 
phere of hospitality and genial courtesy — ^a home where culture 
and quiet refinement are justly esteemed and where trust in God 
and faith in humanity remain unquestioned and sincere. Their 
religious faith is that of the Scotch Covenanters, adhered to in its 
simplicity, but lived in the spirit of Christian rather than of 
sect. They have amassed no wealth, yet none would call them 
poor, for love and confidence here bear choice fruits, and mutual 
sympathy and helpfulness add that which mere worldly wealth 
is ever powerless to bestow. 

Twenty-five years have elapsed since, diploma in hand, 
Charles D. Mclver passed from college halls into the larger school 
of life. In the prime of his vigor and usefulness he bids fair to 
add to them twenty-five other years rich with the fruitage of 
abundant harvests. The work already done he may not do again ; 
but work there will be for his willing hands to do and he will do 
it with his might. He has accomplished much, and in the doing 
of it has taught us to demand of him, and of ourselves, and of all 
men — ^more. This, we suspect, is as he would have it, for his 
message to his fellow man has been: Live more abundantly 
through more abundant service, striving hopefully for the larger 
things of life. 

Even as the proof sheets of this sketch were passing through the 
press, there came to Charles Duncan Mclver the call — "Enter 



226 NORTH CAROLINA 

into rest." The story of a people's grief is indicated by the fol- 
lowing tributes, few among hundreds, all expressive of the keen- 
est personal loss, yet eloquent, also, in gratitude for a life so nobly 
spent in the service of humanity. 

From Press Correspondence: 

"The tour of William J. Bryan through North Carolina began yesterday ' 
afternoon (September 17, 1906) with the departure of his special train 
for Greensboro accompanied by a large party of prominent citizens. The 
trip to Greensboro started auspiciously, but was saddened just as the 
train left Durham by the death of Doctor Charles D. Mclver, the leading 
educator and most useful citizen of North Carolina. The death of Doctor 
Mclver came as a great shock, and it spread the shadow of a great sorrow 
over every person on the train. On account of the sad and untimely end 
of his friend and traveling companion Mr. Bryan declined to speak at 
Hillsboro. At Burlington he said: 

" *I am sure that you will agree with us that this is not the time or 
occasion for a political speech. Doctor Charles D. Mclver was the man 
who first invited me to North Carolina twelve years ago, and I have never 
been in your State since that he was not on the reception committee and 
the first to greet and cheer me. His life, perhaps, more than that of any 
man I knew as well, illustrated the value of an ideal. He was an educated 
man whose sympathies were with the uneducated. He moved in the 
highest circles, yet snapped the golden cord, unselfishly lifting others up. 
His death is a loss — a fearful loss — to his country, his State, his city of 
Greensboro, to the glorious institution of learning which is now his 
monument, to his family, to his party and a great personal loss to me.' " 

From Daily Industrial News: 

" 'Charles D. Mclver is dead* — as a pall this sentence fell upon Greens- 
boro yesterday afternoon. And not to Greensboro alone, but to the entire 
State is the loss — not alone to the State, but to the entire educational 
world. For Doctor Mclver had made for himself a place in his chosen 
field of work that cannot be filled. To the education of the South, espe- 
cially the women of the South, he had devoted his life. . . . 

"Through his work will he live in the history of North Carolina, but 
even aside from his work he will not be forgotten by the multitude who 
called him friend. He is gone with much already accomplished, and yet 
with apparently much still before him. In the prime of manhood he was 
suddenly stricken and taken from the field of useful endeavor — dead 
but not forgotten. Yes, gone in the body and gone from the sight of 
mortal eyes, and yet not wholly gone, for never will his memory fade 



CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 227 

from the minds and hearts of those who love humanity and love those who 
loved humanity, and of such in the fullest measure was Charles Duncan 
Mclver." 

From The Daily Record: 

"This entire community was shocked beyond expression by the sad in- 
telligence of the sudden death of Doctor Charles Duncan Mclver. Not only 
has Greensboro and the State, but the nation as well, sustained a severe 
loss. Men — great men — die every day, but their places are soon filled 
and they are almost forgotten, but it is no exaggeration to say that to 
fill his place will be a task of difficult proportions. He was a lovable man. 
Every one of the thousands of young women who attended the Normal 
loved him; he made their lives pleasant; his great aim was to make the 
poorest girl, the friendless girl, feel that she was at home; that poverty 
was an honor if honorably worn. 

From The Greensboro Telegram: 

"It is no exaggeration to say that Greensboro was panic stricken 
yesterday afternoon when the news went from lip to lip that Doctor Mclver 
was dead. 

"It is quite impossible to fully realize all that the death of such a man 
means to the community, to the State, and to the nation. 

"The debt that the womanhood of the State owes him can never be paid. 
To him is to be traced in the last analysis all the influences which have 
flown from the Normal College for the uplift of North Carolina women, 
for he was the Normal College in the sense that it was his cireation. 
He it was who both planned and executed, overcoming seemingly insuper- 
able obstacles by his titanic energy and determination. From first to last 
the institution bore the impress of his powerful personality, and his in- 
fluence will ever be felt in its future history. 

From The Charlotte Observer: 

"The news of the death of Doctor Charles D. Mclver will carry a shock 
from one end of the State to the other. Upon the subject of education he 
was an enthusiast; an always rational, intelligent enthusiast. No man in 
our history has done more to forward it. His own institution, the in- 
stitution which, one will say, was born to him, which he nursed and 
fostered, was the object of his special and natural affection, but in the 
whole field he was a champion, an advocate, and in his death the cause 
has lost a stalwart friend. It will be difficult to fill the vacancy which 
his death has created. It was a proper tribute paid him at Greensboro 
last evening that there was no political address, but that the meeting was 
made one of memorial." 



228 NORTH CAROLINA 

From Bryan's eulogy on Doctor Mclver, delivered in Greens- 
boro, on Monday night, September 17th: 

". . . Professor Mclver has shown us what man can do. He has 
not only shown us, but did what man ought to do. He has given us an ideal 
of life, and I am coming more and more to believe that the ideal is the 
important thing. . . . 

"I believe that Professor Mclver's life was a success. We have a 
great man, Rockefeller — the richest man in the world — and if I had to 
choose between leaving the record of Professor Mclver and leaving the 
money of Rockefeller, I would a thousand times rather leave Mclver' s 
record to posterity. I will tell you a test of whether life has been a 
success or not We all live amid an environment. Sometimes we are 
only known to a little circle, sometimes to a larger circle; but when we 
die there is going to be a just verdict, and that just and honest verdict 
is the thing that we ourselves, when we come to take a proper view of 
life, will be more interested in than the houses and lands that we leave 
for our children to quarrel over, and I have thought that it can be said 
that a life has been lived successfully if, when it passes out, we can say 
of the person, as we can say of this dear friend of mine and of yours: 

" *The night is darker because his light is gone out : 
The world is not so warm because his heart is cold in death.* " 

From the Raleigh News and Observer: 

"Charles D. Mclver was the best type of Southern manhood. His faith 
was profound, his courage unconquerable, and his capacity for labor 
apparently a thing that had no limit when the interests which he held 
dear were concerned. He was of massive brain and electric personality. 
Easily of national size, he preferred to stay in North Carolina and devote 
his genius to her educational advancement. 

"The profession that he adopted made Doctor Mclver an educational 
statesman, but he was more than that. He was a patriot and a statesman 
in the broad sense. 

"It would be difficult to name any movement^ducational, industrial, 
religious or political — that was making for the betterment of the State 
that did not feel the helpful touch of Charles D. Mclver. He was an 
optimist of the best type, and went about making others have faith in 
themselves and inspiring them with patriotism and civic virtue and public 
spirit. Other men will be found who will carry on the college and 
direct the public educational work, but his spirit of faith and hope and 
cheer will be missed in an hundred ways, and it was the thing that made 
him easily the most useful man in North Carolina and the best loved 
private citizen. 



CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 229 

Albert Shaw in the October, 1906, Reznew of Reviews: 
'* . . . Doctor Mclver was not quite forty-six years old; but his 
influence was already great, and his achievement was of the sort that saves- 
imperiled civilizations and transforms communities. . . . He was a 
man of remarkable eloquence, and of great readiness and power on all oc- 
casions in public speech. He was famous for his wit, and for his un- 
limited store of amusing incidents and anecdotes. . . . If he had chosen 
to turn his energies into political channels he would have been Governor 
of his State and then United States Senator." 

Walter H. Page in the October, 1906, South Atlantic Quarterly: 

"... I suppose that he was regarded as a close personal friend 
by more men and women, and he had the intimate confidence of more men 
and women than any other man in North Carolina. . . . Twice he 
had a chance possibly to become President of the State University, but 
he considered his work in building a college for women of greater im- 
portance. He might at any time during the last six or eight years have 
received an income that would have relieved him of all financial care and 
provided luxuriously for his family if he had given his time to business 
undertakings. But the building and the development of a great college 
for the training of women (and by the training of women, the lifting up 
of the whole people) was dearer to him than all other aims in life ; and he 
never hesitated." 

Extract from Governor's Proclamation: 

Governor R. B. Glenn issued the following proclamation to the people 
of North Carolina at the request of a number of prominent citizens: 

"The lifework of Charles D. Mclver is ended. For twenty-five years he 
served his State with fidelity, zeal and efficiency not surpassed in her 
annals. No one has rendered the State a greater service. It is now the 
high duty and privilege of the people whom he served with unselfish 
devotion to manifest their grateful appreciation of his life and character 
by a memorial which will transmit his memory to posterity and be a per- 
petual incentive to the youth of the State to emulate his example. An 
heroic statue in bronze, designed and cast by a great artist, has been selected 
by general consent as a most fitting memorial. Charles D. Mclver's en- 
tire life was given for the better education of all our women, the improve- 
ment of the educational opportunities of all our children, the uplifting 
of all our citizenship and the elevation of all our ideals of civic service." 

William C. Smith. 




JOHN McMillan McIver 




; lOGRAPHICAL sketches of representatives of 
the highest character, wisest methods, noblest 
achievements, in a word, the loftiest ideas, are 
precious legacies of the ages. Distinguished 
services and how they were rendered, unques^ 
tionable success and by what means attained, 
an honorable and widely useful career despite inconspicuous sta- 
tion and how achieved, make up a worthy and fascinating story 
for the living, as well as for transmission to succeeding genera- 
tions. Among that noble class who are at once successful and 
widely influential in a life spent in the shades of retirement remote 
from the gaze of the public, no man in our time in North Carolina 
is a more illustrious representative than John McMillan McIver, 
of Gulf. 

The life of every man, no less than that of every plant and 
animal, is the product of the combined influence of heredity and 
circumstances. Inherited tendencies, unconscious impression from 
men and things, are so many tuitional influences, or "schools and 
schoolmasters," that determine measurably the character and life 
of us all. The plastic mind of childhood, inconceivably more 
plastic than the body, can never throw off impressions then re- 
ceived. We may all say, "I am a part of all that I have met, es- 
pecially that which I have met in childhood." 

The historical outline of no man's life can be written without 




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' - «:>lx^ (»f rcprt\-eiitativ( ^ of 

: ' .i'.*' ilt, \\i-'-^t nictl^.ous, n'-^bV'^: 

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^< ■ H ^ m: ti... air'.'S. Distiir^ui.^lrd 

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*: • -•1v-^i..n to s\icr«'( /uptr pci^'.-ra- 

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'■ !Ti Ow s!.a(U-s of ro^irctnont r<. n:*'te 

i' > n..i 1 n oi:r tiiiic in Xortli ("^aroiini 

.i.itlxs il:an Jolm }vIc]^.Mlan M elver. 



•. . . no li ss tlrin tl.at oi every \A:u\t aii'l 

: (•'' tii<^ v'"ii.:)' Kij intluenee of hcrclily and 

•?! It. n-Icnv'!'. . nncon^cir,r,s ii T])re>sion from 

vi^- ?i::^:. ..^.al inllnences, or *'scIh,m»1s aiid 

-'iiiii'v T^iea^nMbly the eharactcr and life 

• ;* niin'i » f childhood, inconoei va])ly mca'c 

ran novcr t]M(.»\v off imj^ressions tlien rc- 

- ly, "1 am a part (^f all tliat I have met, e.->- 

'Mve met in chiMhood." 

' tj of no man's life can be written withcnt 








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JOHN McMillan McIVEr 231 

relating the race from which he sprang, the place where he was 
reared, the institutions, the social customs and educational forces 
which molded his character and thus singled him out from his 
species, individualizing him for all time. The task is a pleasant 
one. History loves to trace the lineage of those whose lives rise 
above mediocrity and shine with deeds of high morality and beauti- 
ful unselfishness. If the blood that courses through the veins 
bears upon its tide the virtues by which it was first distinguished, 
then there is a prestige of birth that may prompt generations in 
their turn — 

"To draw forth a noble ancestry 

From the corruption of abusing time, 

Unto a lineal, true-derived course." 

Still the glory of embellishing a name, of adding to its luster, is 
superior to that of first drawing it from the ages agone. 

John McMillan Mclver was born on November 6, 1838, near, 
Carbonton, in Moore County, hard by the line of Chatham, on the 
hills of the historic Clarendon, now Deep River, and within the 
bounds of old Euphronia Presbyterian Church. 

His great-grandfather, Donald Mclver, was one of the three 
brothers who emigrated from Scotland in 1772. Two of these 
brothers settled in North Carolina and one in South Carolina. 
From this trio have descended nearly all of the sturdy folk who 
bear the name in both States. 

The name of his father was Alexander Mclver, a farmer, a 
loyal Presbyterian and an elder in Euphronia Church. His mother 
was Miss Ann Gordon, daughter of Mr. Langston Gordon, of 
Virginia, an Englishman. 

The life of the subject of this sketch from birth has been typ- 
ically North Carolinian, modified by traits of parentage through 
his rugged paternal ancestry. There were but few environments 
better calculated to form character than those found in the atmos- 
phere among the hills of his birthplace where the parish schools, 
hard by the kirk in the fatherland, had been transplanted and re- 
ligiously fostered. He was born into that way of life which might 
be called in other lands the middle class, but happily in our coun- 



232 NORTH CAROLINA 

try character and capacity make their own level. He was neither 
of the richest nor of the poorest, neither proud nor humble; he 
knew no hunger he was not sure of satisfying, no luxury which 
cotild enervate mind or body. His parents were sober. God-fear- 
ing people ; intelligent and upright ; without pretension and with- 
out self-effacing. He grew up in the ccxnpany of boys who worked 
on the farm like himself — ^wholesome, honest, self-respecting. 
They looked down on nobody, they never felt it possible they could 
be looked down upon. Their houses were the homes of probity, 
piety, patriotism. They learned from the inspiring traditions of 
their fathers, and at the feet of teachers of soimd Qiristianity 
and ennobling patriotism, the lessons of heroic and splendid life 
which came down from the past 

His father died when he was only one year old. The loss was 
great; but his mother proved a wise and capable counsellor, and 
her care and training molded him into manly excellence. His 
earliest recollection of his mother was seeing her kneeling in 
prayer with her three little children around her. A comfortable 
patrimony fell to him from his father's estate. In early life he had 
a strong desire for an education. The impulse was natural to one 
of such ancestrj' and living in such surroundings. The first con- 
fession of faith adopted by the church of his progenitors, about 
two hundred and seventy-five years before, contained a provision 
for the planting of a school in every parish. Coming as did his 
forefathers and others, so to speak, from the feet of John Knox, 
the greatest of Scotchmen and the most illustrious pupil of 
John CalNnn, they became founders and patrons of academic 
schools, which, without cabinets, laboratories and other parts of 
a college equipment, educated many young men for the gospel 
ministr>', the bar and other learned professions. The influence of 
these early and useful schools had not died out as an inspiration 
to the young of that day. By both inheritance and environment 
there came therefore to him an overmastering and enthusiastic 
impulse for an education. 

Preparation to matriculate at the University- was obtained under 
that celebrated teacher. Doctor Alexander Wilson, at Melville 



JOHN McMillan McIVEr 233 

Academy in Alamance County. In 1858, in his twentieth year^ 
he was admitted to the classes of the University of North Caro- 
lina. In 1861, when the war between the States began, he left 
the University promptly to enter the army. An attack of sickness 
frustrated his plans and he returned to the University and grad- 
uated in 1862, receiving the degree of Bachelor of Arts. On leav- 
ing the halls of the University he enlisted immediately as a soldier 
in a cavalry company, made up mostly of descendants of Scotch 
Highlanders, with Reverend James H. McNeil as commandant. 
The field of service for his command was in Eastern North Caro- 
lina until the opening of the famous Gettysburg campaign in 1863, 
when as the Sixty-third North Carolina Regiment it was trans- 
ferred to the army of Northern Virginia. Surviving the hard- 
ships and many bloody battles of this great army, he surrendered 
with it at Appomattox Court-House in 1865, having made a 
splendid record as a brave and conscientious soldier, whether in 
camp, bivouac or battle. 

The active work of his life as a civilian was begun as a school- 
teacher. In 1865 he taught at Buffalo Church in Moore Coimty, 
and afterward in Bladen County, and at Waynesville in Haywood 
County. In each of these communities his influence was forceful 
and far-reaching. The hearts as well as the heads of his pupils 
were impressed with his Christian life and nice scholarship. Some 
of his pupils became eminent as officers of the State, and many 
bear testimony to-day most gratefully to his uplifting and lasting 
work upon their minds arid their character. In 1870 he became 
engaged in business at Gulf and established his home there. 
Mr. Mclver has six children : three, the children of a former mar- 
riage to Miss Mattie Lee Morrison, of Asheville, and three, the 
children of his present marriage to Miss Lois Anderson, of 
Davidson. 

His career as a worker in the church has been marked by ex- 
ceptionally distinguished services ; and to few men have so many 
and such high honors fallen. He was one of the founders of his 
church at Gulf and was elected its first elder. During the years 
of its earlier historv he alone constituted its session. He is the 



234 NORTH CAROLINA 

•only clerk its session has ever had, and the only superintendent 
of its Sunday-school. As the representative of his church he has 
attended with notable frequency the meetings of his Presbytery, 
and is one of the four ruling elders it has so far elected to preside 
over its deliberations as moderator. Twice he has been elected 
Commissioner to the General Assembly, the highest court in the 
polity of the church. He has been called often to serve on the most 
important committees. He filled with great credit the chairman- 
ship of the committee in charge of the Elders' and Deacons' In- 
stitute, and is now one of the two ruling elders on the Synodical 
Committee in charge of the Twentieth Century Million Dollar 
Educational Fund. 

His career as a business man has been no less successful. He 
was never a speculator in the commonly accepted meaning of that 
word. One of the most pronounced characteristics of his work 
in the business sphere has been conservative. He has accumulated 
a fine estate. Yet it has been done by the application of the reg- 
ular and well-known and universally approved business methods 
of the world. His system, frugality, sagacit>% industry, concurred 
to make his work as gainful as possible, bating the possible out- 
come of speculative ventures. He is a large and successful farmer, 
and a merchant with a fine volume of business. He was a pioneer 
in the roller milling business. As a manufacturer of flour he is 
widely known and popular. He has been one of those active men 
who have contributed so much to placing North Carolina on the 
career of prosperity that marks this period as the most interesting, 
industrially, in her histor\\ He is interested as a director and 
stockholder in the bank of Fayetteville, a stockholder, director and 
\'ice-President of the Sanford Cotton Mills, a stockholder in the 
Columbia Manufacturing Company at Ramseur, North Carolina, 
and the Elmira Cotton Mills in Burlington, North Carolina. 

Tracing the service and success that have made up so much of 
his life back to the principles and methods which led on to them 
is a task as interesting as it is instructive. He built upon sure 
foundations. A conscientious desire to do his duty to his fellow- 
men, to himself and to his God have been prominent and conspicu- 



JOHN McMillan Mciver 235 

ous without ostentation. Three subjects for practice in composi- 
tion assigned to him when he was a student at Melville Academy 
by Doctor Alexander Wilson (Festina lente, make haste slowly; 
Obsta Principiis, oppose the beginnings ; Esse Quam Videri, to be 
rather than to appear to be) made, he says, a deep impression on 
him and has had much to do in shaping both his religious and 
business life. It has been a deep conviction with him that the 
cost of success was doing his best. His confidential legal adviser 
says of him, "He is one man who never forgets his God in his 
business." In cases actually occurring he has always readily re- 
nounced the employment of legal advantages with gain, and chosen 
instead an equitable procedure with loss. 

The following word picture portrays in some measure the make 
up of the man : One who lives largely not for himself but for 
others; and whose pleasure and happiness consists to an excep- 
tional degree in contributing to the happiness of others. A man 
of singularly sweet and amiable disposition and retiring in his 
habits, and yet, surprisingly, a successful business man even in 
this day of strenuous life and activity. One who can be depended 
upon at all times and never be found wanting. Of martyr spirit to 
suflfer at the stake for conscience' sake, and for what he believes 
to be right. Ever ready to aid liberally in any and every move- 
ment in church or State for the good of his fellows. 

A Democrat and interested in politics and influential, yet in- 
tensely averse to office holding; a Presbyterian in religion, with 
the most cordial regard for his fellows of other creeds ; an active 
man in the conduct of large and varied business interests, yet liv- 
ing always unobtrusively and retiringly he has won distinguished 
success in business, and wielded a silent but powerful influence for 
good in business, social and religious life. 

In a home notable for its atmosphere of culture and refinement, 
he is spending his days as a representative of the highest ideal 
of a Christian gentleman and successful man of business in the life 
of North Carolina as seen to-day. 

P. R. Law. 




WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 




ORTH CAROLINA has produced three men 
who have attained the Presidency. Jackson, 
Polk and Johnson were all her sons; but the 
avenue of promotion lay through Tennessee. 
The balance of power has long since crossed 
the Alleghanies and is now crossing the 
Mississippi. It long ago proved that geographical location is the 
predominant factor in the making of Presidents and not inherent 
ability, and so confirms Mr. Bryce's thesis that we do not elect 
our greatest men to that office. It is to the doubtful States that 
parties go for candidates; to the centers of wealth and popula- 
tion. The rural community is no longer a factor in making nomina- 
tions. Then, too, during the period of Mangum's active career 
North Carolina was almost as solidly Whig as it is now Demo- 
cratic. The change came in the fifties, just as he was retiring from 
public life, and as a result the Whigs found their candidate for 
Vice-President in 1852 in William A. Graham. In that year North 
Carolinian was pitted against North Carolinian for the second 
place and again it was given to the son who had migrated to win 
the prize. Hence, while North Carolina produced three men who 
filled the Presidency and one the Vice-Presidency, none were 
elected to those offices as North Carolinians. But the State can 
claim for herself what was at that time the third, and after the 
death of the President or Vice-President the second, office in rank 




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WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 237 

— ^the Presidency of the Senate. A President pro tempore of the 
Senate is chosen by its members in each Congress. His duties are 
nominal only, but upon the death or promotion of the Vice-Presi- 
dent he became, before a recent law changed the order of succes- 
sion, the heir apparent to the Presidency. 

It follows then that while Willie P. Mangum was President of 
the Senate, 1842-45, and was next in succession after Tyler to the 
Presidency, he filled the highest post under this Government ever 
attained by a North Carolinian as such. 

Willie Person Mangum, lawyer, legislator, judge. Congress- 
man, United States Senator and President pro tempore of the 
United States Senate, was bom in Orange, now Durham, County, 
North Carolina, May 10, 1792 (pot December 29, 1 791, as is some- 
times stated). His birthplace was near but not at the site of his 
later home, the present Umbra post office, known to the family 
as Walnut Hall, and during his life as Red Mountain (not near 
the present town of Durham, as is also said). 

The Mangums were seated in Sussex and adjoining sections of 
Virginia early in the eighteenth century, and seem to have been 
caught by the last waves of the great stream of migration that 
swept over the southern border of that State into North Carolina 
for a hundred years. Tradition has it that the family is Welch 
in origin and that the original form of the name was Manghamis ; 
we know that the Irish branch still spells the name Mangham. It 
is believed that the subject of this sketch is descended from the 
Mangums, who about 1730 to 1750 were located in Albemarle 
Parish, Sussex County, Virginia. There were three heads of fam- 
ilies there at that time with this surname, William, James, John — 
presumably brothers. William Mangum and his wife Mary had 
four sons: James, bom January 2, 1734; William, bom May 16, 
1736; Henry, born January 24, 1773 {sic, error for 1737-38?); 
Arthur, born May 2, 1743. James Mangum, the elder, had two 
sons, William and James, and a daughter, Lucy; John had a 
daughter, Rebeckah (Va. Mag. of Hist, and Biog., July, 1894, 
p. 108). 

We are not certain as to the exact time that Arthur Mangum, 



238 NORTH CAROLINA 

grandfather of Willie P. Mangum, and believed to be identical 
with the one named above, came into North Carolina ; but he seems 
to have come by way of Warren County, and perhaps stopped in 
Granville, for there was a Mangum family in that county as early 
as 1757. That an Arthur Mangum was in North Carolina in 
1763 we learn from a manuscript note made by Thomas Person: 
'* Bought of Arthur Mangum i Barrel com @ 9/6 Cash he Dr. 
to 2/6 for Writeing his Deed to Orange Co. next in May, Tuesday, 
6 Apr." (1763.) And again: "Paid Jos. Langston to be given 
to Arthur Mangum on acct. of a Barrel of Corn 10/. Cash 
26 Ap." 

The first land entries by Arthur Mangum, the grandfather 
of Judge Mangum, so far as Orange County records seem to show, 
date from 1760. Some of the lands taken up by him during 
the next few years remained in the family till February, 1902. 
Arthur Mangum married Lucy Person. She was a niece of 
Colonel William Person, of Granville (1700-78) and as such a 
cousin of General Thomas Person. I have not found the name 
of her father. She was probably the daughter of that Mary Person 
whose will was probated in Granville County Court August 11, 
1761. Arthur Mangum died between March 12 and 24, 1789; his 
wife remained a widow for forty years and died about 1829, aged 
about ninety-two. They had children as follows, order uncertain : 

( 1 ) William Person Mangum, father of Willie Person Mangum ; 

(2) Arthur, who married Dicey Carrington, daughter of John Car- 
rington; he died about 1813, aged about forty, and left "a house 
full" of children, who migrated to Georgia, Mississippi and Miss- 
ouri; (3) Willie, who was very handsome and a merchant, died 
young and unmarried ; (4) Sally married Sion Bobbitt and went to 
Tennessee; (5) Holly, who married Cozart; one of her sons, 
William, was a large merchant in Columbus, Mississippi ; another, 
Herbert, was a merchant in Georgia ; another, James, was a planter 

in Granville; (6) Chaney married Mangum, and was the 

mother of Colonel Ellison Mangum and grandmother of Captain 
Addison Mangum and of Professor A. W. Mangum; (7) Clary 
(or Qara) married David Parker, a farmer of Granville; Colonel 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 239 

Abner Parker, merchant; Harrison Parker, planter; and David 
Parker, later of Edgecombe, were their sons. She left also a 
daughter, who married William Horner, father of James H. and 
Thomas J. Horner, the distinguished teachers. 

William Person Mangum, who is thought to have been the old- 
est child of Arthur Mangum, was born about 1762. He married 
Catharine (Kate) Davis, who was bom on the Schuylkill River 
in Pennsylvania. Her father migrated to Orange County, North 
Carolina, when she was about four years old and there he died, 
William Person Mangum was a farmer and merchant and spent all 
his life in Orange, where he died in 1837, aged seventy-five. His 
wife had died in March, 1825. This couple had only three sons: 
Willie Person, the oldest and subject of this sketch; (2) 
Priestley Hinton, noticed in the sketch of his son, W. P. Mangum, 
Jr.; (3) Walter Alvis, bom in Orange County, January 28, 1798; 
married Miss Eliza P. Bullock, daughter of Doctor Benjamin Bul- 
lock, of Granville ; removed to Mississippi in 1832 and became a 
planter; removed to Louisiana in 1856 and in 1863 to Texas as a 
refugee ; after the war returned to Louisiana and died there Janu- 
ary 20, 1868. He left a large family, some of whom have at- 
tained distinction; numerous descendants are still living in 
Texas. 

It would seem that Willie Person Mangum came to his feeling 
for statecraft from his grandmother's family, and that the political 
mantel of his distinguished relative, Thomas Person, rested on his 
shoulders, for his father's family were merchants and planters and 
had not been before his day in public life. He received his pre- 
liminary education in part at the hands of Thomas M. Flint, a 
strolling pedagogue; in part at the Fayetteville Academy under 
Reverend Colin Mclver, and in part in the Raleigh Academy under 
Reverend Doctor McPheeters. He spent some time also as a clerk 
in his father's store and was graduated at the University of North 
Carolina in 181 5. 

He began to study law with Honorable Duncan Cameron ; acted 
as tutor to his son, the late Honorable Paul C. Cameron, and was 
licensed to practice January 10, 1817. It is evident that 



240 NORTH CAROLINA 

he was successful from the start. He writes to his brother 
April 26, 18 19: 

"I have made a good deal of money this Spring, say upward of $1900 
in actual receipts and nearly that sum in good bonds and accounts. My 
prospects in the practice continue to grow more flattering. 

"You know that I have made a considerable purchase in Haywood. I 
think I have made more by that than all the rest of the labors of my 
life. ... In one case of Mrs. Patty Taylor, I have secured a fee at 
six months of one thousand dollars . . . and an equal share with 
the first in the other business of that court which is profitable." 

But even then he was dreaming dreams of political preferment. 

"That I could go to Congress without difficulty I entertain no doubt/* 
he writes in the same letter. "The dangerous diadem has flittered before 
my vision and ambition frequently lingers with delight in tracing the out- 
line of the delusion, but interest, and in my opinion sound judgment, for- 
bid the thought." 

But even then he was in politics. He was a member of the 
House of Commons in 1818 and 1819 from Orange County; 
served on the judiciary and education committees; strongly ad- 
vocated the organization of a distinct Supreme Court and favored 
calling a Constitutional Convention, one of the burning questions 
of that day. By the Legislature of 1819 he was elected 
(December 22, 1819) a Judge of the Superior Court of Law and 
Equity to succeed Judge Toomer, resigned. There is a story that 
he was the candidate of his old. instructor, Judge Cameron, then a 
member of the State Senate from Orange. John Stanly had 
boasted that he would give the vacant judgship to his young kins- 
man, George E. Badger. Cameron's first candidate was 
William Norwood, of Hillsboro. Finding that he could not beat 
Stanly with Norwood, young Mangum was brought out and 
elected. He rode one of the eastern circuits, but the climate did 
not agree with him, and after a year of work on the bench he re- 
signed, November, 1820, and returned to the practice of law. 

In 1823 he became a candidate for the i8th Congress 
(1823-25) from what was then the eighth district, composed of 
Orange, Person and Wake. His opponent was General Daniel L. 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 241 

Barringer, a resident of Raleigh. The election was held in August, 
1823, for until 1861 Congressional elections were held in the odd 
years and after the term of service had begun in March. The 
candidates fought it out on their legislative records and on State 
issues. The main questions were the proposed amendment to the 
Constitution making the representation of the two sections equal — 
the old fight between the sections. Mangum favored such an 
amendment and Barringer avoided it; he also favored the bill 
which required the banks to pay specie for their notes while Bar- 
ringer voted on both sides. Mangum received 2523 votes; Bar- 
ringer, 1729. 

Mangum went to Congress as a Republican, and in the Presi- 
dential campaign of 1824 was a strong supporter of Crawford. 
He writes Seth Jones, of Wake, on January 3, 1825 : "I feel it my 
duty to vote for Mr. Crawford as long as he has the remotest 
prospect of success." The North Carolina Assembly had nom- 
inated Crawford, but the State in 1824 cast her vote for Jackson. 
When the election came up in the House of Representatives Man- 
gum voted for Crawford and so did the State, as a whole, for 
Adams received but a single vote and Jackson but two. The fol- 
lowers of Adams called themselves national Republicans. They 
contended for the largest latitude in the construction of the Con- 
stitution, favored internal improvements and encouraged immigra- 
tion, advocated protection, gave fishing bounties and passed navi- 
gation acts. This was the "American system" and its advocates 
formed the nucleus of the Whig Party. On the other hand North 
Carolina in general favored the strict construction views of Craw- 
ford, Jackson and the Jefferson Party. It is believed that Man- 
gum*s vote for Crawford instead of Jackson made him unpopular 
at home. I am told by Major William A. Graham, who, of course, 
had it from his father, that strong effort was necessary to defeat 
his opponent for the 19th Congress, 1825-27, in August, 
1825. This opponent was Josiah Crudup, a skilful and versatile 
Baptist preacher. Mangum is credited with saying that Crudup 
was the most formidable candidate he ever met and that an op- 
portune rain which prevented Crudup from preaching on a certain 



242 NORTH CAROLINA 

occasion was all that saved him. He won by a bare majority of 
fifty-six votes. 

During these two terms in Congress Mangum served on the 
committee on commerce, and on that on the services and sacrifices 
of LaFayette. He resigned March i8, 1826, and was succeeded 
by Daniel L. Barringer, Democrat, who took his seat December 4, 
1826. 

Mangum was on August 18, 1826, appointed by Governor Bur- 
ton to fill an unexpired term as judge of the Superior Court of 
Law and Equity. The term for which he was appointed expired 
the same year and his failure of re-election by the Assembly of 
that year called out expressions of regret from Nat Macon and 
others. In 1828 he was an elector on the Jackson-Calhoun Ticket, 
showing that he had not as yet accepted the principles of Adams, 
whose re-election was advocated in North Carolina by Gaston 
and others. Jackson electors were chosen in North Carolina 
(November 13, 1828). Mangum was again chosen without op- 
position a judge of the Superior Court (December 10, 1828), to 
succeed Ruffin. He served in this capacity through 1829 and 
into the Spring of 1830 (later than April 3, 1830), when he re- 
signed, presumably to enter the race for Senator. 

The first intimations we have of senatorial aspirations is in 
a letter from his lifelong friend, Thomas J. Green, who writes 
him May 24, 1828: 

"If you could have a desire to return to the Federal city in a higher char- 
acter than when you left it, go to our next Legislature a member. A word 
to the wise is sufficient." 

There was then no vacancy in the Senate, for Macon did not 
resign till November 14, 1828, but there is no doubt that Green's 
letter was in anticipation of such an event, which was probably 
expected. Mangum withdrew, however, in favor of Iredell, who 
received the appointment, as is seen from the following letter of 
General Edward Ward, dated Raleigh, November 30, 1830: 

"The friends of Judge Donnel [sic ] are very desirous to know from 
you whether you are to be a candidate at the present session of the Gen- 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 243 

eral Assembly for a seat in the Senate of the next Congress of the United 
States. 

"They are by no means disposed to jeopardize the interests of the Re- 
publican Party, by starting, or having two candidates of the same party to 
run, when in all probability the opposite party will start a candidate to 
defeat their object; your declining to run two years ago, when the Eastern 
Republicans were anxious to start you, was the cause of Judge Donnel's 
being brought forward at the last session, and many of his friends are 
anxious to rim him again, but they are, however, anxious to have a friendly 
understanding with you upon the subject." 

Iredell had been elected to fill out Macon's term, which expired 
March 3, 1831. In 1830 Mangum was a candidate for the full 
term, as were also Governor Owen, Judge Donnell, R. D. Spaight 
and Governor Stokes. Mangum was thought to be the most avail- 
able candidate against what was characterized as the "Spaight 
faction," composed of R. D. Spaight, Charles Fisher, R. M. 
Saunders and Joseph H. Bryan as leaders, followed by Stokes, 
Montgomery, O'Brien, Steadman, Bynum and others. It was 
thought that Donnell would prevail over Owen in the race for 
Senator and that Spaight would beat him for Governor (letter of 
W. M. Sneed, November 18, 1830). 

December 2, 1830, Qiarles L. Hinton writes Mangum: 

"There was no general concert, there was a rebellion on the part of the 
friends of Owen, Donnel [sic], Fisher and Jesse Spaight with a hope of 
bringing each on the turf. . . . Your angry feelings toward Governor 
Owen I know can never be allayed. I regret the occurrence. If, as you 
say, he has ever been your enemy he has deceived me, for during the sum- 
mer he frequently expressed his preference for you and unwillingness to 
be in your way." 

The fight turned more and more on the defeat of Owen. On 
December 3d Romulus M. Saunders gives further news of the 
battle : 

"Your letter directing the withdrawal of your name was not received 
until Owen's nomination and two ballots, having you tied at 89. Yesterday 
Owen had 97, you 86, 14 blanks. . . . The intention is if you wish 
to decline a further ballot and Donnel [sic] or some other person cannot 
succeed to postpone until the next session. . . . Both your sayings and 
your letters have been misrepresented. The letter you wrote to Governor 



244 NORTH CAROLINA 

Owen has been used as a menace or challenge, and he has not thought 
proper to call either for General Ward's letter or Colonel Hinton's . . . 
Donnel and friends are prepared to co-operate in whatever shall be deemed 
advisable. Fisher . . . feels confident your presence and nothing else 
can save us from Owen's election. I view his success under existing cir- 
cumstances as fatal to our future prospects." 

It seems that Owen was finally induced to withdraw in favor 
of Mangum, and the latter was chosen Senator. I have not learned 
with exactness the reason for his anger with Owen save that it 
grew out of the bitterness of this campaign. But on December ist, 
in letters to General Ward and Charles L. Hinton, Mangum took 
occasion to implicate Owen's "political principles in the strongest 
and most unequivocal manner," and with that open frankness and 
chivalrous disregard of personal consequences that characterized 
him all his life he at once notified Owen of his letters and avowed 
his willingness to give him the satisfaction then usual among gen- 
tlemen. Owen considered this a challenge and accepted. Louis D. 
Henry was his second, while W. M. Sneed, State Senator from 
Granville, acted for Mangum; but through the mediation of 
D. F. Caldwell and an intelligence as sensible as unusual, the sec- 
onds appeased the wrath of the principals, and later they became 
political friends. 

It will be seen that Mangum was elected as a Republican or 
Democrat, or follower of Jackson. He had been a Jackson elector 
in 1828, and this contest for Senator seems to have been a sort of 
friendly squabble among the leaders of the Republican Party. 
Mangum had as yet developed few of those tendencies which after- 
ward led him into the Whig Party. 

His first important speech on the floor of the Senate seems to 
have been that on the Tariff of 1832. His sympathies were with 
the South on that question, and he was by no means in love with 
Jackson's constitutional views, as announced in his famous proc- 
lamation to the people of South Carolina ; but while his sympathies 
drew him in that direction he was not a nullifier, although often 
so charged by his enemies. In January, 1832, Mr. Clay proposed 
the removal of all duties from articles which did not come in com- 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 245 

petition with similar articles produced in this country. The effect, 
and the purpose, was to make necessary higher rates of duty upon 
the articles which could be or were produced by our people. 
Mangum said in part : 

"Sir, the State from which I come regards this struggle with deep solici- 
tude, and the most patriotic anxiety. . . . She deprecates the pres- 
ent system of taxation as especially sectional and selfish, and as gradu- 
ally undermining the fabric of our noble institutions. She has hitherto 
acquiesced in this policy with a dignified moderation, looking to the 
extinguishment of the public debt as a period favorable to the alleviation 
of her burdens, and as a rectification of the systems. . . . What is the 
effect of the resolution upon the table? It is to aggravate the evil. It is 
to tax the necessaries of the poor man, while the rich man may revel in 
luxuries as free from taxation as the air he breathes. . . . The only 
feature of mitigation is to be found in the reduction of revenue. This, 
however, is more than counterbalanced by the increased inequality in the 
action of the system." 

He controverted the claim of constitutional authority to tax 
imported foreign goods for purposes of protection. This right was 
claimed under the clause "to regulate commerce with foreign na- 
tions," and under this clause they assumed the right to annihilate 
commerce by the imposition of prohibitory duties. He also dis- 
sented from the position taken by Jackson in his annual message 
in December, 1830, in which it was claimed that as the States be- 
fore the Constitution was adopted had absolute control of the sub- 
ject, and as the whole authority to regulate commerce was trans- 
ferred to the general government by that instrument. Congress 
therefore possessed all the power over the subject which the States 
had formerly possessed. 

After pointing out the inequalities in the working of the tariff 
and its disastrous effects on the South in piling up money in the 
hands of manufacturers at the North, he concludes : 

"It is money — ^money — give me money or — sir, if I could coin my heart 
into gold, and it were lawful in the sight of Heaven, I would pray God 
to give me firmness to do it, to save this Union from the fearful — the 
dreadful shock which I verily believe impends." 

Of this speech Mangum writes to his wife (February nth) : 



246 NORTH CAROLINA 

"I was not exactly pleased with my own effort, yet I have reason to be- 
lieve that the almost universal opinion of the Senate is that it was elo- 
quent and powerful." 

Mangiim was now leaning away from Jackson, but he was not 
one of those who voted against the confirmation of Van Buren as 
Minister to England. He spoke on the bill, commonly called the 
Force Bill, or bill to collect the revenue in South Carolina, on 
January 22d, and writes his wife February 2, 1833 : 

**We are deeply engaged in the Senate upon South Carolina affairs. I 
fear we shall make war upon her. I am opposed to all harsh measures." 

It was thus that Mangum's alienation from the old Jacksonian 
republicanism was developed: i. He was hostile to Jackson's 
tariff system, and also to that of Clay. He believed in a tariff 
for revenue only; and indeed Clay at that time was forced by 
stress of circumstances to abandon protection and come round to 
his position. In his anxiety to prevent impending war between 
the sections, Qay, after a conference with Calhoun, drew a bill 
which his friends first put through the House of Representatives 
and which he had no difficulty in putting through the Senate^ 
which by a gradual process, running through nine years, com- 
pletely abandoned protection and brought the duties down to the 
revenue standard of 20 per cent, ad valorem. As agreed, Cal- 
houn voted for this bill, and it became a law March 2, 1833, and 
it settled the sectional troubles of that day. 2. He opposed Jack- 
son's policy of coercing South Carolina, while himself opposed 
nullification. 3. In 1834 came up the question of the United 
States Bank, its recharter, the removal of the deposits, the cen- 
sure on Jackson and Benton's Expunging resolution. He had 
long seen the drift in the matter of the bank and had proclaimed 
his hostility to Jackson as early as January 19, 1832, in a letter to 
William Gaston : 

**I think it is to be very much regretted that the United States Bank has 
come before Congress at this session. I regard the continuance of that in- 
stitution as of almost indispensable necessity. 

"By deferring its application to next session I have no doubt, with but 
slight modification (to save appearances), it would have met with the Ex- 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 247 

ccutive favor. It is now more than doubtful whether it will — and the whole 
may ultimately take the appearance of a trial of strength between General 
Jackson and the bank. In that case the bank will go down. For General 
Jackson's popularity is of a sort not to be shaken at present. I hope for 
the best results from the wise and patriotic counsels of Mr. McLane." 

4. In the State there was also bitter warfare over the question 
of instruction of Senators. This principle Mangum denied, while 
Bedford Brown, his colleague in the Senate (who had succeeded 
John Branch), accepted. In fact, these two Senators came more 
and more to represent the two wings into which the old Republi- 
can Party was splitting in North Carolina as elsewhere. In 1834 
they canvassed the State on the subject of instruction. They 
aroused great interest and some excitement. The partizans of 
each vied with their opponents in giving the biggest public din- 
ners and forming the largest processions. Brown stood for the 
strict construction idea, which supported Jackson and developed 
into the modem Democratic Party. As we have seen, Mangum 
was more of a latitudinarian, anti- Jackson, pro-bank, and later 
came to support Clay. Out of this latter class grew the Whig 
Party. Besides Clay and Mangum, it numbered among its adher- 
ents Preston and McDuffie of South Carolina ; Poindexter of Mis- 
sissippi, Berrien of Georgia, Bell of Tennessee and others. In 
North Carolina it claimed Badger, Graham, Gaston, the Galeses 
and others. Hugh L. White, representing the hostility to Van 
Buren, Jackson's political heir, was the candidate of this still unor- 
ganized party for President in 1836, and Mangum was freely 
talked of as his running mate. 

The tendency to party cleavage in Mangum's career was 
accentuated and confirmed by the bank struggle. The Whig 
Party, of which we may now begin to speak, with the help of 
Calhoun, concentrated their forces in opposition to Jackson. The 
United States Bank was selected as the subject over which the 
trial of strength should be. The bank had never been popular in 
North Carolina, but under the leadership of Mangum, Gaston and 
others it gained ground, and branch banks were established. In 
fact, Iredell writes Mangum February 4, 1832: "Whether right 



248 NORTH CAROLINA 

or wrong, that bank is at this time very popular in our State ; I 
believe, indeed I know, it has done us vast good, and as yet we 
have felt no evils from it." Calhoun allied himself with Benjamin 
Watkins Leigh in Virginia and Mangum in North Carolina, not 
only because they were representatives of the pro-bank idea, but 
also because they represented the opposition to receiving instruc- 
tions from the Assembly, and the party in those States which stood 
out against the tyranny and extra-constitutional assumptions of 
Jackson. Mangum voted for the resolution of censure on Jackson 
for removing the deposits, passed March 28, 1834, and refused to 
vote for Benton's resolution to expunge the censure. The North 
Carolina Legislature of 1834-35 was Democratic or pro- Jackson, 
and hence opposed to Mangum. It availed itself of the oppor- 
tunity offered and instructed him to vote for the Expunging reso- 
lution (North Carolina acts, 1834-35, p. 95). These instructions, 
with a bitter arraignment of the party in power, Mangum refused 
to obey. He said that in reference to the instructions he would 
avail himself of the occasion barely to say that he should not con- 
form to them. He should vote against the Expunging resolution. 
The Legislature had no right to require him to become the instru- 
ment of his own personal degradation. He repelled the exercise 
of so vindictive a power ; and when applied to himself he repelled 
it with scorn and indignation. The members of the Legislature 
were servants and representatives of the people. He was likewise 
one. That they were disposed to guard with jealousy the honor 
of the State, it was not his province to discuss or question. He, 
likewise, felt it his duty to guard the honor of the State, and not 
less to guard his own personal honor; both, in his con- 
ception, imperiously required him to disregard the resolutions; 
and, that point being settled in his mind, he trusted no one 
who knew him would entertain a doubt as to his course on this 
subject. 

His course in the Senate was applauded by his political friends 
in the State and denounced by his opponents (including Brown, 
his colleague), but the weight of opinion in the State, so far at 
least as it found expression in the form of memorials to Con- 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 249 

gress, seems to have been decidedly pro-bank and in favor of 
Mangum. 

In 1836 came up for consideration Jackson's scheme of specie 
payments. Mangum seems to have been rather uncertain as to 
the proper steps, but even then saw the growing danger from cor- 
porations. He said on the specie payments matter: That the 
measure contemplated an important change in the currency of 
the country, and he preferred it should be left in charge of its 
friends, who better understood it. He was perfectly ready to 
vote for it, if it came recommended by the gentlemen from the 
new States ; and he was willing to do so because he looked upon 
it to be a remedy against speculation in the public lands; and 
because it might poissibly bring about a sounder state in the circu- 
lating medium. They might be chimeras, but he believed that all 
these wealthy corporate institutions were inimical to a spirit of 
liberty, which he preferred to all the wealth and splendor of the 
great cities. Banks, railroads, stock companies of every descrip- 
tion, might be useful, but he was opposed to them all, because, 
in his opinion, they were inconsistent with the true spirit of Hl> 
erty. On another occasion he opposed giving pre-emption rights 
to squatters on the public domain in the West. 

The campaign of 1836 was conducted in North Carolina on the 
United States Bank, nullification and the instruction of Senators. 
The Legislature chosen was at first Whig, but Muse of Pasquotank 
resigned and was succeeded by a Democrat. This threw the Legis- 
lature into the Democratic camp, and Mangum, interpreting this 
as a condemnation of his course, resigned (last of November or 
first of December, 1836) and was succeeded by Robert Strange, 
a Democrat, who took his seat December 15, 1836. 

In 1837 the eleven electoral votes of South Carolina, which 
Calhoun was said to have carried "in his vest pocket," were given 
to Mangum for President. This, in view of the fact that Mangum 
had supported some of the policies of the great South Carolinian, 
raised a howl in the Democratic papers that there had been a cor- 
rupt bargain between the two. Of this there is no evidence. 
There is in fact little evidence that the vote of South Carolina was 



2SO NORTH CAROLINA 

due more to the action of Calhoun than of William C. Preston, 
his Whig colleague in the Senate, a personal friend, and for whom 
Mangum named his only son (cf. Dodd's Macon, 335-397). 

After his resignation from the Senate in 1836 Mangum retired 
to his plantation and returned to the law ; but politics was to him 
as the breath of his nostrils. He was no less in public life, though 
not in public office; in 1837 he declined to become a candidate 
for the House of Representatives, though strong pressure was 
brought to bear upon him; but in 1840 he was sent to the State 
Senate from Orange County. He was chairman of the Commit- 
tee on Education and assisted in drawing an act to provide public 
schools for the State. Although since revised and altered, the 
Act of 1840 is in reality the basis of the common school system of 
North Carolina to-day (see Weeks's "Beginning of the Common 
School System in the South" in Report United States Commis- 
sioner of Education, 1896-97, p. 1422). 

In the meantime the organization of the Whig Party was being 
perfected. It was composed of men with many different shades 
of political belief and with very different political antecedents, but 
all were drawn together by the particular hope of defeating the 
Locofos, as the Van Buren branch of the Democratic Party was 
called. The name Whig, so Clay explained, was generic and was 
expressly adopted to embrace men of all political opinions. In 
1839 this newly formed party met in convention in Harrisburg to 
nominate candidates for President and Vice-President. Mangum 
.was a member and went to the convention as a friend of Clay. It 
was a time when both North and South had to be propitiated in 
the matter of nominations; when the nomination for President 
went to Harrison, Clay's chances were gone. Mangum thought 
that Clay had been unfairly treated and that his own acceptance 
of the second place would prove him untrue to his friend, espe- 
cially as he was also a member of the convention. This was his 
reply in substance to a committee which asked him to accept the 
second place. The committee went to him three times and urged 
the place upon him, but their solicitations were unheeded. This 
is the report that comes to me of the matter from his family, and 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 251 

I have found contemporary evidence in Niles's Register which 
confirms this account. The family account says further that when 
Mangum's name was under consideration Governor Owen, who 
was president of the convention, remarked, "We have better things 
in store for Mr. Mangum.'* This would imply that the North 
Carolina delegation was not a unit in his support, which we learn 
also from other sources, and this no doubt had its weight in 
defeating any aspirations he may have cherished. On the other 
hand. Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, son of President Tyler, claims that 
his father was from the first the choice of the convention, while 
Henry A. Wise, in his uncritical biography of Tyler, "Seven 
Decades of the Union" (pp. 158, 161, 169), claims that Tyler's 
nomination had been settled long in advance. 

The question of instruction of Senators had now received a 
new turn in North Carolina. Mangum had been instructed in 
1834 to vote for Benton's Expunging resolution and had refused 
to do so or to resign, and this had brought him into sharp conflict 
with Bedford Brown, his colleague, as we have seen. After his 
resignation. Brown and Strange, his successor, voted for Benton's 
resolution (passed January 16, 1837). The North Carolina 
Assembly of 1838 was Whig. It censured Brown and Strange 
for voting for the Expunging resolution and then instructed them 
to oppose Van Buren's sub-treasury system, to advocate a division 
of the proceeds from the sale of public lands among the States 
according to population, and to endeavor to secure reform in the 
public expenditures and a reduction of taxes (December 8, 1838). 
The Senators were both Democrats, and in a letter, dated Decem- 
ber 31, 1838, claimed not to understand the purport of the cen- 
sure and resolutions of the Assembly. Their resignations were 
finally forwarded during the Harrison- Van Buren campaign in 
1840 and caused considerable excitement. 

In that year the State went with the Whigs. Mangum was 
re-elected to the Senate as a Whig to succeed Brown, and took 
his seat December 9, 1840; William A. Graham, also a Whig, suc- 
ceeded Strange and took his seat December 10. As Brown's term 
expired March 4, 1841, Mangum was chosen to fill the full term 



252 NORTH CAROLINA 

beginning on that date, and so served continuously by re-elections 
from December 9, 1840, to March 3, 1853. During his senatorial 
terms he served on the committees on roads and canals, pensions, 
foreign relations, judiciary, militia, District of Columbia, finance 
and as chairman of the committee on naval affairs in 1841. In 
general he advocated the policies of the Whig Party. The Whigs 
repealed Van Buren's Independent Treasury or sub-treasury 
and passed an act establishing a new Bank of the United States, 
which was vetoed by Tyler. They then passed an act for a fiscal 
corporation which was to have the functions of a bank, and the 
draft of which had been submitted to Tyler. This act he also 
vetoed; he was then read out of the Whig Party. After these 
failures Mangum favored depositing the public money in State 
banks, regulated by law, and said that not one Whig in five thou- 
sand in North Carolina was opposed to a national bank. He 
opposed the Exchequer Board scheme, devised by the Secretary 
of the Treasury. This Board was to consist of three men who 
were to have charge of the finances. It was denounced with great 
severity by Mangum and others and defeated. He regarded it as 
placing the public purse as well as the sword in the hands of the 
President. 

On Tyler's accession to the Presidency, Samuel L. Southard 
of New Jersey, who had been previously chosen President of the 
Senate pro tempore, became its regular presiding officer and as 
such acting Vice-President. Southard resigned May 3, 1842, 
and on May 31st Mangum was chosen his successor. He continued 
to occupy this position till March 4, 1845 » ^^ was he who that day 
inaugurated the practice of turning back the hands of the clock in 
order to lengthen the official day. 

In 1844 the Whigs- opposed the immediate annexation of Texas 
and rejected Tyler's treaty on that subject; in 1846 Mangum 
strongly opposed the attitude of the country on the Oregon Ques- 
tion, which threatened to involve us in a war with England; he 
also opposed the war with Mexico. In 1847 he was offered the 
nomination for President.by the executive committee of the Native 
American Party of Pennsylvania; in 1848 he was much talked of 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 253 

as a running mate to Judge McLean of Ohio, who was being con- 
sidered for the Presidency; again in 1852 he could have had the 
Whig nomination for Vice-President, but because of the temper 
of the people in North Carolina declined. 

It will be noted that at the time of Mangum's election to the 
highest office in the gift of the Senate, and what was at that par- 
ticular time but one remove from the Presidency, he had had less 
than seven years of senatorial life in all and had been returned to 
the Senate less than two years before. He had been chairman of 
the Senate Committee on Naval Affairs in 1841 ; it is evident that 
he had rapidly forged ahead and had in a very short time taken 
high rank among the leaders of his day. This position of leader- 
ship he continued to hold. He was not a frequent speaker. He 
did his work outside the Senate chamber in settling disputes, 
shaping policies and keeping the running gear of the party in 
good order. He was such an astute political manager that his 
political enemies were even inclined to regard him as a Machia- 
velli. Clay was perhaps his warmest personal friend, although he 
was hardly less intimate with Webster. The secret of his power 
seems to have been in his masterful intellect, his dignity and 
character. He never neglected his duty ; was a thorough parlia- 
mentarian and was never uninformed as to anything pertaining 
to his station. The Senate ranked him higher than his own 
people. 

We have a contemporary estimate of him as a presiding officer. 
Caleb Atwater of Ohio, in his "Mysteries of Washington City" 
(Washington, 1844), says: 

"He presides in the Senate and occupies the Vice-President's room in 
the Capitol. He is a man above the common size, of fair complexion and 
commanding air, rather grave in his manners, but very agreeable and ap- 
pears to be kind-hearted. His voice is clear, sufficiently loud and distinct to 
be heard all over the Senate chamber and its gallery. On the whole, he is, 
taking him all in all, the best presiding officer that I ever saw in any legis- 
lative assembly. He is always at his ease, always dignified and always 
agreeable. His appearance is that of a man about forty years old. He is 
a Whig, unwavering and unflinching, yet, like the Kentucky Senators, not 
a persecuting Whig, often voting to confirm men in offices who arc not 



254 NORTH CAROLINA 

Whigs or anything else — long. He appears to look more to the interests 
of his country than his party." (Page 131.) 

Alexander H. Stephens said he had great influence in the 
Senate; that he spoke with clearness, conciseness, terseness and 
power and dealt very little in the flowers of rhetoric or the orna- 
ments of oratory. Hannibal Hamlin called him one of the ablest 
men of his time. In fact, it has been said that he had more 
influence in the Senate than any other Southern man of his 
day. 

The whole of Judge Mangum's life was spent in the service of 
his State. For thirty-five years, 1818 to 1853, when his health 
had already failed, to be followed soon after by a disease of the 
spinal column, he was almost constantly in the public service. He 
was so passionately devoted to the Union and to the interests of 
his State that his private affairs, had it not been for the business 
capacity of his wife and daughter, would have been seriously 
impaired. As a campaigner he has seldom had an equal in the 
State, for he was subtile and persuasive and skilful as a dialecti- 
cian. His superior among North Carolina speakers has never 
appeared. In the day of great orators in the Senate he held his 
own, and I am told that traditions of his fame in oratory still 
linger in the Senate chamber like a sweet aroma of a long- 
vanished past ; the reputation of an orator, however, does not con^ 
sist in the things that men remember but in the memory of the 
effects produced, and it is impossible for the historian to transfer 
to writing the persuasiveness of his compelling periods. 

He was for many years a trustee of the University of North 
Carolina; received the degree of A.B. in 1815, A.M. in 1818, and 
LL.D. in 1845. He was often in demand as a commencement 
orator, but seems to have carefully avoided such engagements. 
He was a Mason and an Odd Fellow ; in personal appearance was 
large, being over six feet in height and well proportioned; full 
of dignity and courtesy, his stateliness was noticeable and com- 
manding. He was successful as a lawyer and judge, and, while 
a man of splendid accomplishment, was still more remarkable for 
the suggestiveness of his thought (see Tourgee's "A Royal 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 255 

Gentleman," for a pregnant paragraph on this phase of Southern 
character). 

On the more personal and human side Mangum was the life 
and soul of a dinner party, and his stories were full of pith and 
point. The charm of his conversation was extraordinary, his 
sincerity, his mellifluous voice, the grace and dignity of his per- 
sonal carriage, his affability and kindness, his love of nature in 
general and birds in particular, his unbounded charity — ^were 
winning qualities which made him honored, respected and loved. 

Of his kindness in particular Judge Edwin G. Reade wrote in 
1865 that he "was always interested in the young and in the 
friendless. It was characteristic of him; whenever he could, he 
made them his companions and advised them and praised them, 
and when need was defended them." Of his powers as a popular 
orator, he says : "He was almost all his life in the public coun- 
cils, and no man of his day was esteemed wiser. But his most 
interesting exhibitions were before his own people as a popular 
orator. It was then that his commanding person, his rich, flowing 
language, his clarion voice, his graceful gesticulation and his 
genial humor, made him almost irresistible. No one ever tired of 
listening to him. He never let himself down, was never afraid of 
overshooting his audience." 

And in more recent years the late Daniel R. Goodloe wrote : 

"As presiding officer he discharged its duties with distinguished ability 
and courtesy, and received the unanimous thanks of the body. He be- 
came an ardent friend of Mr. Clay, and in 1852 took an active part in 
bringing out General Scott to succeed General Taylor. 

"Mr. Mangum was an admirable conversationalist. My friend, John 
B. Fry, who is a devoted admirer of Mr. Clay, whom he knew intimately, 
as he did Mr. Mangum. thinks the latter excelled the great Kentuckian in 
this accomplishment. I knew him well, and I have never met his equal 
in this regard, taking him all in all ; for he never forgot to listen, as well 
as to talk, which most superior men who are good talkers are apt to do. 

"Judge Mangum was my best friend, to whom I am greatly indebted for 
kindness. I came here in 1844 in search of employment. He found it for 
me as associate editor of a daily Whig paper, The Whig Standard. ... At 
the end of the campaign in November, I owed him nearly fifty dollars; 
and when I was able to repay him, two years later, he was unwilling to 



256 NORTH CAROLINA 

admit that I owed him anything. When I told him the exact amount, and 
insisted on paying, he urged me to go and buy me a suit of clothes. How- 
ever, I persisted in forcing the money on him, and he at length received 
it. It is my pleasure, and my duty, to record this fact, illustrative of the 
generous nature of one of North Carolina's greatest men." 

As the war came on Judge Mangum naturally sided with the 
South, but he was never a secessionist ; in fact, he was a strong 
Union man till the war became a reality. He then went with the 
South and sent his only son to the front. The death of this son 
caused a return of the paralysis with which he had been afflicted 
for years, and he died at his coimtry seat, Walnut Hall, then in 
Orange, now in Durham County, North Carolina, September 7, 
1861 (not September 14th). 

Judge Mangum married September 30, 1819, Charity Alston 
Cain (1795-1873). She was the daughter of William Cain and 
of Mrs. Sarah (Alston) Dudley. The Cains were Irish and set- 
tled in Maryland. William Cain was bom in Baltimore ; migrated 
to Orange County, North Carolina ; became a prosperous merchant 
and planter; founded a large and well-known family, and at the 
first meeting of the trustees of the University of North Carolina, 
December 18, 1789, made to that body a larger donation than they 
had up to that time received from any other source. Mrs. Man- 
gum's mother was the daughter of James Alston (died 1761) of 
Orange and granddaughter of John Alston (1673-1758), founder 
of the North Carolina family of that name and a justice of the 
colonial Supreme Court (q. v.). To Judge and Mrs. Mangum 
were bom five children: Sallie Alston (1824-96); Martha 
Person (Pattie) (1828-1902) ; Catharine Davis, died in infancy; 
Mary Sutherland (1832-1902) ; and WiUiam Preston (1837-61). 
The son was educated at the University of North Carolina 
and began the study of law, but delayed practice to attend his 
father's plantation; he volunteered as a private, became second 
lieutenant in Company B, Sixth North Carolina Regiment, Colonel 
Charles F. Fisher, C. S. A., and died July 28, 1861, from the 
effects of wounds received at the first battle of Manassas. 

Sallie Alston Mangum married in 185 1 Colonel Martin Wash- 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM 257 

ington Leach (1806-69), ^in older brother of General James 
Madison Leach (1815-91), and an extensive planter and capi- 
talist of Randolph County, North Carolina. They had three chil- 
dren to attain maturity and who are still living: Mrs. Julian A. 
Turner of Greensboro, Mrs. Stephen B. Weeks and Miss Annie 
Preston Leach of Randolph County, North Carolina. The third 
generation is represented by three boys and six girls. None of 
the other children of Judge Mangum ever married. Misses 
Martha and Mary Mangum resided at Walnut Hall till their 
death. During the war and for some years after its close they 
conducted at their home a select school for young ladies, which 
drew patrons from many sections of the State. 

This brief sketch of the very active career of Judge Mangum 
is based mainly on his correspondence and on family history. His 
public career will be found in the journals of the Assembly and 
of Congress, while the genealogy of his family will be found in 
part in the supplement to Groves's "The Alstons and Allstons of 
North Carolina and South Carolina." Short sketches of his career 
have appeared in the various biographical works dealing with the 
United States and North Carolina, but no suitable biography, no 
worthy sketch even has hitherto appeared. There are at least four 
oil portraits of Mangum, one in possession of Willie Mangum 
Person, Esq., of Louisburg, North Carolina, one in the hall of 
the Dialectic Society at Chapel Hill and two in possession of the 
family, including the one from which the accompanying engrav- 
ing is made. His correspondence, large in amount and varied in 
character, is in my hands, and I have in preparation a volume on 
his life and times which I hope to make definitive. 

Stephen B. Weeks, 




WILLIE PERSON MANGUM, JR. 




fILLIE PERSON MANGUM, JR., was the 
second child and oldest son of Priestley Hinton 
Mangum, brother of the distinguished judge 
and senator, and of Rebecca Hilliard Sutherland 
of Wake Forest, Wake County, North Carolina. 
He was born in Wake County, May 7, 1827, and 
was on his mother's side descended from Colonel Ransom Suther- 
land, one of the patriots of the Revolution. His father was born 
April 3, 1795, and, like his uncle, was educated at the University of 
North Carolina, took the whole course in two years and received 
the A.B. degree in 181 5 with first honor. He chose the law as a 
profession, settled in Wake, but in February, 1830, removed to 
Hillsboro, where he lived till his death, September 17, 1850. 
Unlike his better known brother, he stuck closely to the law, had 
a large practice in Wake, Granville and adjoining counties, and 
accumulated what was a handsome estate for his day in negroes 
and real estate. Besides the subject of this sketch there were 
other children: Catharine (Kate), born 1825. who died soon after 
her father ; Rebecca, who married John R. Williams of Arkansas ; 
Mary L., who married J. J. James, for some years editor of the 
Biblical Recorder; Priestley Hinton, Jr., who studied medicine but 
devoted himself to farming; and Leonard Henderson, who was 
graduated from Princeton, studied law and removed to Arkansas, 
saw hard service in the Confederate Army, went into politics, be- 



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'Imi^j''- ' '.' 




WILLIE PERSON MANGUM, Jr. 259 

came a judge of one of the inferior courts in Arkansas and died 
in Washington City, April, 1903. 

In 1838 Willie P. Mangum, Jr., entered the Bingham School 
and remained there till 1844, when he entered Wake Forest Col- 
lege. He was there two years ; went to the University of North 
Carolina in 1846 and was graduated in 1848, delivering an oration 
on the character of Sir Walter Raleigh. He became a tutor in 
Wake Forest College and remained one year, when he began the 
study of law under his father; after his death he removed to 
Washington City and took a position in the Census Office. In 
1853 he returned to North Carolina and resumed the study of 
law, this time in Raleigh, under Judge Badger, and later con-, 
tinned his studies in New York City under Honorable E. W. 
Stoughton, judge and later United States Minister to Russia. He 
was admitted to the bar in New York State, in the District of 
Columbia and to practice before the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and the next few years were devoted to his profession. 

Unlike the rest of his family in the civil struggle which was now 
coming on, he sided with the North, and on March 27, 1861, was 
commissioned by the State Department as United States Consul at 
Ningpo, China. He arrived there December 11, 1861, two days 
after its capture by the T'ai-p4ng rebels, under Fang. It soon be- 
came necessary to take measures for the safety of the foreign com- 
munity at Ningpo, and on January 12, 1862, proceedings were 
taken to this end and for the government of the 75,000 Chinese 
who had crowded for protection into the foreign quarter of the 
city. This heavy duty fell upon the consuls of the treaty powers, 
and as the French consul was practically incapacitated it was dis* 
charged by the consuls of England and the United States, 
Mr. Mangum and his colleague holding court on alternate weeks, 
from January 12, to May 10, 1862, when power was restored to the 
former authorities through a bombardment of the city by the 
English and French. These judicial services were highly appreci- 
ated by the people, who expressed their thanks in oriental fashion 
by presenting to each of the consuls a large umbrella, like that 
borne before mandarins of the first rank. 



26o NORTH CAROLINA 

In the Spring of 1864 Mangum was transferred to the consulate 
at Chin-Kiang, on the Yang-tse, at the junction of the Grand 
Canal with that river, but the confinement resulting from the dis- 
turbances in Ningpo and the Chekiang province had undermined 
his health and compelled his return to America, for which he 
sailed April 29, 1864. The change of scene, the sea voyage, and 
Winter restored his health, and on March 18, 1865, he was made 
consul to Nagasaki, Japan; he was reappointed by Johnson, 
May 29, 1865, and there he remained till 1880. 

He was detailed to take charge of the consulate general in 
Shanghai, as Vice-Consul-General, February i, 1867, to March 19, 
1868, in the absence of George F. Seward, the Consul-General, and 
in this connection was also United States postal agent ; he organ- 
ized and started the first American mail service in China, their 
first office being in the consulate general in Shanghai. After 
resuming his duties at Nagasaki he continued his postal work till 
arrangements were perfected by the Japanese Government for 
taking over their mail service. 

In December, 1868, along with Reverend Guido Verbeck, the 
apostle of Japan, he spent some days, by invitation, in visiting the 
Prince of Hizen in Saga, his capital. They were the first white 
men to be seen in Saga, and this was one way taken by the Prince 
to reconcile his people to the impending changes, for the clans 
of Satsuma, Choshiu, Tosa, and Hizen were leaders in the strug- 
gle then going on against the Shoguns (Tokugawa family), and 
out of which came the restoration of the Mikado to supreme power 
and the opening of Japan to the Western world. The Prince of 
Hizen remained the firm friend of Mangum and presented him 
many rare specimens of ceramics, which cannot now be duplicated. 

Mangum sailed for America November 10, 1872, and his last 
visit to North Carolina was in the spring of 1873. He reached 
Japan on his return July 16, 1873, and resumed his duties at 
Nagasaki. In the Spring of 1874 he was chosen sole arbitrator 
in the case of the Takashima coal mines, a matter which involved 
England, Holland and Japan in many intricate and opposing 
views and had been long in the courts. No satisfactory conclusion 



WILLIE PERSON MANGUM, Jr. 261 

seeming possible, it was decided to submit the whole matter to 
three arbitrators, one to be chosen by each nationality; but, on 
comparing the nominations, it was found that Mang^m had been 
chosen by each, a singular and remarkable proof of the esteem in 
which he was held. His decision was rendered the following 
summer and was acceptable to all. 

Mangum's health was always more or less delicate, and with 
the hope that a colder climate would restore him, he was trans- 
ferred to Tien-Tsin, in North China, March 29, 1880. He left 
Japan in September of that year, but the colder climate failed to 
do what was hoped from it, and he died in Tien-Tsin, February 11, 
1881. He was temporarily interred at that port, but was later, 
removed to America and reinterred in the Congressional cemetery 
in Washington City. 

He was long dean of the consular corps in Nagasaki and was 
held in high esteem by his colleagues. He was of a pleasant, 
courteous disposition, dignified, but genial and charming in con- 
versation, and while energetic and business-like in important 
affairs, in unessential things was disposed to the doctrine of 
laissez faire. He was elected March 20, 1866, a non-resident mem- 
ber of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, and 
on June 30, 1876, for long services rendered to his consulate, was 
decorated by the King of Portugal with the Royal Portuguese 
Military Order of Our Lord Jesus Christ. He was highly 
esteemed by resident and visiting Americans and the Japanese 
soon learned to consult with and trust him in many matters of im- 
portance outside of his consular duties. Although long a non- 
resident, Mr. Mangum never forgot the State of his nativity. 
That he considered it his home to the last is shown by the filing 
of his will for probate in Wake, the county of his birth. 

Mr. Mangum married in Washington, D. C. on October 24, 
1855, Miss Fannie Vaulx Ladd, daughter of Joseph Brown Ladd 
and Harriet Vaulx Conway, widow of Major W. H. Nicoll, 
U. S. A. No children were bom to this marriage. Mrs. Mangum 
was a woman of decided literary tastes ; she was an artist, and an 
authority on ceramics and conchology and to some extent on 



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cf shells. Ker ccZZecriccs ircre 
f r* ^ '*r^^ ^/! v/ i,r*: : :r..t rerr-afr.-^I-^. after befrs' 5*-tDeTrr:at a::^- 
v^^.'-t'A ^,j f*!:^ \^'.^rx'y.r,s ir^jrr, *jr.^ Ea.*t. were presented to the 
rV,;'/^r*:*v of '.'orth Caro!:na, She pre^iie-i c-rer tbc social life of 
♦ry f/>f^:;;n r^:^-^.t% :n \'a^a%ai::. acxxcr.panfed h*er htisbar-d in all 
},u •r^v">. ^r^'/.j^ht t>ark h:^ br/dy to Arr^ca, and spent her last 
<*/A[% in V/;i^h:n^f*/jfi City, where ^he died in i^/ji. 

7hi% \V^jh i% made up ff/m a sketch przr.t&i by Mrs. Mangtzm 
if. fJj^- *.V/rth rjarolina L'ntrcrsity Magazine in 1890. and frofa 
n/dU'TVAU in pfA^AS\r/n of the family. 

Stephen B. Weeks, 






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PRIESTLEY HINTON MANGUM 




Priestley hinton mangum, one of the 

most progressive agriculturalists of the State, 
was born on August 21, 1829, in Wake Forest 
Township, Wake County. The Mangums are 
of Welch extraction, the first of the name com- 
ing to America being John Mangum, who emi- 
grated to iliis country from Wales. The family early settled in 
Orange County, where its members were highly esteemed for their 
capacity and sterling worth. Mr. P. H. Mangum, Sr., graduated 
in the same class as his brother, Willie P. Mangum, at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina in 1815, and studied law. He repre- 
sented Orange County in the Legislature of 1832, but he was not 
drawn into a public career like his more gifted brother, who 
became one of the most distinguished of North Carolinians. Mr. 
Willie Mangum was an orator of the first class and a jurist who 
was an ornament to the bench, and a statesman who reflected 
great honor on the people of North Carolina. He was elected to 
the United States Senate in 1831, and again in 1841 and again 
in 1847. I^ 1837 South Carolina cast all of her electoral votes 
for him for President. And five years later, when Vice-President 
Tyler had succeeded to the Presidency, Mr. Mangum, who was 
esteemed as one of the most distinguished of the Senators, was by 
the choice of his fellow-members elected President of the Senate 
and continued to hold that position for three years ; and it has been 



264 NORTH CAROLINA 

well said of him that he was equal to every station he occupied. 
He, Governor Graham, Mr. Macon and Judge Badger were the 
most influential sons North Carolina has produced. 

Mr. Priestley Mangum married Miss Rebecca HiUiard Suther- 
land, whose father. Colonel Ransom Sutherland, was a Revolu- 
tionary officer and served with high distinction during the war for 
independence. 

The influence of such parents and of such association in his early 
life was not without its effect in forming the character of the sub- 
ject of this sketch. His father was a man of fine judgment and 
strong common sense, a man of high integrity, well educated and 
a lawyer of great influence in his community ; but he was fond of 
home life and preferred a residence on his farm, and as Mrs. Man- 
gum unhappily died when her son was very young, he fell more 
particularly under the directing care of his father than is usual 
with children. 

He was prepared for college by William J. Bingham, the second 
of that name, and entering Wake Forest College, graduated at that 
institution in 185 1. Intending to devote himself to agriculture, 
he immediately began the life of a farmer and located on the farm 
where he was born two miles west of Wake Forest ; and there, on 
December 16, 1856, he brought his bride. Miss Mary Thomas 
Price, and six children, now surviving, blessed their union. 

Agriculture has always been the most important industry of the 
people of North Carolina, and it has employed the best talent of 
the State. In the days of slavery the finest minds and strongest 
men were engaged in this occupation, and they brought to it their 
best intelligence, and it was esteemed the noblest employment for 
a man's capabilities, as it was accompanied by a spirit of independ- 
ence and of self-reliance and of noble manhood that was not so 
thoroughly fostered by other vocations. 

Since the abolition of slavery it has been attended with more 
difficulties, and its successful practice has required even closer at- 
tention and more strenuous endeavors ; but still it is a field for the 
exercise of superior talent, and Mr. Mangum's career is a notable 
illustration of this fact, for it has been said that "by his farm he 



PRIESTLEY HINTON MANGUM 265 

has reflected as much credit on the State as his uncle did By his 
distinguished services in the Senate of the United States." The 
very fields amid which he was born and reared have been the scene 
of his exploits as a successful and intelligent farmer. His methods 
have attracted wide attention, and his farm has been held up before 
the agriculturalists of the State as an example. Indeed, one of the 
foremost men of Mecklenburg County, which has always been 
noted for its fine farms and improved methods, has been par- 
ticularly pronounced in calling attention to the advantages of the 
new methods introduced and used by Mr. Mangum ; and residents 
of other parts of the State have recommended the adoption of the 
system practiced on this model farm. In an article entitled 
"A Model Farmer," a judicious and intelligent editor says: 

**Mr. Mangum's wheat was just about ripening and the fields of golden 
grain presented a most attractive scene. One field of thirty acres would 
yield at least thirty bushels to the acre. In the same field was clover knee 
high. In another large field was a good stand of cotton, which last year 
averaged over a bale to the acre, there were several fields of ctover and 
other grasses, and there were stacks of last year's hay not yet used. The 
cattle looked fat and sleek, the milch cows with distended bags, and many 
of improved breeds. The hogs were kept in a clover field and literally 
looked like they were 'living in clover/ so fat and healthy were they. The 
barns and stables were commodious and conveniently arranged, and large 
piles of barnyard manure showed that Mr. Mangum did not depend upon 
bought fertilizers. We saw quite a number of the most improved labor-sav- 
ing machines, which nowadays are necessary for profitable farming." 

As eloquently as these facts speak of the successful results of 
Mr. Mangum *s farming operations, they are also evidence of the 
judgment and intelligence which he brings to his aid in following 
his business as an agriculturalist. Another illustration of his su- 
perior merit is to be found in his progressiveness. He devised and 
introduced the modified terrace and used them in his fields, doing 
away entirely with hillside ditches. Under his system the land 
is prevented from washing and it can be cultivated more easily 
than under the system of ditches and without any waste. These 
terraces are from one to two feet high and about ten feet wide and 
carry off the water in a gently flowing current. In constructing 



266 NORTH CAROLINA 

them he utilized his old hillside ditches, plowing down the upper 
bank several times, but allowing the low embankment to remain. 
In front of this, where the ditch was, is a space of ten feet on a 
dead level. This level drain has a fall of ij inches to 13 feet, 
4 inches. The guide row is then staked off and horizontal furrows 
run plowing through this level drain and the embankment just as 
they chance to go. To run these terraces a spirit level set in a 
light frame 13 feet, 4 inches wide is used, and of course much 
judgment is needed to make them. Plowing down the hillside 
across the ten-foot level drain and lightly over the embankment, 
the water is distributed uniformly and slowly, and in the severest 
rain will never overflow. Whatever sediment or soil washes down 
is saved, the terrace gradually gaining more soil and becoming the 
richest part of the field. General Barringer, in his account of this 
fine farm, says: 

"We saw land which was formerly ravines and guUeys presenting a 
beautiful. and uniform slope. The terrace system as devised by Mr. Man- 
gum rids the field of grass. Every foot of land is under cultivation." 

His system has attracted general attention and has found such 
favor as to have been adopted by other progressive and intelligent 
farmers in the hillside country with advantage. If he who has 
made two blades of grass to grow where one grew before is to be 
commended, the advantage to agriculture of the devices in- 
augurated by Mr. Mangum are still more beneficial, and are yet 
more worthy of high commendation. 

In his political affiliations Mr. Mangum, like his illustrious uncle 
and other members of his family, was a Whig before the Civil 
War, but because of the issues evolved since that period, he has 
affiliated with the Democratic Party. 

He is a member of the Episcopal Church and his walk in life 
has been consistent with his religious profession. A busy man, 
earnest and active in his agricultural pursuits, he has had no time 
for sports or amusements, and he finds sufficient exercise in horse- 
back riding over his farm, every part of which is constantly under 
his supervision. ^ ^ ^^^^ 





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JAMES ISAAC METTS 

I AMES ISAAC METTS, a gallant soldier, a 
patriotic citizen and a successful business man 
of Wilmington, was born at Kinston, March i6, 
1842. His father was James Engram Metts, 
and his mother's maiden name was Mary Ann 
Tull. Miss Tull was a daughter of Isaac Tull 
and of Eliza Graham, who was bom at Murfreesboro in 1794, be- 
ing the daughter of Doctor Chauncey Graham, who came from 
Durham, Connecticut, and settled at Murfreesboro, North Caro- 
lina. Doctor Graham was a surgeon during the Revolutionary War 
in the New York troops, hospital department. He was a son of 
Reverend Doctor Chauncey Graham, of Still Water, Connecticut, 
whose father was Doctor John Graham, D.D., the second son of 
one of the Marquises of Montrose. Doctor John Graham was a 
graduate of the University of Glasgow and received his orders at 
Edinburgh. In 1718 he emigrated to Boston and married Abigail, 
daughter of the celebrated Doctor Chauncey. He was Minister 
at Exeter, New Hampshire, and at Stafford, Connecticut, and the 
first Minister in Southbury Society, Woodbury, Connecticut A 
branch of this family of Grahams, descended from the illustrious 
House of Montrose, also settled in Duplin County, and a branch in 
Lenoir County, North Carolina. 

Mr. James E. Metts was a son of Frederick Metts, Jr. (whose 
father, Frederick Metts, was a soldier and fought under 



268 NORTH CAROLINA 

General Marion in the Revolutionary War), and of Polly Engre- 
ham. He was a farmer and merchant at Kinston until his re- 
moval to Wilmington in 1848. He was industrious and a man of 
firm convictions, insistent on fully performing all his duties in life ; 
unassuming, he was noted for his courteous bearing and for his 
sympathetic disposition, and in particular was he generous and 
liberal toward those who were in need. His inclinations ever led 
him to be helpful to the poor and to be useful to those in distress. 
His son, the subject of this sketch, was six years of age on the 
removal to Wilmington. His health in childhood was good and 
he was fond of out-of-door games and developed into a strong boy, 
particularly skilled in athletic exercises. His health giving way 
at the age of fifteen years, he was taken from school for two years, 
being then prepared for college. He was taught by that eminent 
instructor, Mr. George W. Jewett, and being prepared for college, 
entered the University in the Fall of i860. Of young Metts as a 
schoolmate, one of his friends writes as follows : 

**He was a general favorite because of his unselfishness, his modesty and 
his manliness. He was quiet and dignified on becoming occasions, but in 
all the healthful manly sports of the day, he was our joyous leader. He 
scorned that which was low and mean and he was clean and honest and 
fair in his speech and behavior. He led the school as an athlete, and he 
performed such feats as jumping into the air and turning somersaults on 
level ground; walking a block on his hands with heels aloft and other 
amazing things with the agility of a Japanese wrestler, and when he threw 
a clam shell over the tower of St. James' Church, we thought he had 
reached the acme of undying fame. I think he was one of Mr. Jewett's 
models as a scholar: I know that he stood well in his classes and that he 
applied himself diligently to his studies. He has the same characteristics 
now that he had then and he bears a record of which any hero might be 
proud." 

On the breaking out of the war, on April 15, 1861, he joined 
as a private the Wilmington Rifle Guards, of which Oliver P. 
Meares was the captain, and under the orders of Governor Ellis 
that company took possession, along with the Wilmington Light 
Infantry, of Fort Caswell, where it remained until some months 
later the Eighth Regiment was formed under the command of 



JAMES ISAAC METTS 269 

Colonel Radcliffe; this company being Company I of that regi- 
ment, and Captain Meares being elected Lieutenant-Colonel. Then 
for some months Company I was stationed at Fort Fisher and 
was among those that laid the first foundations of that famous 
fortification. When the State organized her ten regiments of State 
troops, the Eighth Volunteers became known as the Eighteenth 
North Carolina Troops. In the meantime private Metts had be- 
come Corporal and one of the Color Guard of the regiment and 
served as such with it at Camp Wyatt, near Fort Fisher, and at 
Coosawhatchie in South Carolina. On the expiration of the twelve 
months for which the first volunteers had enlisted, he being then 
color bearer of the Eighteenth Regiment, he was discharged with 
others, but he re-enlisted and became fifth Sergeant of Company G, 
Third Regiment, of which the intrepid Gaston Meares was Colonel, 
the Lieutenant-Colonel being the beloved and efficient Robert H. 
Cowan, who was subsequently commissioned Brigadier-General, 
but on account of ill health resigned ; and William L. DeRossett, 
afterward so distinguished as a military man, the Major. Their 
first baptism of blood was in the campaign before Richmond ; and 
Sergeant Metts bore himself with conspicuous courage, and his 
coolness was especially manifested in reforming a part of the regi- 
ment at the battle of Cold Harbor, and his gallantry was displayed 
when comnianding a detail, guarding a causeway in the Chicka- 
hominy swamp. At the battle of Malvern Hill he was among 
those who received the last orders of the lamented Colonel Meares, 
who fell on that field. During those battles he became Orderly 
Sergeant, and on returning to camp he was assigned to the duty 
of drilling the recruits received by his company, and was compli- 
mented by some officers of the regiment as being the best drilled 
man they ever saw. 

Although he had escaped the deadly peril of those bloody bat- 
tles, he, however, contracted disease in the peninsula swamps and 
for a time was separated from his company. In the promotions 
which followed the loss of officers at Sharpsburg, Spartanburg, 
Sergeant Metts became the senior Second Lieutenant of his com- 
pany, and at Wiijchester he was detailed as Commissary of his regi- 



270 NORTH CAROLINA 

ment, and after the battle of Fort Royal he discharged the duties 
of Adjutant. Cool, brave and determined, his admirable conduct on 
every field attracted the attention of his superiors, while at Fred- 
ericksburg he won encomiums by his gallantry. Again, however, he 
was a victim of pneumonia, but he was able to join his regiment in 
time to participate in the fighting around Winchester, where his 
brigade, under Stewart, did much toward winning the victory over 
Milroy. At Jordan's Springs his coolness under fire especially at- 
tracted the attention and admiration of the privates and was much 
discussed by them after the battle. His efficiency gained for him 
the confidence of his superiors and he was selected to command 
the rear guard of the brigade as they were about to cross the Po- 
tomac. On June i8, 1863, the regiment encamped near the Dunkard 
Church in the woods on the battlefield of Sharpsburg, where the 
regiment had lost so heavily. A detail of men from the First and 
Third Regiments, under the command of Lieutenant Metts, did 
honor to their fallen associates and fired a military salute over 
the spot where they were buried ; and in the quietude of twilight 
the First and Third Regiments with arms reversed and to the roll 
of the muffled drum marched to the place of interment, and 
Reverend George Patterson, the beloved Chaplain of the Third, 
read the impressive burial services. "Upon this solemn occasion," 
says the historian of the 3d, "many tears stole down the bronzed 
cheeks of the old veterans and all heads were bowed in grief." 

Lieutenant Metts accompanied his regiment to the vicinity of 
Carlyle and then by a forced march reached Gettysburg on the 
evening of the ist, but the brigade was not seriously engaged 
until the next evening. Then being on the left of the line at Gulp's 
Hill, they drove the enemy from their first defenses, and Lieu- 
tenant Metts, leading his men forward, was soon hotly engaged 
within seventy-five yards of their second line of breastworks. 
There he fell from a rifle ball that penetrated his right breast and 
passing through the lung inflicted a terrible and most dangerous 
wound, from which none thought he would recover, and from 
which at times he still suffers. An eye-witness stated that when 
Lieutenant Metts was shot he was gallantly cheering his men, his 



JAMES ISAAC METTS 271 

hat in one hand and his sword in the other, both aloft. In that 
battle the Third Regiment, which entered with 300 guns, lost 223 
men and no prisoners. Lieutenant-Colonel Parsley, Captain E. H. 
Armstrong and Lieutenant Lyon were the only officers who passed 
through the terrible ordeal unhurt. Adjutant James helped his 
fallen friend to the ambulance corps, and for two miles 
Lieutenant Metts was hauled oveF rough roads, suffering the most 
excruciating agony and weakened by the loss of blood. On the 
withdrawal of the Confederate forces, he fell into the hands of 
the enemy, but was cared for by kind ladies from Baltimore and 
was conveyed to the General Camp Hospital and to the hospital 
at Baltimore, where he was the recipient of great kindnesses from 
the ladies of that city ; and later he was transferred to Johnson's 
Island, Lake Erie, where his kinsman. Colonel Thomas S. Kenan, 
was his bunkmate for thirteen months. Their sufferings during 
the Winter were terrible — insufficient food, scant clothing, houses 
neither ceiled nor plastered, the mercury at times 20 degrees be- 
low zero, and with but one stove for sixty prisoners. In August, 
1864, although the Federal authorities had ceased exchanging 
prisoners, the Confederates turned loose several thousand Federal 
prisoners, and in view of that some of the Confederates were se- 
lected and sent South in exchange; and Lieutenant Metts was 
■chosen as one of the most enfeebled and delicate of the prisoners 
for this exchange. Having been told by some of the doctors that 
lie could not stand another Winter there, often as the winds became 
chilly he would look over the fence at the graves of his poor com- 
rades and feel that in a short while the boys would place him 
among them ; but not long afterward he found himself once more 
■upon the streets of Richmond. During his captivity he had been 
promoted to Captain of his company, which he joined at Staunton 
in December. He took command of his company and also of Com- 
pany E and served in Cox's Brigade of Grimes* Division until 
detailed as a Special Inspector on the staff of Major-General 
Grimes, and shared in all the hardships and memorable experiences 
of those fateful days. When Lee surrendered, and the night before 
arms were to be stacked at Appomattox by the remnant of the 



272 NORTH CAROLINA 

heroic army of Northern Virginia, Captain Metts accompanied 
a band from Division Headquarters to serenade their beloved 
leader, General Lee. General Lee was so much affected that he 
could say but a few words, but he gave to each of the brave vet- 
erans who had thus sought to manifest their love and sympathy a 
warm pressure of his hand and an affectionate good-by. 

On his return home from Appomattox, Captain Metts, pressed 
by necessity, at once addressed himself to the duty of supporting 
his mother's family. He soon obtained employment as a clerk 
with two Federal sutlers, but later obtained more remunerative 
employment; and his merits, his strict attention to business, his 
accuracy and good habits commended him to the business men of 
Wilmington and eventually, after long and severe struggles, he was 
able to enter the field for himself as a merchant and broker, and 
he has met with gratifying success and commands the esteem and 
respect of the business men of his community. 

On November ii, 1869, Captain Metts was happily married to 
Miss Cornelia F. Cowan, a daughter of Colonel Robert H. Cowan, 
his old commander, and their married life has been blessed with 
six children. 

Captain Metts is an earnest, sincere man with the highest prin- 
ciples and most correct sentiments. His course in life has been 
consistent with that devotion to duty which he displayed in the 
ranks of the Confederate Army. He was baptized by 
Reverend George Patterson in the Potomac River in 1863 while 
en route into Pennsylvania, and has been an humble Christian, ever 
faithful to his profession, and for many years a communicant of 
the Episcopal Church, and for several years he has been a vestry- 
man of St. James's Church at Wilmington. He is a member of 
St. John's Lodge A. F. and A. M., and also an active member of the 
Seaman's Friend Society, of which he has been the President. He 
has ever been laborious in his work and diligent in business, and 
from his own experience he suggests that young men can attain 
true *;uccess in life if they will follow "honesty, sobriety, faithful- 
ness to one's self, perseverance, and trust in God." 

Captain Metts has always remembered the years of his life when 



JAMES ISAAC METTS 273 

he followed the Confederate flag, and he has taken great interest 
in whatever affects the welfare of the old Confederate veterans or 
the honor and fame of North Carolina and of her troops. On 
several occasions he has prepared interesting articles concerning 
the gallant action of his North Carolina associates on the field of 
battle. Particularly he has written a notable paper descriptive of 
the charge at Gettysburg, and also an equally interesting one rela- 
tive to the important action of the Thirtieth North Carolina Regi- 
ment at Chancellorsville when it turned the flank of Siegel's Di- 
vision, and in it he corrects some errors into which General Rodes 
had accidentally fallen. He has also written an article showing 
that the last shot at Appomatto^x was fired by North Carolinians, 
and in conjunction with Captain Cowan he prepared the "History 
of the Third Regiment" for the "Regimental Histories of the 
State." 

When at Johnson's Island some of his comrades formed a the- 
atrical troop under the name of the "Rebellonians," and 
Captain Metts was one of the actors. The delicacy of his frame 
led to his being assigned a lady's part. In the original melo- 
drama, in five acts, "The Battle of Gettysburg," ending in act fifth 
with "Home Again," he played the part of Mrs. Louisa White. 
The concluding farce was "Box and Cox." On another occasion, 
of which the programme has likewise been preserved, he recited 
"Bonnie Jean," and the third part of that programme was "an 
original farce for the times" written expressly for the "Rebellon- 
ians," entitled "The Intelligent Contraband." He occasionally re- 
ceives letters from some old prison-mate, who remembers the sweet 
songs which he and Lieutenant Mayer sang, accompanied by 
Colonel Thomas S. Kenan with his violin or guitar. 

Turning from those episodes of prison life, on July 19, 1897, a 
stranger entered Captain Metts's office, and observing the name on 
the sign, asked if he was any relation to Lieutenant James Metts, 
who was killed at Gettysburg. Giving his name as Reverend B. C. 
Morton and stating that he was the Chaplain of the Twenty-third 
Virginia Regiment, he said that he knew Lieutenant Metts, who 
was killed at Gettysburg, and recalled his thin, emaciated, sun- 



274 NORTH CAROLINA 

burnt face as he lay on the cot. He went on to say how much he 
was impressed with his noble character, and how he had offered 
up a prayer for him, feeling at the time that it was useless ; and he 
added that he had caused to be published an account of the death 
of Lieutenant Metts at the time. Captain Metts quietly said : "I 
am the Lieutenant Metts you knew." Mr. Morton at once arose 
from his chair and with his eyes streaming with tears and with a 
fervent "God bless you," he embraced him. There these two old 
comrades stood and their emotion found expression in tears of 
joy. 

In the hospital at Gettysburg, Captain Metts, thinking he was 
about to die, gave his sword to Doctor Reeves, of Maryland, to 
keep the Yankees from getting it. In 1882 Doctor Reeves, not 
supposing that Captain Metts had survived, made inquiries, with 
the view of returning it to some one of his connection, and was 
astonished to learn that Captain Metts had not died, had the hap- 
piness of returning it to him after he had sacredly kept it for its 
brave owner, who now treasures it as an honorable memento of 
a fearful struggle. 

Captain Metts's interest in the old Confederates has been appre- 
ciated by his surviving associates, and in April, 1899, he was elected 
First Vice-Commander of the Cape Fear Camp, 254 U.C.V., and 
the next year he was chosen Commander of the camp. In April, 
1905, he was again elected Commander of Cape Fear Camp, 
No. 254. In 1902 he was appointed Brigadier-General of the Third 
Brigade U.C.V. North Carolina Division, which honorable post he 
now holds, much to the gratification of all who know him and who 
admire in him those sterling qualities of manhood which distin- 
guished him as a soldier and which formed the basis of his fine 
character. 

S. A. Ashe, 




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BARTHOLOMEW FIGURES MOORE 




fARTHOLOMEW FIGURES MOORE was 
the son of James Moore, who was bom in 
Southampton County, Virginia, in 1765, and 
Sally Lowe, a daughter of Colonel Exum Lewis, 
of Edgecombe County, North Carolina. He 
was born near Fishing Creek in the neighbor- 
hood of Halifex, North Carolina, on January 29, 1801, the fifth 
son of quite a large family. His early education was received 
under John Bobbitt, who was principal of a school near the town 
of Louisburg. In 1817 he entered the Sophomore class of the 
University of North Carolina and was graduated in 1820, in the 
same class with W. H. Battle, later a Justice of the Supreme Court 
of North Carolina, and James H. Otey, the distinguished bishop 
of Tennessee. 

After his graduation he read law with Thomas N. Mann, a very 
gifted lawyer, and was admitted to the bar in 1823. He then set- 
tled in Nashville, the county seat of Nash County, where he com- 
menced the practice of his profession with but small success at- 
tending his efforts for a number of years. He said that his total 
income from his profession for seven years was only $700. 

December 2, 1828, he was married to Louisa Boddie of Nash 
County, who died within a year after their marriage. In 1835 
he married her younger sister, Lucy. Soon afterward 



276 NORTH CAROLINA 

he moved to a farm near Halifax, where he lived for a num- 
ber of years, removing to Raleigh in 1848. From the time of his 
removal to Halifax, throughout his life, he enjoyed a large and 
lucrative practice. 

He was early an aspirant for political position, declaring him- 
self a candidate for the House of Commons in 1828, but he was 
defeated. He had in 1824 been a supporter of Crawford of 
Georgia for the Presidency, who represented the old Republicans^ 
and he became strongly opposed to the leveling and, as he be- 
lieved, agrarian tendencies of the Jacksonian Democracy; and 
upon the formation of the Whig Party, he cast his fortunes with 
Henry Clay. In 1836, after his removal to Halifax County, he was 
chosen representative of that county in the House of Commons. 
At this session of the Legislature he took a prominent part in the 
work of the committee on the revisal of the statute law. His ap- 
pointment on the committee was in recognition of his knowledge 
of law, which was unusual for so young a man. At this session 
he supported a bill for the aid of the Wilmington and Raleigh 
Railroad Company, and in consequence was strongly opposed in 
the next campaign and defeated by one vote. But he was again 
elected in 1840 and for two successive terms. In the work of these 
sessions he took a prominent part, particularly on the Judiciary 
Committee, of which he was chairman in ^844. His course during 
his legislative career was such as to win the respect and admira- 
tion of those with whom he came in contact. His acquaintance 
with the people of the State increased and at the same time they 
commenced to realize his ability in his profession. Throughout 
his entire legislative career he was a strong friend of internal im- 
provements, realizing, with the keen and practical business in- 
stinct which he applied to the solution of every question, that noth- 
ing could so build up the State as adequate transportation facili- 
ties. In 1844 he was chairman of the Committee on Internal Im- 
provements. In 1840, in the famous debate on the question of 
the right of the State Legislature to instruct the United States 
Senators, he took the ground that it was not within its province, 
as the Senators were responsible to the people alone. He was a 



BARTHOLOMEW FIGURES MOORE 277 

firm believer in public education, and in 1840 favored the Worth 
Common School Bill, which provided for public schools on the 
basis of Federal instead of white population. He made a very 
eloquent and powerful speech in support of the bill, and was of 
great service in securing its passage. He also realized the re- 
sponsibility resting upon the people of the State in regard to the 
care of the unfortunate, and in 1840, as spokesman for a com- 
mittee, introduced and argued a bill providing asylums for the 
insane and for orphans. In 1846 he declined to be a candidate for 
re-election. 

In 1848 Governor Graham appointed him to the office of At- 
torney-General to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Edward Stanly, and the same year he was chosen by the General 
Assembly for the ensuing term. 

In 185 1 the Legislature made provision for a revisal of the 
statute law of the State. Asa Biggs, B. F. Moore and R. M. 
Saunders were chosen as a commission for the purpose. 
Mr. Moore's experience in the Legislature in regard to the earlier 
revisal, as well as his wisdom and learning, made him particularly 
valuable as a commissioner, and it is not unjust to the other com- 
missioners to give him the greatest amount of credit for a most 
valuable piece of work, judged not only from a legal, but from 
an historical point of view. His was the guiding hand of the com- 
mission and his work on the revisal of 1854 alone would entitle 
him to distinction in the history of North Carolina. 

Learned in statute law% Mr. Moore was at his best in the com- 
mon law. Always a close student, while still a young man he be- 
came a profound lawyer and the equal in knowledge and ability of 
any in the State, and this at a time when great lawyers were not 
uncommon in North Carolina. He proved his ability in many 
cases, but he first made a lasting reputation in the case of The 
State V, Will.* Mr. Moore's argument in that case is regarded 
as without a superior in the history of the State. In this connec- 
tion another great case in which Mr. Moore took a prominent part 
may be mentioned, although occurring at a much later period in 

♦For this case see i Devereux and Battle, North Carolina Reports. 



278 NORTH CAROLINA 

his life. This was the Johnston Will case, in many ways the most 
famous case ever tried in North Carolina. The will of Mr. James 
Johnston, of Edenton, was contested by his relatives on the ground 
that he was insane when the will was made. The case was tried 
in Chowan in February, 1867, ^^^ lasted for nearly four weeks. 
An array of the most distinguished lawyers in the State was pres- 
ent. Among them may be mentioned ex-Governors Graham, 
Vance and Bragg for the contestants, and B. F. Moore, 
Judge R. R. Heath and Edward Conigland for the will. 
Mr. Moore, in a most able way, conducted the cross-examination 
of the contestants' witnesses, of whom former Surgeon-General 
Hammond was regarded as the most important, and whose testi- 
mony made a great impression. Mr. Moore, however, secured 
from him the admission that he was receiving a professional fee 
for his services as a witness, and so destroyed the effect of his 
testimony. Mr. Moore's speech in the case, also, was very power- 
ful. The verdict in the case sustained the will, as did the decision 
of the' Supreme Court on appeal. 

In manner Mr. Moore was inclined to be somewhat austere, 
and consequently he won the reputation of being very stern and 
cold. But his intimate friends and his family knew the falsity 
of any such estimate. He was a tender husband and a devoted 
father, combining with his affection a wise forethought for the 
welfare of his family. In his social and business relations he was 
plain spoken and utterly fearless, if once he was convinced that he 
was right. Principle was always of first consideration and im- 
portance. He appreciated to the fullest extent the regard and ad- 
miration of the public, but never sought popularity for its own 
sake. He was never widely popular, but he was universally re- 
spected and admired for his ability and character. He could have 
been elected to any judicial position in the State, but would never 
consent to consider such a suggestion, preferring to continue in 
the practice of his profession, particularly as he felt that with his 
large family he ought to make some adequate provision for the 
future. In religious matters Mr. Moore affiliated with the Epis- 
copal Church, and though not himself a communicant was in- 



BARTHOLOMEW FIGURES MOORE 279 

sistent on the faithful discharge of its duties by all the members 
of his family. 

Mr. Moore viewed with alarm and disgust the approach of war. 
By education and from conviction he was a believer in the inde- 
structibility of the Union and never conceded that the right of 
secession could exist. In i860 he wrote his daughter : "I would 
not impress upon you that the South has no cause of complaint. 
She has many, but if for such a cause a people may quit their 
allegiance, there then can be no durable Union." He refused in 
1861 to become a candidate for election to the Convention, but 
accepted an appointment on the Board of Claims for which the 
Convention made provision. This constituted his only assistance 
to the Southern cause. Mr. Moore made no secret of his belief 
that the war was wrong, but suflfered no injury for his opinion. 
Soon after the war began Judge Asa Biggs, who had formerly 
been judge of the Federal Court, but was now on the Confederate 
bench, opened court in Raleigh. Mr. Moore had a great many 
cases and went into the court-room at the opening of the term. 
He had scarcely taken his seat when Judge Biggs directed that 
the oath of allegiance to the Confederate States should be admin- 
istered to the members of the bar present. Mr. Moore gathered 
up his papers and left the court. Nor did he return. He, how- 
ever, practiced in the State courts where no oath was required. 

When finally the war closed, in 1865, he was ready to do his 
part in the restoration of the State to its normal relations with the 
United States. President Johnson indicated that he would be 
glad to have Mr. Moore, among others, come to Washington for 
a consultation in regard to North Carolina affairs. Accompanied 
by ex-Governor Swain and William Eaton, he went to Washing- 
ton in May. An interview with the President was arranged by 
John H. Wheeler, and on May 22d they met him at his office. The 
President explained to them his plan of reconstruction, showing 
them the amnesty and North Carolina proclamations. Mr. Moore 
read both carefully and then denounced the plan with decision. 
He especially opposed the exception of certain classes from the 
benefits of the amnesty, particularly applying to those worth 



28o NORTH CAROLINA 

$20,ocx), denying the power of the President. He denied also the 
power of the President to appoint a Governor and through him to 
call a convention of the people. He asked him where he got it, and 
upon the President's replying, "Article IV., Section 4 of the Con- 
stitution," said, "But the President is not the United States." 
He suggested that .the State could take care of herself by her own 
citizens, urging that the speakers of the two houses of the General 
Assembly should be allowed to summon a special session of that 
body to call a convention of the people which should repeal the 
secession ordinance and restore Federal relations. The President 
asked what could be done if the Legislature, after he had recog- 
nized it, should refuse to make the changes which were deemed 
necessary. Mr. Moore assured him that there was no member of 
that body that could not be led back into the Union "by a silken 
thread." Mr. Moore was very caustic in his remarks and became 
very fiery as the discussion went on, at one time walking over to 
President Johnson and shaking his finger at him by way of em- 
phasis. The President was very dignified but very good-natured, 
and took Mr. Moore's excitement in good part, refusing, however, 
to make any change in his plan, which indeed was the plan 
prepared by President Lincoln and agreed upon by Lincoln's 
cabinet. 

The next day the three gentlemen, again accompained by 
John H. Wheeler, went to see the President again. With him 
they found another delegation from North Carolina, headed by 
William W. Holden, the editor of the Standard, who had been 
summoned by the President some time before and who had invited 
the others to accompany him. They were R. P. Dick, Willie Jones, 
W. R. Richardson, J. H. P. Russ, W. S. Mason, Reverend Thomas 
Skinner and Doctor R. J. Powell. 

The President showed them his two proposed proclamations, 
with the name of the provisional Governor omitted in the one pro- 
viding for the restoration of North Carolina; and after the new 
delegation had expressed their approval of the plan, he stated that 
he would appoint as provisional Governor the person they might 
nominate. He then left the room. Mr. Moore was at once called 



BARTHOLOMEW FIGURES MOORE 281 

to the chair, but refused to take any part in the proceedings and 
left the room, accompanied by Messrs. Swain and Eaton. Those 
that remained nominated Mr. Holden, who was appointed by the 
President. 

Mr. Moore was elected to the Convention of 1865 as one of the 
delegates from Wake County and took a leading part in the de- 
bates of the body. He drew the ordinance, which was afterward 
adopted, declaring that the session ordinance of May 20, 1861, was 
and always had been null and void. That ordinance repealed the 
ratifying ordinance of 1789, and declared the Union existing be- 
tween North Carolina and the other States severed by that repeal. 
In the sharp debate on the matter he made a strong speech, declar- 
ing that he favored the ordinance because it preserved the right 
of citizenship in the United States for citizens of North Carolina, 
and that otherwise it might be destroyed. He also favored de- 
claring vacant all State offices, opposing the theory held in the 
decision of the State Supreme Court in the case of Hoke z/. Hen- 
derson, that the holder of an office had a right of property therein, 
and quoting the decision of the Supreme Court of the United 
States in the case of Butler v. Pennsylvania, which was exactly 
to the contrary. He held that a convention of the people was not 
bound by any State Court, but only by the United States Supreme 
Court, and this view was agreed to by a majority of the Conven- 
tion. Concerning the war debt, the other important subject of dis- 
cussion in this session of the Convention Mr. Moore was uncertain. 
He thought that the Convention should delay final action until the 
whole matter could be investigated and the mind of the people, as 
well as of the delegates, cleared of any doubt. His upright nature 
and business sense made him opposed to repudiation on principle. 
But he took little part in the debate until a telegram, sent by the 
President, in response to an exceedingly misleading one from 
Governor Holden, was received by the Convention, demanding 
the instant repudiation of the whole war debt. Then it was that 
Mr. Moore's opinion became to an extent settled. He was op- 
posed to Federal interference, and on the floor of the Convention 
criticised the President sharply for sending the message, and ad- 



282 NORTH CAROLINA 

vised that the Convention should refuse to accept his dictation. 
But his eflforts were in vain and repudiation followed. 

In the Worth-Holden campaign of 1865 Mr. Moore, while not 
an admirer of the latter, was opposed to a contest and refused to 
oppose him. He gives his reasons for fearing a division in the 
following extract from a letter to Tod R. Caldwell: 

"A division, placing the Unionists on one side and the Secessionists on 
the other, will lead to a breach made wider and deeper every day, until the 
extremest partizan on either side will become the most powerful man of 
his party and the most dangerous to the quiet and prosperity of the State. 
With such tools as these, we shall be sure to dig up negro suffrage and 
worship it as many did the cotton bag." 

Under an ordinance of the Convention, Governor Holden ap- 
pointed Moore, W. S. Mason and R. S. Donnell to suggest such 
changes in the laws of the State as were made necessary by the 
emancipation of the slaves, and to draw up a code in reference to 
the freedmen. Their report, written by Mr. Moore, was an able 
and elaborate discussion of the whole subject. It is too long even 
to give a summary of it here, but it was the most liberal Legisla- 
tion proposed by any Southern State in regard to the freedmen. 
It made all the laws, with two slight exceptions, apply equally to 
both races, recognized the citizenship of the freedmen as dating 
from emancipation, and gave them the full protection of the laws 
in the courts. All the legislation suggested, with but little amend- 
ment, was adopted by the General Assembly of 1866. 
. In May, 1866, the Convention met in adjourned session. Most 
of the session was spent in reconstructing the State constitution. 
The draft proposed to the Convention embodied most of the old 
constitution with certain additions and amendments. Its arrange- 
ment was the work of Mr. Moore, and throughout the debates he 
was its strongest defender. To him was largely due its adoption 
by the Convention. It was a much more compact and finished in- 
strument than the original constitution and the amendments were 
all improvements. When submitted to the people it was opposed 
by many on the ground that the Convention, called as it was by 
the President of the United States, for the purpose of restoring 



BARTHOLOMEW FIGURES MOORE 283 

the State to the Union, had no legal power to alter the fundamental 
law of the State. Judge Thomas Rufiin and Judge M. E. Manly 
were the most conspicuous and influential of its opponents, 
and to their influence, probably, was due its rejection by the 
people. 

Mr. Moore was not in sympathy with the party in control of 
affairs in North Carolina from 1866 to 1868. Nor was he in sym- 
pathy with the radicals. When the reconstruction acts were 
passed he believed them unconstitutional, but he refused to take 
part in the conservative movement, as he thought there should 
be a convention of the people to settle the questions which were 
then at issue. But when the Convention met and he saw its char- 
acter and tendencies, he was convinced that but little good could 
come out of it ; and this view was confirmed when its debates were 
concluded and the new constitution completed. Regarding this, 
he wrote his daughter in 1868: "It is in my view, with some ex- 
ceptions, a wretched basis to secure liberty or property. The leg- 
islative authority rests upon ignorance .without a single check, ex- 
cept senatorial age, against legislative plunder by exorbitant tax- 
ation." Concerning the Republican candidates at the first elec- 
tion under it, he said in the same letter : "The Radical Party pur- 
poses to fill our Congressional representation with those men re- 
cently introduced from other quarters of the United States, and 
to impose them upon us through the instrumentality and league 
of the ignorance of the State ; nor have they stopped there — ^they 
have proposed for the administration of justice in our Superior 
Courts men whose knowledge of law is contemptible and far be- 
low the requirements of a decent county court lawyer. The party 
has had no regard, unless where they thought they would increase 
their strength, for the selection of a single man of worth or in- 
telligence for any office, however high might be the qualifications 
demanded for it." 

Mr. Moore's fears in regard to the character of the new Govern- 
ment were confirmed in 1869, when certain justices of the Supreme 
Court took part in a political demonstration of the Republican 
Party in Raleigh. Mr. Moore, as "Father of the Bar," of North 



284 NORTH CAROLINA 

Carolina, wrote a protest which seems well worthy of quotation 
in full. It is as follows: 

"A Solemn Protest of the Bar of North Carolina Against Judicial In- 
terference in Political Affairs. 

"The undersigned, present or former members of the bar of North 
Carolina have witnessed the late public demonstrations of political parti- 
zanship, by the judges of the Supreme Court of the State, with profound 
regret and unfeigned alarm for the purity of the future administration of 
the laws of the land. 

"Active and open participation in the strife of political contests by any 
judge of the State, so far as we recollect, or tradition or history has in- 
formed us, was unknown to the people until the late exhibitions. To say 
that these were wholly unexpected, and that a prediction of them by the 
wisest among us would have been spumed as incredible, would not ex- 
press half of our astonishment, or the painful shock suffered by our feel- 
ings when we saw the humiliating fact accomplished. 

"Not only did we not anticipate it, but we thought it was impossible to 
be done in our day. Many of us have passed through political times al- 
most as excited as those of to-day ; and most of us recently through one 
more excited; but never before have we seen the judges of the Supreme 
Court, singly or en masse, moved from that becoming propriety so indis- 
pensable to secure the respect of the people, and throwing aside the ermine, 
rush into the mad contest of politics under the excitement of drums and 
flags. From the unerring lessons of the past we are assured that a judge 
who openly and publicly displays his political party zeal renders himself 
unfit to hold the 'balance of justice,' and that whenever an occasion may 
offer to serve his fellow-partizans, he will yield to the temptation, and the 
'wavering balance* will shake. 

"It is a natural weakness in man that he who warmly and publicly identi- 
fies himself with a political party will be tempted to uphold the party 
which upholds him, and all experience teaches us that a partizan judge can- 
not be safely trusted to settle the great questions of a political constitu- 
tion, while he reads and studies the book of its laws under the banners of 
a party. 

"Unwilling that our silence should be construed into an indifference to 
the humiliating spectacle now passing around us, influenced solely by a 
spirit of love and veneration for the past purity, which has distinguished 
the administration of the law in our State, and animated by the hope that 
the voice of the bar of North Carolina will not be powerless to avert the 
pernicious example, which we have denounced, and to repress its contagious 
influence, we have under a sense of solemn duty subscribed and published 
this paper." 



BARTHOLOMEW FIGURES MOORE 285 

This, signed by Mr. Moore and one hundred and seven other 
lawyers, was published in the Daily Sentinel of April 19, 1869. 
The Supreme Court, on June 8th following, ordered that the 
twenty-five attorneys who had signed it and who were then prac- 
ticing attorneys before the Supreme Court should be disabled from 
appearing until they should show cause to the contrary. The rule 
was served upon B. F. Moore, Thomas Bragg and Edward G. 
Haywood only. Messrs. Battle, Person, Fowle, Barnes and Smith 
appeared for them, and the question was argued before the Court. 
The respondents claimed that while they had intended to express 
their disapproval of the action of certain members of the Court, 
they had not intended to injure it or bring it into contempt, their 
sole purpose being to attempt to preserve the purity of the Court 
and to protect the administration of justice in the State. After 
this disavowal and the payment of costs, the rule was discharged 
and the respondents excused. Mr. Moore's view of the matter, 
as expressed to his daughter Lucy, is interesting. He said: 

"While I rejoice that my course is sustained by all the virtuous and 
sensible, yet I weep over the degradation into which the Court has plunged 
itself and the liberties of freemen. I had no purpose to degrade the Court; 
God knows that my only object was to purify and elevate it. 

"The conduct of individuals composing the Court was unbecoming the 
judges, according to my judgment, founded upon all the past examples of 
the enlightened men who had adorned our annals. I saw that if such con- 
duct should be tolerated and become common, the judiciary would sink into 
partizan political corruption. I felt it my duty as the oldest member of the 
bar to lift my wavering voice against the pernicious example. I did so 
as an act of duty. I feel now still more sensibly that it was my duty. I 
made no sacrifice in doing my duty. The ordeal I have passed through 
has made me proud of my position. I felt that I was called to account 
for having rebuked a great vice, for having discharged fearlessly a high 
and noble duty, and I was prepared to come off more than conqueror. I 
feel no stain on my name. There is none. I am cheered by every lawyer 
and gentleman I have heard speak, without as well as within the State. 
Every man of sense ridicules the opinion of the Court. It is without law 
to sustain it, contradictory, despotic, spiteful and malignant. It is the 
common sport of every man. I wish that I could have saved the Court 
from the degradation into which they have fallen, but it was bent on re- 
venge and lo! they have fallen into their own pit." 



286 NORTH CAROLINA 

When Governor Holden was impeached Mr. Moore was sought 
by each side as counsel, but declined to appear. He was, however, 
in favor of impeachment and wrote his daughter the following 
in regard to it: "Holden*s impeachment is demanded by a sense 
of public virtue and due regard to the honor of the State. He is 
an exceedingly corrupt man and ought to be placed before the 
people as a public example of a tyrant condemned and punished." 

After this time his practice was largely in the Federal Q)urt 
In 1 87 1 his son-in-law, John Catling, became associated with him 
in his practice. 

Mr. Moore died at Raleigh, November 27, 1878. In his will 
he bequeathed one hundred dollars to each of all his former slaves 
living in North Carolina ; he also remembered generously the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, the Masonic Orphan Asylum, and the 
Grand Lodge of Masons. Of this fraternity he had been a loyal 
and devoted member for many years. 

He rests in Oakwood Cemetery in Raleigh with this fitting in- 
scription above him : 

BARTHOLOMEW FIGURES MOORE, LL.D. 

Born January 29, 1801 ; Died November 27, 1878. 
Citizen, Lawyer, Statesman. 

To himself, his family and his country he was true; to evade a duty 
was to him impossible; in the discharge of duty he was diligent 
Difficulty intensified his effort. Danger rendered his resolu- 
tion more firm. A devoted son of North Carolina. A 
never-failing friend and liberal benefactor of her 
interests. An uncompromising foe to 
oppression. A profound jurist and 
a fearless patriot 

/. G, de Roulhac Hamilton. 




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SAMUEL TATE MORGAN 




ORTH CAROLINA has reason to regard with 
pride those of her sons who have achieved em- 
inence through their military exploits and in the 
field of statesmanship ; she may well take equal 
pride in the career of those sons who, entering 
on the activities of life, have developed into 
great captains of industry. It is somewhat remarkable that the 
two men who are at the head of the largest industrial corpora- 
tions of the world, James B. Duke, of the American Tobacco Com- 
pany, and Samuel T. Morgan, of the Virginia-Carolina Chemical 
Company, were born and reared almost in the same neighborhood, 
in what is now Durham County, and that their environments in 
early life were much the same. 

Mr. Morgan was sprung from a family connection that inherited 
fine traits of character. His forefathers for several generations 
were farmers living easy, independent lives, conscious of an excel- 
lent manhood, and enjoying the respect and esteem of their neigh- 
bors and associates. In his veins flows the blood of the Aliens and 
Tates and the Chambers, as well as that of the Morgans. His 
mother, Talithia A. Tate, was a daughter of Mark A. Tate and 
Rebecca B. Allen of Wake County ; and his father, Samuel David- 
son Morgan, was the son of Stevens Morgan, and his wife, Mary 
Chambers, a daughter of General Chambers, of Person County. 



288 NORTH CAROLINA 

All of these families possessed strong characteristics and stood 
well in their respective communities. 

Samuel Davidson Morgan was a native of Virginia. He moved 
into North Carolina in 185 1, and settled in the Fishdam district 
of Wake County. There he married and engaged in planting to- 
bacco, and he likewise manufactured tobacco. To him and his 
wife, Talithia Adaline Tate, were born two sons, William M., the 
eldest, bom September 8, 1855 ; and Samuel Tate, the subject of 
this sketch, born on May 15, 1857. 

The year 1865 was one of general calamity, but in particular 
did it bring sorrows and changes to the Morgan household. At 
its very opening, in January, when the people were mourning the 
dire results of the war, Samuel Morgan, the father of the family, 
died, and in February Mrs. Morgan lost her only brother, and the 
next month she was also bereft of her father. To the widowed 
mother there were left only her two young sons, aged nine and 
seven respectively. And at the very period of this accumulation 
of sorrow, the retreating Confederate army passed to the west- 
ward, and the Federal army, to the terror of the people, took pos- 
session of the country in which she lived — ^being now a part of 
Durham County. Their presence was a menace and a horror, and 
the calamity and distresses of that woeful time of war can neither 
be portrayed nor imagined. 

The estates of both her husband and father were considerable, 
but consisted chiefly of land and slaves. The slaves were now 
freed, and the negroes moved here and there at will, and labor was 
disorganized, and the land was practically valueless. Mr. Morgan 
had also been engaged in manufacturing tobacco, and had ac- 
cumulated quite a large quantity of tobacco, which was still on hand 
at the time when that section was occupied by the Federal army. 
Indeed nearly all the property of the family, except their land and 
negroes, consisted of this tobacco — and it was all taken and used 
by Sherman's marauding troops. The superior quality of the to- 
bacco raised in that region had gained for it, even before the war„ 
a good reputation, and the distribution of that accumulated by 
Mr. Morgan, as well as that possessed by other persons in the 



SAMUEL TATE MORGAN 289 

neighborhood of Durham Station, where Sherman's army rested, 
tended to make famous the Durham tobacco, which in later years 
became celebrated far and wide for its excellence. 

The difficulties that surrounded Mrs. Morgan at that period of 
affliction, trouble and uncertainty were enough to crush the spirit 
of any ordinary person, but Mrs. Morgan saved what she could 
from the wreck and devastation of those evil days, and with a 
brave heart addressed herself to the duties of her situation. 

Eventually she secured the services of an overseer, and the cul- 
tivation of her plantation was again resumed, but under circum- 
stances that were far from propitious. Yet she managed to make 
enough to support her family and send the children to school. Her 
eldest son was educated at Bingham's Military School, which was 
then located at Mebanesville ; and then the subject of this sketch 
was placed first at Horner's Military School at Oxford, and after- 
ward he, too, went to Bingham's. Both of these schools were ex- 
cellent, not merely because of the admirable teaching, but as well 
because of the military feature and discipline, which inculcated 
obedience to duty and developed a high standard of moral char- 
acter. At the age of seventeen, however, the subject of this sketch, 
who was then well advanced in his studies, was withdrawn from 
school to join his mother at home, for she was residing on her 
plantation, in the midst of negroes, the only other white person 
near being the overseer ; and the negroes were often lawless and 
had an undue sense of their importance, in those first years of their 
freedom and exemption from the restraints of their former planta- 
tion life, which indeed their political leaders constantly fostered, 
thus greatly contributing to their demoralization. 

Being at home, Mr. Morgan engaged in the usual work of farm 
life, developing a robust physique and an excellent constitution; 
and, like his brother, he also employed himself in the manufacture 
of tobacco, a crop that was raised on their farm and generally in 
that region. But the internal revenue laws were exacting, and 
were very stringently enforced in those days, so that there was 
always danger of falling into trouble with over-zealous revenue 
agents. And so Mrs. Morgan, apprehensive of trouble, required 



290 NORTH CAROLINA 

her sons to abandon that business ; and the subject of this sketch 
took up the mercantile and lumbering business, which he success- 
fully pursued until 1879. 

Indeed, so successful was he and so hopeful of the future that 
in 1875 he became united in marriage to Miss Sally F. Thompson, 
the only daughter of Honorable George W. Thompson and 
Frances Crenshaw, his wife, of Wake County — a, marriage that 
was most fortunate and happy for him. Of Mr. Thompson the 
eminent Doctor Thomas E. Skinner, in an article published in the 
Biblical Recorder, among other things, said : 

"Without seeking office ever, he was chosen and elected to the State 
Senate three terms, for one of which he defeated the late Governor Charles 
Manly. His friends also placed upon him the honor of representing this 
district in Congress; this he declined, but recommended the late General 
L. 0*B. Branch, who was elected to that position. George Thompson's 
ambition was unselfish. He did not seek honor of men for the sake of the 
honor merely, but only to be useful to his fellow man. He was one of the 
most honorable and valuable citizens that Wake County has produced." 

The association of Mr. Morgan with his father-in-law resulted 
largely to his benefit, and the intercourse between them being close, 
he has ever cherished throughout life a warm affection and ad- 
miration for him. 

In the Fall of 1878 his brother moved into the town of Durham, 
which had rapidly grown from a small hamlet in 1872 to quite a 
town, and the next year the subject of this sketch also located in 
that town. Durham was then becoming a center of trade for all 
the tobacco region, as it was one of the leading tobacco marts of 
this country. Here he began a wholesale trade in grain and pro* 
visions, and also a commission business in connection with hand- 
ling fertilizers. 

After acting as agent for several fertilizer companies for a year 
or two, he became impressed with the belief that fertilizers could 
be manufactured in Durham as well as elsewhere. He was led 
to consider this subject because of the vast quantity of tobacco 
stems, a waste product of the tobacco factories of Durham, ready 
at hand, known to be rich in potash, and proved by experience 



SAMUEL TATE MORGAN 291 

to be valuable as a fertilizer, especially for tobacco crops. His 
business having prospered, and being able to embark in this new 
enterprise, he organized a partnership in connection with Mr. Eu- 
gene Morehead, of the Morehead Banking Company, and his 
brother, Mr. William M. Morgan, whose fine talents and profi- 
ciency had led to his employment as cashier of the Morehead Bank- 
ing Company, for the purpose of manufacturing fertilizers. The 
firm name was the Durham Ffsrtilizer Company. The company 
prospered. As anticipated by Mr. Morgan, Durham proved an 
excellent location for the manufacture of fertilizers, and he met 
with no difficulty in disposing of his products at a remunerative 
price. In 1889 Mr. Morehead died, and the partnership was dis- 
solved and was succeeded by a stock company, with a capital stock 
of $60,000, Mr. Morgan being President of the company, and hav- 
ing the practical management of its affairs. With this increased 
capital, under the intelligent direction of Mr. Morgan, the con- 
cern now entered on a marvelous growth. Gradually the capital 
was increased to $400,000, and branches were established at Rich- 
mond, Virginia, and at Blacksburg, South Carolina ; and Mr. Mor- 
gan also organized the Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Company 
at Norfolk, erecting there a large plant, which was entirely owned 
by the Durham Company. Indeed the development and progress 
of the business was so great and so gratifying in its results as to 
place Mr. Morgan in the forefront of the important business men, 
not only of Durham, but of the State. 

In the meantime, while always cautious and conservative, his 
progressive spirit led him to be intimately connected with all the 
business enterprises begun in Durham at that period. He was 
instrumental in constructing the first street railway that was built 
in Durham, and was concerned in establishing the second cotton 
mill that was erected in the town, and he contributed to the pro- 
motion of the various industrial movements of that era so remark- 
able for its activities and so important in enhancing the growth 
of Durham. 

Early in 1895 the business of the Durham Fertilizer Company, 
and of the companies connected with it, had expanded to such an 



292 NORTH CAROLINA 

extent that Mr. Morgan conceived the idea of organizing into one 
compact corporation all the fertilizer companies of North Caro- 
lina and Virginia. After months of laborious work this purpose 
was substantially accomplished, the outcome of it being the or- 
ganization of the Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company, with a 
capital stock of $5,000,400. At that time the business of the 
consolidated companies was very remunerative, and the output of 
the several factories approximated 100,000 tons of commercial fer- 
tilizers. Now began a new era of progress. Mr. Morgan speedily 
recognized the possibilities of the situation, and was indefatigable 
in utilizing every element that promised beneficial results. Pur- 
chases were made of large fields of phosphate deposits, and with a 
truly enterprising spirit Mr. Morgan sought to secure ample sup- 
plies of the raw material for his factories at first hand and at the 
lowest cost. The value of cotton seed as the basis for fertilizers 
was early appreciated, and Mr. Morgan obtained for his company 
control of a considerable number of mills erected for the purpose 
of crushing this product of the Southern cotton fields. 

It seemed desirable, for the purpose of distribution, that the 
company should own a steamship of its own, and he caused to 
be built a vessel particularly adapted to the business. The Rich- 
mond Times, in mentioning the accomplishment of this purpose, 
in 1899 said: 

**The launching of the 5". T. Morgan is an event of great importance to 
the South, and in a sense, an event of national interest. Of interest to 
the South, in that the steamer is owned by the Virginia-Carolina Chemical 
Company, a mammoth enterprise, the prosperity of which means the pros- 
perity of the Southland, and food and raiment to its people. Of national 
interest, in that the 5*. T. Morgan is the first tramp steamer ever built and 
owned in this country, and intended to ply to all parts of the world. It 
is befitting that the steamer should bear the name of the president of the 
company, Mr. S. T. Morgan. Mr. Morgan was the organizer of the 
Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company, and since its organization in 1895 
has been its president. He is a strong, conservative, yet progressive man 
of affairs, possessing great executive ability, and under his guidance the 
company has become the greatest fertilizer manufacturing company in the 
world." 



SAMUEL TATE MORGAN 293 

It is to be observed that the use of fertilizers has indeed been 
of great advantage to the agricultural portions of this country, 
and especially to the South. Formerly Peruvian g^ano was the 
chief reliance of the Southern planter, and when the supply of that 
valuable commodity was exhausted it became of exceeding inter- 
est that some suitable substitute should be furnished ; this has been 
done in great part by the company which Mr. Morgan organized 
and created, and his work has been of incalculable benefit to the 
agriculture of the South. 

He has been unremitting in his efforts to give the country a 
cheap, reliable and valuable fertilizer ; and in seeking to carry out 
this purpose, Mr. Morgan has visited Europe and made contracts 
and has purchased large beds of mineral deposits, and has made 
similar purchases in Mexico. 

In 1902, on the occasion of the visit of Prince Henry of Prus- 
sia to this country. The New York Sun, in suggesting that the 
Prince should meet at luncheon "One hundred immortals of 
Yankee industry," said : 

"The industrial development of the United States would hardly have 
been what it is to-day had it not been for the wonderful development of 
the South. It has seemed to the Sun that two men, perhaps more than any 
others, should stand for the industrial development of the country south of 
Mason's and Dixon's line. One of them is Samuel T. Morgan, President 
of the Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company. By a process which he de- 
vised for the making of phosphate, Mr. Morgan has turned barren waste 
of the South into productive cotton plantations, and thereby has turned 
millions of dollars into the pockets of the Southern people." 

From year to year the business of his company has constantly 
been enlarged, until at length it has a paid-up capital of 
$46,000,000, and manufactures a million tons of fertilizers, 
while its subsidiary companies do a business of over $14,000,000 
besides, it being the greatest industrial organization of its kind 
in the world, and by far the largest industrial organization of 
any kind in the South. And as vast and important as it is, this 
company is virtually the creation of Mr. Morgan; and from its 
inception it has been under his guidance and direction, for he 



294 NORTH CAROLINA 

has been the only President and head it has ever had. His whole 
time and attention is devoted to the work of his company, and 
he gives but little thought to outside matters. Indeed, as Presi- 
dent of the Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company and of its sub- 
sidiary companies, the Southern Cotton Oil Company, and the 
Charleston (S. C.) Mining and Manufacturing Company, he is so 
thoroughly employed as to leave no time for other things. Some 
of the largest financial institutions at the North have tendered him 
honorable and responsible positions as a director in association 
with leading men of the Union, but he has felt compelled to decline 
these flattering offers ; the only directorships he has ever accepted, 
being in the Merchants' National Bank and in the Virginia Trust 
Company, both of Richmond, Virginia. 

In 1896 Mr. Morgan's family moved from Durham to Rich- 
mond, where he could be more with them, and he has made that 
city his residence ; though he still retains his citizenship in North 
Carolina, and his business is of such a nature that he cannot call 
any particular spot his home. He is still devoted to the State of 
his birth and the old homestead where he was raised ; and he owns 
to-day every foot of land he inherited from his parents. 

His marriage has been blessed with three children — Alice, 
Blanche, Maude Crenshaw, and Samuel Tate, Jr., all of whom are 
living. 

Mr. Morgan has always been identified with the Democratic 
Party, and his religious affiliations are with the Baptist Church. 
While thoroughly a business man, he has always been extremely 
fond of hunting and finds the recreation of a day or two of this 
sport every now and then beneficial as a tonic, and as restoring 
the waste of mind and body. Nor is he so exclusively devoted to 
business that he does not indulge in social intercourse. He is a 
member of the Westmoreland, Commonwealth, and Deep Run 
Hunt Qubs of Richmond, Virginia; the New York Yacht, the 
Calumet and Manhattan Clubs, of New York ; and he enjoys his 
association with the members of these different organizations. 

/. H, Southgate. 




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RICHMOND M. PEARSON 

^HE following sketch of Chief Justice Pearson is 
taken from the memorial address delivered by 
the late Judge Robert P. Dick at the unveiling 
of the monument erected to the memory of 
Judge Pearson in Oakwood Cemetery at 
Raleigh, by the Pearson Memorial Associa- 
tion. We do not think any better sketch could be prepared, as 
Judge Dick was intimately acquainted with Judge Pearson, hav- 
ing sat with him on the Supreme Court bench for four years, and 
ever after remaining his devoted friend. 

Much of the address is necessarily omitted to bring this sketch 
withm practicable limits, but we think sufficient is given to do jus- 
tice to the great Chief Justice as well as his distinguished 
eulogist. 

Richmond Mumford Pearson was born in June, 1805, in 
Rowan County, at Richmond Hill, the paternal home. His father. 
Colonel Richmond Pearson, removed from Dinwiddie County, Vir- 
ginia, and settled in the forks of the Yadkin. He was an officer 
in the Revolutionary army and was distinguished for his patriot- 
ism and active and important services in the cause of American 
freedom. By his first wife. Miss Hayden, he had four children — 
General Jesse A. Pearson, Honorable Joseph Pearson, Richmond 
Pearson and Elizabeth, who intermarried with the Honorable John 
Stokes. His second wife was Miss Mumford, the daughter of 



296 NORTH CAROLINA 

Robinson Mumford, an Englishman. By this marriage he had six 
children — Sarah, Eliza, Charles, Richmond Mumford, Giles and 
John Stokes Pearson. He was an enterprising and successful 
planter and merchant until the War of 1812 wrecked his fortune. 

Mrs. Pearson was eighth in descent from Elder William 
Brewster, and she was a woman of remarkable force of character, 
and she exerted much fortitude, energy and wise discretion in 
alleviating the pecuniary misfortunes of her family, and in guid- 
ing, instructing and educating her children. I have often heard 
Chief Justice Pearson speak of his mother in terms of filial admi- 
ration and the most tender affection. 

After the pecuniary failure of Colonel Pearson, his son, the 
Honorable Joseph Pearson, agreed to advance the money and su- 
perintend the education of his half-brother, Richmond Mumford. 
At this time he was a member of Congress, and he carried his 
young brother to Washington, placed him in one of the primary 
schools of that city, and also caused him to be baptized by 
Archbishop Carroll of the Roman Catholic Church. 

On his return from Washington young Richmond commenced 
his academical studies in Statesville, in the school of John Mushat, 
who was a celebrated teacher at that time. In this school he was 
prepared for college, and entered the University at Chapel Hill, 
where he was graduated in 1823 with the first honors of his class. 

While at college Judge Pearson devoted but little time to the 
beauties of poetry and the elegancies of polite literature. He 
studied diligently the classics prescribed in the college curricu- 
lum, not from any decided taste for such accomplishments and 
learning, but influenced by a sense of duty and a generous 
ambition which he realized in receiving the first honors of his 
class. 

After graduation he -was offered a tutorship in the University, 
which he declined, as he was desirous of commencing at once 
the study of the law. In early life he had determined to follow 
the legal profession, and in the bright day-dreams of boyhood he 
had placed the Chief Justiceship of the Supreme Court as the 
goal of his ambition. When he quit the halls of science and learn- 



RICHMOND M. PEARSON 297 

ing, crowned with the laurels of scholastic triumphs, he was eager 
to enter upon the struggle for the highest prize of usefulness, for- 
tune and fame to be won in the intellectual contests of the forum. 
With a strong and fixed purpose of reaching the goal of his young 
ambition, he became a law student under Judge Henderson, and 
commenced the study of that noble science which in all his after 
life was the object of his admiration and almost exclusive 
devotion. 

I have often heard him speak of Chief. Justice Henderson in 
terms of high admiration and fond affection. He remained about 
two years in the law school, and was a diligent student and 
acquired extensive legal learning with great accuracy. 

While on the bench with him, I remember on one occasion, when 
investigating a legal question involved in a case before the 
Supreme Court, I could obtain no satisfactory information from 
our State reports and other books which I had examined, he 
told me that I could find the question solved in a note in Saun- 
ders' Reports, about the middle of the second volume, half-way 
down on the left-hand page. From this direction, in a short time, 
I found the information desired. He was pleased with the result 
of my investigation, and said that he remembered reading this 
note at the law school and had not seen it for more than forty 
years. 

Judge Pearson was admitted to the bar in 1826, and the prepa- 
ration for the duties of his profession was so thorough and exten- 
sive that he did not have to undergo the melancholy, period of 
long probation which many imperfectly prepared young lawyers 
have to endure before they achieve success. He had a good prac- 
tice almost from the beginning of his career, and in a few years 
he stood as an acknowledged equal among the distinguished law- 
yers of his circuit of larger experience and consummate ability. 
He was remarkable for his integrity and strict attention to pro- 
fessional business and his unwearied diligence in the preparation 
of his cases. He had not the gift of eloquence, of words and 
imagery, but the clearness and precision with which his argu- 
ments were made gave them the force of the eloquence of thought 



298 NORTH CAROLINA 

and pure reason. He was always faithful to his clients, and 
whether he lost or won their cases they felt that he had done all 
that his intellect, integrity, industry and learning could accom- 
plish. After a successful practice of the law for nine years, he 
was elevated to the Superior Court bench in 1836. As a Superior 
Court judge, he was prompt and indefatigable in the perform- 
ance of his public duties, and administered justice with a wise 
discretion and with strict integrity and impartiality. He was on 
tlie Superior Court bench twelve years, and during that period 
held the courts several times in each county in the State, and was 
regarded by all of his fellow-citizens as an able, wise, just and 
incorruptible judge. 

In 1848 he was elected by the Legislature as an Associate Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court, and here he entered upon the field of 
his future usefulness, greatness and permanent fame. He was 
brought into contact with Chief Justice Ruffin and Judge Nash, 
two as able and incorruptible judges as ever presided over any 
judicial tribunal, and he was soon regarded as their equal in abil- 
ity, integrity, and common-law learning. He recognized the 
exalted merit of Chief Justice Ruffin as a great chancellor, and at 
once began to devote himself to the study of the enlightened and 
highly cultivated system of chancery jurisprudence. In a few 
years he had so completely mastered the subject and become so 
much interested in the study that he commenced preparing a 
treatise on equity, and would have completed the same but for 
the publication of Mr. Adams, which covered the ground and the 
arrangement which he proposed to adopt. 

The opinions of Judge Pearson while on the Supreme Court 
bench constituted the monum.ent of his legal fame and will endure 
forever. In 1858 he was chosen Chief Justice by the Court to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the death of Chief Justice Nash, and 
he held this office until he was elected Chief Justice in 1868 under 
our new constitution, upon the nomination of both political par- 
ties, and by an almost unanimous vote of the people of the State. 
He occupied this distinguished position until his death, in January, 
1878, when on his way to the Supreme Court. He was on the 



RICHMOND M. PEARSON 299 

bench for more than forty years, and he died in the path of duty 
with his untarnished mantle on. 

His character as Chief Justice is so distinctly portrayed by his 
conduct and opinions, and is so universally understood and recog- 
nized, that it can be easily delineated. He possessed exalted intel- 
lect, extensive learning and many rare judicial and administrative 
qualities. He was remarkable for his cheerful devotion to the 
important duties of his position, the attention and care which he 
bestowed on all cases before the Court, and his assiduous labor 
to dispose of business and to prevent the accumulation of unde- 
cided cases on the docket. He seemed to feel that justice delayed 
was justice denied, and at every term he went through the docket 
and gave every litigant an opportunity of having his case deter- 
mined. In the hearing of cases he was patient and attentive, and 
when he went into the conference of the Court he was ready and 
willing to do more than his share of labor, and he gave his associ- 
ates the full benefit of his reflection and learning. 

When he was in good health I do not remember of ever having 
seen him weary from judicial labor. The "gladsome light of 
jurisprudence" seemed to keep his mind. always fresh, elastic and 
vigorous. He never shrank from any responsibility which the 
duties of his office imposed upon him; no weight of difficulty 
seemed long to oppress him, no multiplicity of details to confuse 
him, and no element of excitement to disturb him. He seemed to 
look through a case at a glance and understood, as by intuition, the 
facts and points of law involved as well as the able and learned 
counsel who had laboriously prepared an argument ; and by a few, 
simple suggestions he would bring distinctly to view the points 
decisive of the matter, or throw a flood of light upon questions 
which before had been dark and intricate to the most acute legal 
minds. 

His style of composition in his opinions was not marked with 
the ease and elegance of classic culture and erudition, but he had 
a power of prompt and ready expression in correct and appropri- 
ate diction remarkable for perspicuity and precision. He had a 
wonderful faculty in marshaling and arraying the most compli- 



300 NORTH CAROLINA 

cated facts, and lucidly applying the legal principles involved. In 
important cases his opinions are masterly and luminous judicial 
compositions, always exhibiting genius and power; even making 
difficult subjects easy of comprehension to the untrained popular 
mind. He often used homely phrases and illustrations taken from 
everyday life, but they were always apt in elucidation of the mat- 
ter discussed. In one of his opinions he compared the common 
law to the bark of the oak, which imperceptibly expands to give 
room for the exogenous growth of the tree, as it sends its roots 
deeper into the subsoil and among the rocks, to prepare to with« 
stand the storms and to extend its branches graceful with foliage, 
affording healthful and refreshing shades. 

Chief Justice Pearson never did any judicial legislation that 
caused injustice and wrong to individuals or society, and he never 
departed from the rules of law if they could, by any reasonable 
construction and application, be made subservient to the adminis- 
tration of substantial equity and right. He only modified to some 
extent the rigid rules of the common law by applying the more 
liberal and enlightened principles of equity jurisprudence, which 
declare that every legal right should have an adequate remedy. 

Before referring to the conduct and opinions of Chief Justice 
Pearson during the late Civil War, and the bitter and stormy 
political contest which existed during the long Reconstruction 
period, I desire to say something as to his political views and 
history. In 1829 he became a member of the State Legislature, 
and continued in that service until 1832, and diligently and faith- 
fully performed all the duties imposed upon him by that important 
and responsible position. In 1835 he was a candidate for a seat 
in Congress against the Honorable Abram Rencher and the Hon- 
orable Burton Craig. During that memorable canvass he used all 
his energies and intellectual powers in opposition to the spirit of 
nullification which was rife in the South. He believed in the 
fundamental doctrine of American independence and freedom — 
"that all political power is vested in and derived from the people" ; 
and that the American people, in the proper exercise of this right- 
ful authority, ordained and established the Constitution of the 



RICHMOND M. PEARSON 301 

United States for the purpose declared in its preamble ; and that 
the Constitution was an obligatory covenant of perpetual union, 
making the American people a great nation ; and was not a loose 
compact of confederation between sovereign and independent 
States that could be dissolved by the will and action of one of the 
States of the Confederacy. He also believed that the general 
government thus formed was paramount in the exercise of its 
delegated powers, and that Congress could rightfully make such 
laws as were necessary and proper to advance and secure the 
purposes for which the government was formed, and that the 
Supreme Court of the United States was the only lawful tribunal 
that could finally determine the question whether Congress had 
exceeded the limits of constitutional authority. 

He understood and properly appreciated the true principles of 
State sovereignty. He believed that the States should control the 
administration of local affairs, and should secure, protect and 
enforce individual and local rights, and in all respects exercise all 
the reserve powers not delegated to the Federal government. He 
believed that it was the wise and patriotic purpose of the found- 
ers of our general government to adjust and mold the principles 
of State and National sovereignty in a harmonious system, sus- 
taining, strengthening and vitalizing each other, and by thus 
uniting separate and independent States into a grand, powerful 
and prosperous nation, able to protect and secure all the blessings 
of the most enlightened and rational human freedom, greatly 
contribute to the advancement of the highest forms of Christian 
civilization. 

His patriotism was not cramped and dwarfed by the selfishness 
of undue State pride and the bitterness of sectional prejudices, but 
extended to all the States and to the furthermost limits of our 
great Republic. He was deeply impressed with the belief that the 
magnificent and beneficent purpose of our fathers could only be 
accomplished by preserving the Union, which they formed by the 
Constitution, and by cultivating and cherishing a spirit of nation- 
ality and brotherhood among the people of every section. 

In this canvass he was defeated by the Hon. Abram Rencher, 



302 NORTH CAROLINA 

who was a State's Rights Democrat, but not an advocate of the 
doctrines of nullification. From this time Judge Pearson devoted 
himself exclusively to the profession of the law, and had no politi- 
cal record until the appearance of his celebrated letter in July, 
1868 — "An appeal to the calm judgment of North Carolinians," 
in which he set forth in clear, forcible and patriotic terms the facts 
and the reasons which influenced him to support General Grant 
for the Presidency of the United States. He never had any skill 
in political management or electioneering legerdemain, and I have 
no knowledge of his having ever attended a party convention in 
his life. He was an old-line Whig and he was sometimes called a 
Federalist, as he so firmly believed in the constitutional suprem- 
acy of the general government, was such a decided friend of the 
Union, and was so much opposed to the doctrines of secession 
and nullification. In the excited political contests since the late 
Civil War, he never held extreme opinions or expressed his views 
with offensive violence, and I feel sure that he never suffered 
political considerations to influence his judicial decisions. He was 
not a partizan, but was truly conservative and national in all his 
views, and earnestly wished that the bitter sectional political ani- 
mosities of the times might be soothed and calmed by wise and 
patriotic action and counsel, and not be transmitted as an inheri- 
tance of hatred to posterity. He honestly believed that he adhered 
to the sound, liberal and patriotic principles of the old Whig Party, 
and he was not able to fully understand how he became dis- 
severed from his old Whig friends of former years. 

With anxious solicitude and fearful apprehensions he wit- 
nessed the gathering clouds of civil war, and the cup of his sor- 
row was full when the fearful storm of fratricidal strife burst in 
fury over the peaceful homes of the land, and North Carolina 
attempted to leave the Union formed by the thirteen revolutionary 
sister States, and her true, brave and gallant sons were marching 
under a strange flag and firing upon the "Old Flag" that had 
floated in triumph over the battlefields of American glory and 
freedom consecrated by the blood of their fathers. Although the 
proud and patriotic memories of the olden time still thrilled his 



RICHMOND M. PEARSON 303 

heart, and he lcx)ked with sad forebodings into the dark and ter- 
rible future, he joined his fortunes with his native State, deeply 
sympathized in the sorrows and misfortunes of his people, and 
was proud of the patient endurance and heroic deeds of North 
Carolina soldiers. 

In 1863 the fortunes of war became adverse to the South — the 
Confederate Government strained every nerve and sinew to main- 
tain the unequal contest against overwhelming odds and disastrous 
defeats; conscription laws with unjust discriminations were passed 
by Congress, and enrolling officers with military escorts were visit- 
ing the humble homes of the land to arrest the unwilling con- 
scripts, to make them fight in a cause in which they had no per- 
sonal interest and against a government which they still honored 
and loved. In the ardent zeal for success, and under fearful 
apprehension of defeat, and with the arbitrary opinions of mili- 
tary supremacy, many of the fundamental principles of constitu- 
tional freedom were disregarded — ^military authority became 
supreme, and the civil laws seemed silent in the assertion of right, 
and gloom and terror filled the hearts and homes of the people. 

At this time Chief Justice Pearson was applied to for writs of 
habeas corpus to protect and secure the legal and constitutional 
rights of citizens, who fled to the civil courts for refuge from the 
oppressions of military power. The writs were issued, and per- 
sons unlawfully detained were discharged from custody; and in 
opinions of great clearness and force he maintained the suprem- 
acy of the civil over the military authority. The War Depart- 
ment at Richmond determined to disregard the decision of Judge 
Pearson, but he was successful in the contest, as he was sustained 
by Governor Vance, who, although a warm friend of the Confed- 
erate Government, felt it to be his duty to maintain the suprem- 
acy of the civil law when declared by judicial authority. 

I will make no further reference to the action of Chief Justice 
Pearson in those cases. His written opinions are a part of the 
legal history of the State; his conduct was passed upon by the 
tribunal of public sentiment, and his grateful and admiring coun- 
trymen in electing him by an almost unanimous vote to the Chief 



304 NORTH CAROLINA 

Justiceship, in 1868, pronounced a verdict of vindication, approval, 
confidence and honor. 

Upon entering upon the duties of Chief Justice under the newly 
formed State government, he was surrounded with many embar- 
rassments and was called upon to consider and determine many 
cases of "new impressions," presenting difficult and perplexing 
legal questions growing out of the late war and the Reconstruction 
measures which followed. The abolition of slave property, which 
had before constituted a large part of the wealth of the State, 
embarrassed our railway improvements, broke our State banks, 
disorganized our labor system and industrial interests, and brought 
a large number of our most enterprising, intelligent and energetic 
citizens into bankruptcy. These adverse circumstances gave rise 
to a large amount of business in the courts from novel sources of 
litigation. Numerous remedial statutes and ordinances were 
enacted in legislatures and conventions which made great innova- 
tions and radical changes in our old system of government, many 
of which were ill-considered and unwise, and had to be fre- 
quently amended or repealed. The system of pleading and pro- 
cedure in the courts which had been derived from the common 
law, and had been shaped, molded and regulated by the experi- 
ence and judicial wisdom of ages, were suddenly swept away, and 
a new system of civil procedure established for the administration 
of justice. The difficulties and embarrassments which surrounded 
the courts in this transition and revolutionary period were greatly 
increased by the bitter partizan contests which divided and 
estranged our people. The courts and judges were the subjects 
of constant denunciation in a part of the public press and on the 
excited hustings. Many members of the bar, of high position and 
influence, who in former times had been strong friends of the 
bench, in the heat of party animosity and under the exasperation 
of defeat, pronounced a judgment of condemnation against the 
justices of the Supreme Court upon the unjust statements of a 
party press, before the condemned had any opportunity of explana- 
tion and defense. The power exercised by the Court was founded 
in right reason, well-established precedents, and was well sus- 



RICHMOND M. PEARSON 305 

tained by the highest judicial authority both in this country and 
in England. The justices were not influenced by any personal 
animosity or prejudice, but acted from a high sense of duty in 
sustaining the rights and dignity of the Court and asserting the 
majesty of the Law. 

I will make no further reference to this unfortunate conflict 
between the bench and the bar. I desire not to stir the ashes 
and cinders which time, calm consideration and reconciliation have 
spread over the almost extinct embers of former controversy. 

In no period of Chief Justice Pearson's life did he exhibit a 
more elevated moral courage, and more exalted wisdom and intel- 
lectual power, than in leading the Supreme Court and the bar 
to the solution and determination of the difficult and perplexing 
legal questions which were presented for adjudication. His opin- 
ions are to be found in our State reports, and they need no com- 
mendation from me, as they speak for themselves to the calm and 
enlightened judgment of the Bar and the country. 

I hope that I do not violate the solemn proprieties of this occa- 
sion in referring briefly to the celebrated habeas corpus cases 
before the Chief Justice, which grew out of the arrests made under 
the order of Governor Holden, the lawful commander-in-chief of 
the militia of the State. I have distinct impressions, clear con- 
victions, and vivid recollections of those troublous and terrible 
times. In these quiet days of peace and restored reason, scenes 
and events sometimes come to the memory of us all, and seem 
like the hideous phantoms of distempered dreams. 

I know well the thoughts, the feelings and the motives which 
influenced the action of the Chief Justice, and I approved them 
then and I approve them now. On this subject his fame needs 
no vindication from me, for with his own hand he wrote a memo- 
rial to the Legislature which, under the advice of friends, was 
not presented, but it has been published since his death. His 
clear, candid and truthful statement of facts and motives in that 
memorial must produce a complete and triumphant vindication in 
every unprejudiced mind. I hope, however, that I can with pro- 
priety express my individual opinion. In those cases he was influ- 



3o6 NORTH CAROLINA 

enced by sound reason and patriotic prudence, and by the concur- 
ring opinion of all his associate justices, sustained by the 
satisfactory decision of Qiief Justice Taney in a case involving 
similar questions and circumstances. He sincerely believed that 
if he had issued the unlawful order requested, he would have 
caused military insubordination, and brought on the bloody strife 
of civil war. He did what he thought was right, and disregarded 
the importunity and urgency of public clamor that surrounded him. 
He felt that if he issued that order he would violate the law 
which he had sworn to support, and would have the blood of his 
fellow-citizens on his hand and on his soul. In his conduct he 
displayed a firmness, dignity and lofty courage equal to that of 
the noble Roman Senator when assailed by the barbarous and 
infuriated soldiers of Brennus. 

I recall with pleasure the memory of my association with Chief 
Justice Pearson on the bench of the Supreme Court. Before that 
time my relations with him were only of a professional character, 
and I had not become acquainted with his many private virtues. 
I had regarded him as somewhat stem and reserved in his deport- 
ment, and was pleased to find him so kind, affable, genial and 
generous in his nature. During an intimate association of four 
years, I do not remember a single unkind word that ever passed 
between my brethren of the bench in any of the conferences of 
the court. 

The peculiar circumstances of the times, to which I have here- 
tofore alluded, often placed him in positions of danger and diffi- 
culty. When bitterly denounced by a portion of the public press, 
assailed by rancorous partizan clamor, threatened with impeach- 
ment, charged with gross dereliction of duty and corruption in 
office — when foibles were magnified into vices, and even the affairs 
of private life were the subject of caviling criticism, and he was 
deserted by timid and faithless friends upon whom he had 
bestowed confidence and kindness — ^he bore all with sublime 
patience and lofty heroism, and remained steadfast and self- 
reliant in the discharge of his important public duties. He stood 
like a grand rock on the ocean shore, unmoved by the rage of 



RICHMOND M. PEARSON 307 

the billows, although for a time obscured by the murky mist and 
covered by the spiteful spray of the tempest. 

I will now refer to some matters about which there can be no 
difference of opinion. Chief Justice Pearson was a worthy high 
priest in the temple of Jurisprudence — ^that noble and elevated 
science that has received the admiration and devotion, and called 
forth the highest and best efforts of the most virtuous, enlight- 
ened and intellectual men of all the ages. He was at the time of 
his death the acknowledged head of the legal profession of the 
State, and ranked among the leading lawyers of the age. 

He was a peer among the great judges of England and America, 
who have adorned the bench and done so much to strengthen the 
citadel and build the bastions and bulwarks of justice and truth, 
of human rights and human freedom. 

I feel that I would do injustice to the memory of my friend 
were I not to make further reference to his private life and 
character. When he entered upon the duties of manhood, he felt 
that "Life is real, life is earnest," and he had a fixed and deter- 
mined purpose to achieve success. He was prudent and indus- 
trious in business, and soon obtained the means to repay every 
dollar which his generous brother had advanced toward his educa- 
tion, and he also laid the foundation of the ample fortune which 
he afterward acquired. 

When a young man, he entered with much zest into the enjoy- 
ment of social life, and was remarkably fond of the society of 
ladies ; and I am informed that this pleasant and elevating associa* 
tion sometimes gave him the inspiration of the Muses. In 1831 
he married Margaret, the handsome and intelligent daughter of 
Colonel John Williams of Tennessee, and had by her ten chil- 
dren, only three of whom survived him. He commenced his mar- 
ried life at Mocksville, and was very kind and affectionate in all 
his family relations, and no place had for him such charms and 
attractions as his home. He was fond of cultivating his garden 
and farm, and often labored with his own hands. He was plain 
and simple in his tastes and manners, and was always pleased to 
have his friends at his hospitable board. When his time was not 



3o8 NORTH CAROLINA 

engaged by the urgent demands of public duty, he was fond of 
relaxation and pleasures of society, and he laid aside the dignified 
manners of a judge and became an affable companion. On such 
occasions he never exhibited any pride of genius and extensive 
learning, or assumed any superiority on account of his high official 
position, but with simplicity of manner and with unaffected inter- 
est, talked with ease and familiarity about the ordinary topics of 
social intercourse. In such conversations he expressed his opin- 
ions with frankness and candor, and often with much originality 
and force. He was free from anything like hypocrisy and deceit, 
and on all subjects his views were eminently practical, as he pos- 
sessed in a high degree the genius of common sense. He was not 
ostentatious in his benevolences and charities, but he always 
remembered the trials, privations and hardships of his early life ; 
and many a young man in similar condition was the recipient of 
his favors, and his quiet beneficences will long be remembered by 
the humble poor. 

Soon after Chief Justice Pearson was elected a Superior Court 
Judge, he opened a law school at Mocksville, and acquired much 
reputation as a legal instructor, and obtained a number of students 
who became eminent in the profession — some as leading lawyers, 
some as Superior Court judges, and some sat by his side on the 
Supreme Court bench. 

In 1847 he moved to Richmond Hill, in Surry County, where 
he lost the wife of his earjy love, and remained a widower for 
several years. In 1859 ^^ married Mrs. Mary Bynum, and this 
genial, practical and highly accomplished wife was the partner of 
his joys and sorrows, and presided over his hospitable home until 
his death. 

At Richmond Hill the law school was very prosperous. I have 
heard him say that he had instructed more than a thousand law 
students, who are scattered throughout the State and nation. He 
had great skill in the art of communicating knowledge, and by his 
cheerful and paternal manner he won the respect, confidence and 
affection of "his boys." He had no strictly scientific arrangement 
or definite scholastic system of education, but he communicated 



RICHMOND M. PEARSON 309 

instruction by frequent examination on the text-books, accom- 
panied by familiar conversational lectures, and, like the great 
philosopher of Athens, he never reduced any of his lectures to 
writing. He was fond and proud of "his boys," and did not con- 
fine his instructions to the class-room. He would talk to them on 
legal subjects whenever an opportunity was presented — ^at the 
table, on the path in the woods as they went to a neighbor's house, 
at the fishing place on the river, and in the Summer afternoons 
as they sat beneath the shades of the old oaks on the hill or down 
by the spring. 

Silence and solitude now reign at Richmond Hill, for the "old 
man eloquent" is dead ; but the fame and influence of Chief Jus- 
tice Pearson is more indelibly inscribed upon the legal and judicial 
history of North Carolina than the name carved upon the granite 
shaft that marks his tomb. 

Robert P. Dick. 





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THOMAS MERRITT PITTMAN 

F Mr. Pittman chooses to disregard the influ- 
ence of his forefathers on his disposition and 
character, and the guidance and assistance of 
stanch friends in his early manhood, he can 
with truth call himself a self-made man. He 
was deprived of the care and training of his 
parents in early childhood, and after fourteen years of age he 
was entirely dependent upon his own energy and labor for a liveli- 
hood. He had only the meager schooling of a country lad, though 
fortunate in having excellent teachers, but, by probity and assidu- 
ous application, while yet a boy he had become a skilled artizan. 
Under the stimulus of ambition and with the friendly counsel of 
kindly lawyers whom he already reckoned among his friends, he 
turned from the shop to the study of Blackstone and the intrica- 
cies of Coke. Before becoming of age, he secured his license to 
practice law ; and he has now won for himself not only an hon- 
orable name and station in the most learned of all the professions, 
but has grasped the stylus of Clio and undertaken critical research 
into the history of the law and legal procedure of the Jews, as 
well as into the chronicles of his native State. 

He was born in Franklin County, North Carolina, November 
24, 1857, the son of Alfred H. Pittman and Elizabeth Alston 
Neathery. Mr. Pittman's family is descended from the brother 
of Richard Bennett, a member of a company that landed in Vir- 
ginia about 1622, who was a Puritan, or Independent, quite a 




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tlie sli ■;> to the stiT.lv c)f lUaek-^tone and the intriea- 

I't. f<»rt: I\coniin<^ of a'^e, lie sec'ircd his license to 

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.t'. 1 -'.''•- -n in the niv).st JcariKMl of all the ;)ro.fessicns, 

'! tl'c .^t .Ins of C'h'o and nndertak<.-n critical research 

■■rv of \hc law and le-.d i-roced.nre of the Jews as 

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THOMAS MERRITT PITTMAN 311 

number of that faith having settled at that time in Virginia. 
This Puritan colony was expelled from Virginia about 1648, the 
members going to Maryland, among them being Richard Bennett 
and his brother. When Parliament sent a fleet to reduce the Old 
Dominion to submission, Bennett returned as one of the commis- 
sioners, and, a free government being instituted and the restric- 
tions of Nonconformists removed, in 1652 he was elected Gov- 
ernor of that province by the House of Burgesses. With the third 
generation, the male line of Richard Bennett became extinct, but 
the family has given a number of distinguished men to the coun- 
try, including, it is said, General R. E. Lee, the Blands and Ran- 
dolphs of Virginia, Thomas Atkinson, Bishop of the Diocese 
of North Carolina, R. B. Hubbard, Governor of Texas, Dr. I. T. 
Tichenor and others. 

About 1750 Richard Bennett and two of his brothers, descend- 
ants of the brother of Governor Bennett of Virginia, but who 
had not returned to Virginia with the other Nonconformists, left 
Maryland and came to Carolina, Richard locating in Halifax 
County, another brother going to Anson County, from whom the 
family of Judge R. T. Bennett is descended ; and the third settling 
in Bennettsville, South Carolina, from whom that place takes its 
name. One of the sons of Richard Bennett of Halifax, and great- 
grandfather of Mr. Pittman,was Reverend Philemon Bennett. For 
seventeen years, preceding the division of the Baptist churches, 
which resulted in the organization of the Primitive and the Mis- 
sionary Baptists, he was moderator of the old Kehukee Baptist 
Association, and was for many years pastor of churches in 
Warren and Halifax counties. He, as well as most of the other 
Bennetts, was a thrifty farmer of good judgment and strong char- 
acter. The simple, vigorous lives of these men were conducive 
to longevity, for Philemon lived to a good old age, and six of his 
sons attained three score and ten. 

The Reverend William Lancaster, the uncle of Willie Lancaster, 
the grandfather of Mr. Pittman's father, was a member of the State 
Convention of July, 1788, at Hillsboro, which rejected the Federal 
Constitution as first prepared and presented to the States. 



312 NORTH CAROLINA 

Mr. Pittman's childhood was passed in the country, he alter- 
nately attending the brief sessions of the rural public school and 
doing a young boy's work on a farm. For a time he was under 
William J. King, a teacher of recognized ability at Bel ford Acad- 
emy, Franklin County. He had the ordinary happy childhood of 
a country boy, healthy in body and with a pure mind, when on the 
death of his father, just after entering his teens, he found himself 
dependent upon his own endeavors for a livelihood. At the age 
of fourteen he went to Charlotte and entered the machine shops 
of the Mecklenburg Iron Works as an apprentice. The incentive 
of his early training gave him a firm resolve to strive for a high 
goal in life, and the apprentice boy, who by day wielded the 
riveting hammer in the noisy shop, studied at night that he might 
ultimately prepare himself to work in a broader field. It is at this 
age and under these conditions, when deprived of the protecting 
influence of a home life, that a youth is liable to be led into the 
bad habits with which the city boy is always menaced. Young 
Pittman*s ambition spurred his mental vigor and inculcated study 
and application during hours that boys usually devote to amuse- 
ment. The early religious training of his mother led him to avoid 
many evils, and strengthened and rounded his religious and moral 
nature in that formative period which creates or destroys a man's 
character. The pleasant address and sociability of the young ap- 
prentice gained him many friends, who came to admire him for his 
sturdy and independent character, and with true kindness and un- 
selfishness delighted in offering him assistance. These kindly 
offices, often simple, but from the heart, pure and unaffected, which 
were performed for him, Mr. Pittman now recalls with the keen- 
est pleasure, and feels that if in any way he has really missed life's 
goal, the friends he made with each successive step were more 
than worth the struggle. He followed under the guidance of these 
friends courses of reading and study, which developed his mental 
faculties, as his manual work gave him physical strength and en- 
durance, a clear eye, a confident hand, accuracy and self-reliance. 
In 1876, before he was eighteen years of age, the apprenticeship 
was finished, and after serving for a short time as foreman in the 



THOMAS MERRITT PITTMAN 313 

machine shops of the Carolina Agricultural Works of Charlotte, 
he entered the law offices of Guion and Flemming of the same city. 
This firm was composed of the late Colonel Haywood W. Guion 
and Major W. W. Flemming (the latter of whom young Pittman 
already numbered among his friends), and it was in accord with 
the advice and suggestion of Major Flemming, seconded by his 
own inclination, that he undertook the study of law. Major Flem- 
ming personally directed his professional course and imposed a 
severe curriculum, including such great old authors as Coke upon 
Littleton, Saunders on Uses and Trusts, Feame on Remainders 
and Chitty on Pleadings, while not neglecting to drill the ambitious 
student in modem law and the existing practice. In 1878, when 
yet under age, Mr. Pittman secured his license, and in June of 
the same year he opened an office in Charlotte for the practice of 
his profession, and the next year he was appointed Examiner in 
Equity of the United States Circuit Court for the Western Dis- 
trict of North Carolina. In 1885 he removed to Henderson, Vance 
County, North Carolina. He became attorney for the bank of 
Henderson and for Vance County, and in 1901 for the town of 
Henderson, which last position he still holds. While Mr. Pittman 
has not sought business as a criminal lawyer, he has appeared in 
about thirty capital cases, and so well has he worked for his clients 
that not one of them has ever yet been hanged. In his legal prac- 
tice, he has had the following partnerships : with Captain Robert 
D. Graham, as Graham and Pittman ; with W. B. Shaw, Esquire, 
as Pittman and Shaw; with J. H. Kerr, Jr., of Warrenton, as 
Pittman and Kerr. This last partnership is for local court busi- 
ness only, and yet exists. Besides having extensive corporation 
practice, Mr. Pittman has served as attorney in many special cases 
for various counties and municipalities, and enjoys an extensive 
and lucrative practice. In spite of the demands of his profession 
Mr. Pittman finds time in some measure to put in practice his con- 
ceptions of the ideal citizen, and while not a politician and never a 
candidate for a political office, he has when called on made cam- 
paign speeches, believing that every man owes society such public 
service as lies within his power. A leading member of the Mission- 



314 NORTH CAROLINA 

ary Baptist Church, he has been prominently identified with many 
of its organizations — vice-president of the Baptist State Conven- 
tion of North Carolina; clerk of the Charlotte Baptist Church; 
clerk and deacon of the Henderson Baptist Church ; superintendent 
of Sunday-schools in Charlotte and Henderson; for a number of 
years vice-president of the American Baptist Historical Society; 
member of the Publication Committee of the North Carolina 
Baptist Historical Society; honorary member of Wake Forest 
Alumni Association, and of the Philomathesian and Astrotekton 
Literary societies of Wake Forest College, and of the Baptist 
Female University, respectively. 

Mr. Pittman has published some important historical and bio- 
graphical monographs and papers, and delivered some notable 
addresses dealing with historical subjects, most of which have 
been printed. 

The most important of these are : Nathaniel Macon, an oration 
delivered July 4, 1902, at Guilford battlegrounds, and subsequently 
published ; John Porter and the Carey Rebellion, an address before 
the Summer school at the North Carolina College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts, August, 1903, published; North Carolina 
from 1832-42 (the Julian S. Carr Prize Essay), recently ordered 
printed by the North Carolina Historical Commission ; the Revo- 
lutionary Congresses of North Carolina, a North Carolina book- 
let, October, 1902; the preparation for Baptist Work in North 
Carolina, an address before the North Carolina Baptist Conven- 
tion, memorial service, at Greenville^ North Carolina, December 11, 
1898, subsequently published in January, 1900, in the Baptist His- 
torical papers ; the Great Sanhedrin of the Jews and its Criminal 
Procedure, an address delivered at Wake Forest College and other 
places (this is a study from a legal point of view of this Council 
when it resolved itself into a judicial court for criminal trials) ; 
Reverend J. D. Huffham, D.D., a sketch of his life, published; 
the Trent Affair, published ; Lemuel Burkitt, published in Wake 
Forest Student; John Penn, published in North Carolina Booklet ; 
sketches of Governor W. W. Holden and others in "Biographical 
Historv of North Carolina." 



THOMAS MERRITT PITTMAN 315 

Besides these he has delivered many lectures and addresses, and 
published numerous newspaper articles. In 1902 he drafted the 
resolutions of the Vance County Democratic Convention, which 
the Biblical Recorder mentions as a "notable utterance," and the 
Raleigh Post declared "sufficient for the State platform." 

Mr. Pittman constantly has some new work in view, being al- 
ways a busy man and looking to the future, and just now he is 
making a study of municipal organization and government, with 
a view to submitting to the towns of North Carolina plans look- 
ing to greater symmetry and uniformity in our municipal system. 
His deep and unflagging interest in the history of this State is well 
known. A collector of documents which bear on the different 
phases of the State's settlement, rise and development, he has 
gathered with the zeal of a virtuoso a large number of rare and 
valuable papers, pamphlets and manuscripts affecting the State's 
past, and much of the time that he can spare from his professional 
duties is devoted to the patriotic service of studying and elucidat- 
ing the State's history in its various aspects. To more thoroughly 
foster his interest in his historical work he is affiliated with a num- 
ber of historical societies, among them the North Carolina Baptist 
Historical Society, the American Baptist Historical Society and 
the Alabama Historical Society. 

In his literary writings he is concise and perspicuous, and has 
elegance of diction and clearness of expression that make a choice 
historical style. He attributes its derivation to a close study of the 
Bible for many years, and of the Spectator with its dainty refine- 
ment of speech, which was the one book that when a boy he was 
fond of reading again and again. 

As he has derived his literary tastes and drawn his style from 
both of these books, so he has molded his life on the former, and 
has been influenced by the moral philosophy of the latter. He feels 
that life's goal, no matter how lofty, is not worth the struggle un- 
less the means are as worthy and honorable as the prize ; and that 
a worthy life and true manhood itself mark success. 

S. A. Ashe. 




THOMAS POLK 




fHOMAS POLK, of Mecklenburg, one of the 
most prominent figures of the State during the 
Revolutionary period, was a distinguished 
member of a distinguished family. He was 
the fourth son of William and Priscilla (Rob- 
erts) Polk, and was born in Carlisle, Pennsyl- 
vania, to which place his father had moved shortly after his mar- 
riage. William Polk was the only son of John and Joanna 
(Knox) Polk and the grandson of Robert Polk (or Pollock), the 
founder of the family in America. Robert Pollock (or Polk) was 
a member of the parliamentary army against Charles First and 
an active participant in the campaigns of Cromwell. He mar- 
ried Magdalen, widow of Colonel Porter, his companion in arms, 
and daughter of Colonel Tasker, his regimental commander, who 
was at that time Chancellor of Ireland, of Bloomfield Castle on 
the river Dale. By this marriage he acquired the estate of "Mon- 
ing" or "Moneen Hill" in the barony of Ross, County of Donegal, 
Ireland. Robert Pollock took ship at Londonderry in 1659 and 
settled on the eastern shore of Maryland. After his arrival in 
America he changed the spelling of his surname to Polk. His 
estate, "Polk's Folly," lies south of Fauquier Sound, opposite 
the mouths of the Nanticoke and Wicomico Rivers, and is still 
in the possession of the family. Robert Pollock was the son of 
John Pollock, a gentleman of some estate in Lanarkshire, not 



THOMAS POLK 317 



far from the cathedral city of Glasgow, during the reign of James 
Sixth, of Scotland, and First of England. John Pollock was an 
uncompromising Presbyterian, who left his native land to join 
the new Colony of Protestants which had been formed in the 
North of Ireland. The Pollock coat of arms bears the device 
of a wild boar pierced with an arrow, and the motto "Audaciter 
et strenue." 

In 1753 Thomas Polk set out to seek his fortune with his 
brothers Ezekiel (grandfather of President James K. Polk) and 
Charles. He finally reached the county of Mecklenburg and set- 
tled upon Sugar Creek, a branch of the Catawba River, in a neigh- 
borhood made up of Scotch-Irish stock to which he also belonged. 
There in 1755 he married Susan Spratt, who had removed with 
her father two years before, and whose bright eyes, tradition says, 
were largely instrumental in attracting young Polk from his old 
home. By industry and enterprise he soon acquired a large tract 
of land and a sufficient fortune to enable him to rear and educate 
the nine children bom of this marriage. 

During the year 1767 the town of Charlotte was chartered by 
Chapter 1 1 of the Private Laws enacted by the Colonial Assem- 
bly. Thomas Polk is named as one of the commissioners and 
town treasurer. The original tract of land upon which the city 
now stands contained 360 acres and the conveyance of it was 
made on the 15th of January, 1767, to Thomas Polk and others, 
trustees and directors — the consideration being "90 pounds lawful 
money." In 1769 he was chosen a member of the Provincial As- 
sembly. One of his acts was to secure the charter of Queen's 
College (or Museum) (Chapter 3, Laws of 1770). This insti- 
tution was established in Charlotte and afforded the young men 
of that section better educational advantages than were possessed 
by most of the early settlers of other sections. Polk was made a 
trustee of this institution when it was chartered as Queen's Col- 
lege, and when it was re-chartered in 1777 (Chapter 20, Private 
Laws, April session) as Liberty Hall Academy. 

In 1 771, as captain of a company under command of Colonel 
Moses Alexander, he marched troops from Charlotte to Salisbury, 



3i8 NORTH CAROLINA 

to act against the Regulators. During this year he was also 
engaged as surveyor in establishing the dividing line between 
North and South Carolina by appointment of the Governor. 

During the period immediately preceding the Revolution com- 
mittees of safety were organized in the counties, and these met 
frequently to discuss the issues of the day. Charlotte became the 
central point in Mecklenburg for these assemblages. Polk was 
the presiding officer and upon his call the committees met. The 
meeting on May 19, 1775, has become famous. Upon this date 
the interest in the meeting was so great that, in addition to two 
men from each captain's district called by Polk to meet, there 
were vast crowds from every section of the county. After due 
deliberation resolutions were adopted expressing the attitude of 
the patriots of that section. This instrument is known as the 
Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. It was read from the 
court house steps on May 20th, by Thomas Polk, who was recog- 
nized as a master spirit in the movement. 

On May 31, 1775, an independent government was formally 
established, and the resolutions adopted that day were published 
on the i6th of June, in Charleston, and the same day at New-Bern. 
Colonel Cogdell, the chairman at New-Bern, sent them on to Cas- 
well, then at Philadelphia, and the paper was preserved by his 
colleague, Joseph Hewes. In transmitting them Cogdell said: 
"You will observe the Mecklenburg Resolves exceed all other 
committees or the Congress itself. I send you the paper wherein 
they are inserted." 

Johnston in referring to them in a letter to Joseph Hewes said ; 

"Tom Polk, too, is raising a very pretty spirit in the back country (see 
the newspapers). He has gone a little farther than I would choose to 
have gone, but perhaps no further than necessary." 

Thus it appears that Johnston, who was at the head of the 
revolution, ascribed the action at Mecklenburg to Colonel Polk, 
and doubtless Colonel Polk was the leading spirit there. What- 
ever he considered necessary to do, he had done. 

It being thought that two lawyers, Dunn and Boote, of Salis- 



THOMAS POLK 319 



bury were in communication with Governor Martin, in a confer- 
ence by Colonel Martin, Sam Spencer, Colonel Polk and others, 
it was planned to seize them and send them to South Carolina. 
This was the first of August, 1775. When the prisoners were 
brought to Charlotte, Colonel Polk received them, and at the head 
of 60 horsemen conveyed them to Camden, where they were kept 
in prison more than a year. 

During 1775 the Provincial Congress assembled at Hillsboro; 
at its session on September 9th Thomas Polk was appointed 
colonel of the second battalion of militia raised in the district of 
Salisbury. Shortly afterwards in command of 900 men he 
marched to South Carolina to assist in suppressing the Tories. 

On April 22, 1776, the Provincial Congress which met at Hali- 
fax appointed Thomas Polk colonel of the fourth additional regi- 
ment of Continentals. Under command of General Francis Nash 
he marched to the North to join the army of Washington. Here 
he served for two years, and he participated in the battle of Bran- 
dywine and the hardships of Valley Forge. He was not a par- 
ticipant in the battle of Germantown, as he was in charge of the 
escort detailed to guard and convey the heavy baggage to a place 
of safety at Bethlehem. Among the impedimenta was the famous 
''Liberty Bell." On June 26, 1778, he tendered his resignation 
to Washington. 

On September 15, 1780, a month after the battle of Camden, 
he was appointed by the Board of War convened at Hillsboro, 
*' Superintendent Commissary of the District of Salisbury." 
In securing supplies he pledged his own credit. He was com- 
mended by the board for his zeal and ability in the performance 
of those duties. While engaged in this work Comwallis entered 
Charlotte (September 26, 1780), and selected for his headquar- 
ters the residence of Colonel Polk, which was called the "White 
House" — it being the only painted edifice in the town. Com- 
wallis seized and confiscated all the property of his involuntary 
host that he could find. Hearing of the battle of King's Moun- 
tain, Polk wrote, "In a few days we will be in Charlotte, and I 
will take possession of my house and his lordship take the woods." 



320 NORTH CAROLINA 

After the fall of General Davidson at Cowan's Ford, February 
I, 1 78 1, the field officers on March 5th petitioned General Greene 
to appoint Polk to take command of the forces of the district, 
and he was accordingly commissioned a brigadier-general. But 
the Assembly would not confirm the appointment with this rank, 
but instead commissioned Polk as "colonel commandant/' Polk 
declined this commission, but patriotically performed the duties 
pending the appointment of a successor. Colonel Matthew Locke 
was appointed on May 15, 1781, and Polk retired from further 
military service. After the evacuation by the British and the con- 
clusion of hostilities, he returned to his residence in Charlotte, 
where he lived to an honored old age, surrounded by his sons, 
whom he reared to an honorable and self-reliant manhood. The 
census of 1790 shows that he owned 47 slaves — ^the largest pos- 
session of any one in Mecklenburg or the western section of the 
State at that time. He died in 1793, and was buried in the grave- 
yard of the First Presbyterian Church in Charlotte. 

Joseph Seawell Jones says that Thomas Polk was the first to 
maintain the necessity of dissolving the political ties which bound 
the Colonies to Great Britain. His feelings and opinions were de- 
cided; his expression of them was frank and courageous. Out 
of these feelings grew the Mecklenburg Declaration, in the fram- 
ing of which Thomas Polk was a leading spirit. While others 
were striving to devise expedients to avert a war into which they 
were blindly drifting, Thomas Polk was preparing the stem and 
not easily governed people of his neighborhood for the clash of 
arms which he saw to be inevitable. His posterity have borne with 
distinction the honored name transmitted to them. 

IV. A. Withers, 



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WILLIAM LOUIS POTEAT 




^ILLIAM LOUIS POTEAT, President of 
Wake Forest College, was born in Caswell 
County, North Carolina, October 20, 1856. His 
father, Captain James Poteat, was a son of 
John Miles Poteat, a planter of Caswell County, 
of Huguenot descent. Captain Poteat, himself 
also a planter, was a man of abounding energy and common-sense, 
rigidly honest, and most affable in his disposition. His countymen 
honored him by making him a captain of militia, and his denomina- 
tion by making him a trustee of Wake Forest College. He kept 
open house in his large country home in Caswell. The mother of 
Professor Poteat, Julia A. (McNeill) Poteat, is a descendant of 
Annie Talbot, who was brought from Scotland to this country by 
gypsies and became the mother of Mrs. Poteat's grandfather, 
John McNeill. The influence of Mrs. Poteat upon the intellectual, 
as well as the moral and spiritual, life of her son it would be im- 
possible to estimate. 

The atmosphere of the home in which he first saw the light and 
in which he passed his boyhood was generated from elements 
identical with those named in his definition of happiness by the 
father of Robert E. Lee in the last letter he ever wrote : 

"What is happiness? Hoc opus, hie labor est? Peace of mind based 
on piety to Almighty God, unconscious innocence of conduct, with good- 
will to man ; health of body, health of mind, with prosperity in our voca- 



322 NORTH CAROLINA 

tion; a sweet, affectionate wife; mens sena in cor pore sano; children 
devoted to truth, honor, right, and utility, with love and respect to their 
parents; and faithful and warm-hearted friends, in a country politically 
and religiously free." 

Reared in such a home, though not required to perform manual 
labor tasks, as his father was a large slave-holder, he grew up 
strong and healthy, his special tastes and interests being those of 
the country boy in exceptionally good circumstances. 

During his first school years he was under the instruction of 
a governess. Afterward he attended the village academy at Yan- 
ceyville, taught by Miss Lowndes. 

In 1872 he entered Wake Forest College, and graduated in 1877 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Later he completed the 
course for the Master's degree, which was conferred upon him in 
1889. In June, 1905, while on a visit to that institution to deliver, 
by invitation, the annual commencement address, he received 
from Baylor Universit}% Waco, Texas, the honorary degree of 
LL.D. 

While at college no marked preference for one branch of studies 
over another was indicated, a uniformly high grade of scholar- 
ship being maintained by him in all the departments. His pro- 
ficiency in Latin and Greek was not excelled by that achieved in 
other studies, and the habit of accuracy, which his careful and 
sympathetic study of classic literature helped to develop, must 
have had much to do with the formation of that style that 
so graces the productions of his pen. As a writer and speaker 
abilities were displayed that pointed to literature as the province 
in which he would probably find his vocation. However, in these 
early essays of the pen and platform there was potential a temper 
of mind friendly to the spirit of science, and needing only favoring 
conditions to stimulate and unfold it into a vital force. 

It may be said of him at this period, as was said of another: 
"He was a most exemplary student in every respect. He was 
never behindtime at his studies ; never failed in a single recitation ; 
was perfectly observant of the rules and regulations of the institu- 
tion; was gentlemanly, unobtrusive and respectful in all his de- 



WILLIAM LOUIS POTEAT 323 

portment to teachers and fellow-students. His specialty was finish* 
ing up. He imparted a finish and a neatness as he proceeded to 
everything he undertook." 

He had begun to read law, when, a year after his graduation, the 
trustees of Wake Forest College elected him a tutor. His ac- 
ceptance of this position determined his life work. In 1880 he 
became Assistant Professor of Natural Science; and in 1883 was 
placed in full charge of the Chair of Natural History, now known 
as the Chair of Biology. 

In the pursuit of science there has been on his part from the 
beginning a questful openness of soul to Nature that has made 
her fain to yield him the meed of many a clue to her manifold 
mazes. At the same time he has been toward himself in study and 
field and laboratory a most exacting task-master. He has com- 
muned in spirit also with the great masters and has come to 
know their voice. 

With such an attitude to his calling, opportunities that might 
have been worthless to the less alert have been golden ones to 
him. Thus it would be difficult to value too highly the beneficial 
results of a brief course that he attended in the University of Ber- 
lin, and of a course in the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods 
Holl, Massachusetts, not to speak of repeated opportunities 
that have come to him of intercourse and work with men of 
science. 

His well-earned reputation as a teacher of science is due in no 
small degree to the fact that he understands how to make its very 
rudiments interesting, bringing his students face to face with 
Nature in such a way as to stimulate them to a sympathetic study 
of the common facts of nature, and leading them to an insight into 
the dominant methods of science. He has the faculty of making 
them realize the appositeness to this realm of the Biblical formula : 
"Ask, and it shall be given you ; seek, and ye shall find ; knock, and 
it shall be opened unto you." By tactful questioning and by the 
turn given to laboratory work and field excursions he makes them 
feel that they are conducting for themselves investigations for the 
discovery of truth. The success with which he has directed his 



324 NORTH CAROLINA 

department is attested by the quality of work done by men whom 
he has trained, some of whom are taking high rank in the walks 
of science. 

While his special work has been that of a teacher he has won 
enviable distinction also as an essayist and public lecturer. Much 
of his effort in these fields has been devoted to subjects pertain- 
ing exclusively to his department. Those of his lectures, however, 
that have attracted most attention have been upon topics relating 
to science and religion. Though the subjects discussed have been 
at times of an abstruse nature, his manner, his facility of illustra- 
tion, and his felicitous diction have succeeded in attracting and in- 
teresting all classes of hearers. Invitations to appear before in- 
tellectual and critical audiences have not interfered with the ac- 
ceptance of invitations to speak to assemblies of illiterate colored 
people ; nor have these been infrequently extended. 

The following in The Examiner of New York, April 5, 1900, 
is from the pen of Doctor A. T. Robertson, Professor of New 
Testament Exegesis in the Southern Baptist Theological Sem- 
inary, Louisville, Kentucky: 

"Professor W. L. Poteat, of Wake Forest College, delivered the Gay 
lectures on March 20th-23d, before large and enthusiastic audiences. His 
theme was 'Laboratory and Pulpit.' The first lecture discussed *The 
Biological Revolution,* the second treated 'The New Appeal/ while the 
third considered 'The Unknown Tongue.' There was a vigor, a grasp, 
a sweep, a point, a devoutness and a charm of diction in the lectures that 
made them notable indeed. Professor Poteat is a scientist of large attain- 
ments and an earnest Qiristian. It was inspiring to hear him proclaim 
the death of materialism among men of science, and the tremendous wit- 
ness science bears to God and the spiritual world. Evolution may or may 
not be true, but it is certainly possible for an evolutionist to be a sincere 
Christian. Professor Poteat claims that Christian evolution will serve to 
win back men of science to Christianity. His lectures were an intellectual 
and a spiritual stimulus, and will always be remembered here. Mr. Theo- 
dore Harris, a prominent Baptist layman of the city, was so impressed by 
the lectures of Professor Poteat that he gave $1000 for the purchase of 
scientific books for the Seminary library. Five hundred dollars will be 
used at once, and the interest on the remainder will be used annually 
to purchase new scientific works." 



WILLIAM LOUIS POTEAT 325 

From April 26, 1897, to May i, 1899, Professor Poteat was a 
member of the North Carolina State Board of Examiners. 

In March, 1900, he was lecturer on the Gay Foundation before 
the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky ; 
and in May, 1905, he was lecturer on the Brooks Foundation be- 
fore Hamilton Theological Seminary, Colgate University, Hamil- 
ton, New York. Both of these courses of lectures were on 
Science and Religion. 

He was president of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly in 
1897; first president of the North Carolina Academy of Science 
in 1902, and president of the North Carolina Literary and Histori- 
cal Association in 1903. 

In 1901 he published ^'Laboratory and Pulpit : The Relations of 
Biology to the Preacher and his Message*' (Phfladelphia: The 
Griffith and Rowland Press). 

He has also published in scientific journals investigations in 
the groups of spiders, microscopic plants, and microscopic ani- 
mals. 

Being professionally occupied with the biological sciences, which 
are largely responsible for the intellectual revolution of our period. 
Professor Poteat's reading has drifted strongly into the region 
where science and religion meet. For refreshment and enrichment 
his reliance is upon the great poets and the great masters of prose. 
Current literature does not attract him. A habit that has yielded 
him a rich harvest is that which he has long maintained of setting 
down in note-books thoughts and abstracts on any subject of 
special study, so that when the time to write came all the collected 
material was available, the utility of the plan being greatly en- 
hanced by his devoting to each subject one or more note-books. 

For relaxation and amusement he has relied largely on contact 
with nature in field and wood, with observation (not too strenu- 
ous) of what goes on there. Some slight sketches of such experi- 
ences have been published in the Wake Forest Student (February, 
1898, and May, 1899). 

In politics he has always voted with the Democratic Party ex- 
cept when its nominees have appeared to him in character or 



326 NORTH CAROLINA 

opinions to be unworthy of his support. While he has never 
changed his party allegiance, he would not consider it discredit- 
able to do so upon sufficient grounds. 

His religious life has not been without jar. While from his 
childhood he has been under the influence of Christian convictions, 
the serious part of the voyage of life was entered upon in a 
period of brewing storm, a time of threatened conflict between 
science and religion, and it was then that convictions touching the 
testimony of the new science began to lay hold on him. This to 
many was the sad augury of spiritual shipwreck. But the tranquil 
sea and anchorage were reached by him not only with faith intact^ 
but with a contagious optimism concerning the Kingdom of God. 

Professor Poteat is one of the most active and useful members of 
the Wake Forest Baptist Church. For a number of years he has 
been the leader of its music, one of his endowments being his 
musical talent. 

He was married June 24, 1881, to Miss Emma J. Purefoy of 
Wake Forest, the gifted and accomplished daughter of Rev. A. F. 
and Mrs. A. V. Purefoy, and granddaughter of Rev. J. S. Purefoy, 
whose labors and sacrifices in behalf of Wake Forest College are 
a part of its history. Three children have been bom to them, all 
now living. 

Professor Poteat is one of a noteworthy family trio, the other 
two being a brother, Doctor E. M. Poteat, President of Furman 
University, Greenville, South Carolina, and a sister. Miss Ida 
Poteat, head of the Department of Art in the Baptist University 
for Women, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

On June 10, 1905, Professor Poteat was elected President of 
Wake Forest College and was inducted into this responsible posi- 
tion with appropriate ceremonies on December 7, 1905. 

W. B. RoyalL 



\ 





JOSEPH HYDE PRATT 




[OSEPH HYDE PRATT was born on February 
3, 1870, in Hartford, Connecticut. His father, 
James Church Pratt, went from New England 
while still a boy to join his uncle in Louisiana, 
and there grew to manhood as a Southern 
planter. In the Civil War his uncle served as 
brigadier-general, and he himself as captain of a Louisiana 
regiment of the Confederate army. Later he returned to 
New England, the home of his fathers, to succeed to the Pratt 
inheritance and to settle down as a merchant. So, the father, like 
the son, by living in two such distinct sections of the country, 
benefited as well by the strict, stem business life of New Eng- 
land as by the easy, gentle, polished life of the Southern planter. 
James Pratt married Jennie A. Peck, a descendant of the Pecks 
and of the Hydes of Norwich, Connecticut. Both the Pratts and 
the Pecks were descendants of the original Puritan settlers of 
New England. This combination of Puritan and Cavalier in- 
fluences made itself evident in the character of the son and, to- 
gether with the spiritual influence of his mother, gave him qualities 
which insured for his future career indefatigable industry and 
keen business insight no less than the polish and refinement that 
go hand in hand with the most scrupulous sense of honor. 

His boyhood, spent partly in the city, partly in the open country, 
followed the lines of conservative New England training. The 



328 NORTH CAROLINA 

spiritual side of his life was never neglected for the sake of the 
physical or the mental, but the three were evenly trained. The 
chief principle instilled was that to every task, however trivial, 
must be given the best that was in him, and that it was far more 
manly to take pride in one's work than to be ashamed of it. Even 
in his early boyhood, the direction that his energy and industry 
were to take in the man showed themselves in the dominant pas- 
sion for collecting minerals and specimens of natural history. 

His education so begun in the home was continued in the 
public high school of Hartford, whence he entered in 1890 the 
Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University. His work here 
was in the chemistry course, leading to the degree of Ph.B. He 
attracted early the attention of his instructors by the high qualities 
of mind and character, and in 1893 took the degree with highest 
honors. His natural tastes and his acquirements led him to de- 
vote his attention, even during the vacation of his undergraduate 
days, to active work in the subjects of his special study, and it 
was at such a time that he first came to North Carolina. In the 
Summer of 1892 he was in the employ of the North Carolina Geo- 
logical Survey with Professor S. L. Penfield of Yale, engaged in 
collecting minerals for the State exhibit at the Chicago World's 
Fair. In the Fall of 1893 he continued his studies at Yale, special- 
izing in graduate courses of mineralogy, geology and chemistry. 
During part of the time that he was engaged in these duties he 
served also in the capacity of assistant in chemistry and mineral- 
ogy* and in the Summer of 1894 he taught mineralogy at the Har- 
vard Summer school. Through this period, also, he spent his 
Summers in North Carolina, working on corundum, mica and 
other non-metallic minerals, in the employ of the North Carolina 
Geological Survey. 

The high level of his work during this period is still testified to 
by his professors. Says Professor H. L. Wells: "His chemical 
work was of high quality. His thesis work for the degree of 
Ph.D. was chiefly in chemistry, and his principal investigation was 
'On the Double Halides of Caesium, Rubidium, Sodium and Lith- 
ium with Thallium' (published in the American Journal of Science 



JOSEPH HYDE PRATT 329 

in 189s). This was an elaborate and important piece of work, in 
which some fourteen new salts were made and described." In 
1896 he was awarded the degree of Ph.D. From 1895 to 1897 
he was instructor in mineralogy at Yale, and found time for 
numerous independent investigations, the results of which ap- 
peared from time to time in the scientific journals. 

Endowed as he was with an unusual amount of energy, he did 
not restrict himself to scientific activity to the exclusion of all other 
interests. A member of the Congregational Church and a devoted 
Christian, he made himself so endeared to the people by his un- 
tiring work in Sunday-school, in city missions, as president of 
the Christian Endeavor Society, that on his departure from New 
Haven a public gift, to which all had been eager to contribute, 
witnessed the esteem in which he was held. He has continued this 
work since coming to North Carolina, and has been instrumental 
in the establishment of a number of Sunday-schools in the moun- 
tains of the State. 

In 1897 Doctor Pratt left Yale to accept a position as assistant to 
the general manager of the Toxaway Company of the Sapphire 
country in North Carolina, and also to serve as mineralogist to 
the North Carolina Geological Survey. He took advantage of this 
opportunity to carry on independent investigations of the corun- 
dum properties of the company, a field of mineralogy in which he 
is now recognized as an authority. While here he met Mary Dicus 
Bayley of Springfield, Ohio, whom he afterward married, 
April 5, 1899. He resigned his position with the Toxaway Com- 
pany after a very short time to devote all his time to his work as 
State mineralogist in connection with the State Geological Sur- 
vey at Chapel Hill, and as consulting mining engineer. Here he 
was made lecturer on Economic Geology, and in 1904 was elected 
professor of that subject. With an interruption of two years^ 
1901-03 — he has continued to the present time to serve the State 
University in this capacity. In 1905, in the absence of Professor 
Holmes, he was appointed acting State geologist, and in the fol- 
lowing year was made State geologist. Doctor Pratt's researches in 
mineralogy have resulted in the discovery of several new minerals, 



330 NORTH CAROLINA 

among which are the following: pirssonite, wellsite (with H. W. 
Foote), mitchellite (named after Professor Elisha Mitchell of 
the University of North Carolina), northupite, rhodolite (with 
W. E. Hidden), a new gem mineral that has only been found thus 
far in North Carolina. (Published in the American Journal of 
Science,) 

His private collections of North Carolina gems, gem minerals 
and corundum minerals have been awarded gold medals at the 
Buifalo, the Charleston and the St. Louis expositions. 

In the department of economic geology he has recently accom- 
plished an important piece of work in superintending the briquet- 
ting tests of the coal-testing plant of the United States Geological 
Survey, by which it was clearly proven that uncommercial coals 
could be made marketable by the process of briquetting. (Pub- 
lished in the United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 
No. 48, p. 1389, 1906.) 

He has advocated vigorously the construction of good roads 
throughout North Carolina, and of State aid for this purpose ; and 
believes that the time will shortly come when, through the assist- 
ance of the State, the various counties will be traversed with 
graded macadam roads. Quietly but persistently he has worked 
for the establishment of the Appalachian Forest Reserve. 

His activity in these various branches led to his appointment on 
the Commission of the Appalachian Forestry Reserve which waited 
on Congress in 1906. At the St. Louis Exhibition in 1904 he was 
put in full charge of the North Carolina mines and minerals, and 
was a member of the International Jury of Awards. He was 
also a member of the Jury of Awards at the Portland Exposition. 

His abilities as a mineralogist and geologist, made widely known 
through his publications, received recognition alike from various 
mining companies and from the United States Government. From 
1899 to IQ06 he was field geologist for the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey, and in 1902 a special agent of the United States 
census. In 1902-03 he was secretary of the Engineering Com- 
pany of America, and since 1900 has held a directorship in the 
Rogers Iron Company and the Gray Iron Casting Company, both 



JOSEPH HYDE PRATT 331 

of Springfield, Ohio. He has been retained by numerous mining 
companies as consulting engineer, and in this capacity his un- 
failing skill and knowledge, together with his incorruptible in- 
tegrity, have so increased the demand for his services that he is 
unable to satisfy it. In 1903 he received general recognition of 
these qualities by the oifer of the presidency of the Colorado 
School of Mines. He is a member of the Alpha Tau Omega Fra- 
ternity, the Sigma Xi Scientific Society, the Yale Club of New 
York City, the North Carolina Historical Society, the North Caro- 
lina Audubon Society, the North Carolina Academy of Science, the 
North Carolina Good Roads Association, the American Forestry 
Association, the American Institute of Mining Engineers, the 
American Geographical Society, the American Chemical Society, 
the New York Academy of Science, and a Fellow in the Geo- 
logical Society of America, and the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. In unbroken political allegiance he 
has identified himself with the Democratic Party. 

The value of such a man to the State of his adoption cannot be 
estimated solely by the measure of his scientific activities in 
bringing to light the natural advantages of the State, however 
far-reaching these may be. His character lends inestimable 
weight to his achievements. A man of unlimited energy and in- 
dustry, wholly accurate in his knowledge, he has unusual executive 
abilities in organization and in the leadership of men. He is 
brought by his work into contact with many and various men, and 
his absolute integrity and trustworthiness, aided by his infinite tact, 
places him at once at their head. He is a man of most polished 
manners and of a commanding presence. His private life in the 
home is ideal, and his friends are numbered by the number of 
his acquaintances. When it might be so easy to bury himself in 
his scientific researches, on the contrary his public interest makes 
itself felt in entering heartily into the business life of the com- 
munity in which he lives, and in supporting every movement 
which tends to improve financially, educationally, religiously and 
aesthetically the people of his neighborhood. 

Beginning with 1894 Doctor Pratt has published over one hun- 



332 NORTH CAROLINA 

dred important papers and books. The list is too long, however, to 
be embodied in this sketch. Many of the papers were contributed 
to the American Journal of Science; others are embraced in the 
Mineral Resources and Bulletins of the United States Geological 
Survey; others appeared as bulletins and other publications of 
the North Carolina Geological Survey ; while still others appeared 
in the Engineering and Mining Journal, Mining and Metallurgy, 
and in the Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Society. Among the 
more important publications not elsewhere mentioned are "Co- 
rundum and the Basic Magnesian Rocks of Western North Caro- 
lina," published in conjunction with Professor J. V. Lewis of 
Rutgers College, a volume of over 300 pages, which will un- 
doubtedly be the standard reference book on these rocks for some 
time to come (Vol. I of the North Carolina Greological Survey) ; 
"On the Occurrence and Distribution of Corundum in the United 
States," two bulletins prepared for the United States Geological 
Survey, Nos. 180 ( 1900) and 269 ( 1905) , 268 pp. ; "The Steel and 
Iron Hardening Metals of the United States, including Nickel 
and Cobalt, Chromium, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Tita- 
nium and Uranium," representing several papers published in the 
Mineral Resources of the United States Geological Survey ; numer- 
ous papers on asbestos, embodying the results of investigations 
relating to this mineral, regarding which he is now a recognized 
authority. His papers on the general subject of abrasive materials 
show the grasp that he has of this subject, being called upon to 
do special work in this line; on the tin deposits of the Carolinas 
(with D. B. Sterrett) and on the talc deposits of North Carolina, 
two papers which take up in detail the occurrence, origin and 
uses of these minerals. The former was published as Bulletin 19 
and the latter as Economic Paper No. 3 of the North Carolina 
Geological Survey. 

The reports of Dr. Pratt on the mining industry and general 
mineral resources of the State are as important to the commercial 
development of the State as any of his publications. These ap- 
peared as Economic Papers Nos. 6, 7, 8 and 9 of the North Caro- 
lina Geological Survey. George Howe. 




uo\- 







^ 



'^;- 




ROBERT SMITH REINHARDT 




^HE strength of Southern men and their power 
to achieve success are well exemplified in the 
career of R. S. Reinhardt, the president of the 
American Cotton Manufacturers' Association. 
The fortitude, intellectual vigor, energy and 
persistent endurance of toil and hardship that 
were the characteristics of Southern soldiers are traits that 
would naturally develop the highest business capacity when- 
ever opportunity should arise for Southern men to engage 
under favorable conditions in the vocations of peace. And so it 
has happened that after the long conflict, with the unfavorable 
circumstances that upon the restoration of the Union pressed the 
South down, had ended in the establishment of prosperous times 
among the people, we have witnessed an industrial development 
that would seem marvelous if we were not aware of the power, 
the energy, and the capacity of those Southern men who have 
wrought this great work in their respective localities. 

Among those who have displayed fine powers in comprehending 
the questions and problems incident to the manufacture of cotton 
at the South, Mr. Reinhardt has been accorded by his fellow- 
workers a most enviable position. 

Without the advantages of higher education or scholastic train- 
ing, and without the aid either of influential connections or of 
considerable means, at the early age of fifteen he began a mer- 



334 NORTH CAROLINA 

cantile business and did not become interested in milling enter- 
prises until he had attained his thirty-first year. But after fifteen 
years of experience in manufacturing, he finds himself president 
of the American Cotton Manufacturers* Association, with a mem- 
bership embracing every section of the Union and extending from 
New England to the Gulf of Mexico. Still his career, like that 
of Mr. Duke, the head of the American Tobacco Company, is 
only an illustration of the capacity of Southern men to achieve 
success in every field of human endeavor, and is an exemplification 
of the fact that Peace hath her victories no less renowned than 
War. 

Mr. Reinhardt is a native of Lincoln County, North Carolina, 
and has always lived in Lincoln County, and traces his descent from 
the sturdy German Pathfinders who braved the hardships and 
dangers of pioneer life, and wrested the region watered by the 
Catawba from the savages of the forest. They began to come 
from Pennsylvania to new homes in North Carolina in small com- 
panies as early as 174S, but it was five years later before they 
moved in large bodies to the fertile Piedmont country. Locally 
they were known as the "Pennsylvania Dutch," because they came 
from Pennsylvania, and because of the peculiar language used only 
by those particular people, which was made up of the dialects 
found in the ancient Palatinate, in Wurttemberg and other coun- 
tries bordering on the Rhine, intermingled with English words, 
which continued to be used in their settlements for several gen- 
erations. 

Christian Reinhardt, the great-grandfather of the subject of 
this sketch, coming from Pennsylvania, where the name is still 
found, settled on land that now adjoins the town of Lincolnton, 
and around his house was fought in the War of the Revolution 
the famous battle of Ramseur's Mills, and the same ground was 
afterward for two days occupied by Lord Cornwallis and the 
British army. He married Barbara, a daughter of Samuel War- 
lick, another pioneer, whose mill was twice burned by the hostile 
Cherokees. 

Christian Reinhardt, Jr., son of the pioneer, married his lovely 



ROBERT SMITH REINHARDT 335 

neighbor, Mary Forney. Her father, General Peter Forney, was 
a brave, active and zealous partizan officer in the Revolution, being 
almost continuous in his operations, beginning with Rutherford's 
campaign against the Cherokees and ending with Rutherford's 
movement against Craig, which drove that scourge of the Cape 
Fear from his post at Wilmington. He represented his county in 
the Legislature several times, and during the War of 18 12 was 
a Representative in Congress ; and he was an elector on the Jef- 
ferson, Madison, Monroe and Jackson tickets. He was a man of 
energy and enterprise, and after the Revolutionary War he pur- 
chased an undeveloped deposit of iron ore in Lincoln County and 
became the most noted pioneer ironmaster of that section. He 
was a son of Jacob Forney, Sr., who, as a pioneer, had many en- 
counters with the Cherokees, whose frequent incursions into the 
Catawba region, seeking to drive the planters from their new 
homes, gave a hazardous and perilous cast to their frontier life. 
Like his son, he was a firm and unwavering Whig during the Rev- 
olution, and contributed much by his zeal and activity toward the 
success of the cause of Independence. When the British forces 
were in pursuit of Morgan their progress was impeded by the 
high waters of the Catawba, and Comwallis made his headquarters 
in Mr. Forney's comfortable house for three days, consuming his 
entire stock of cattle, hogs and poultry, as well as all the corn and 
forage on the plantation. Franklin M. Reinhardt, the father of 
the subject of this sketch, was proprietor of Rehobeth Furnace 
and a successful ironmaster. He was a man of gjeat enterprise, 
and noted for his good sense, geniality and kindness of heart. He 
married Sarah, a daughter of David Smith, Esq., by his wife. Miss 
Amdt, who was a daughter of Rev. John Godfried Amdt, a 
pioneer Lutheran minister of great learning and piety. When, 
in 1773, because of the absence of ministers and teachers, the 
Lutherans in North Carolina were obliged to send to Hanover to 
get men to supply their needs, Mr. Amdt came over as a teacher, 
and then became a minister, and after a notable service in Rowan 
County, eventually settled in Lincoln County, where he laid sure 
and deepb the foundations of the Lutheran Church in that commu- 



336 NORTH CAROLINA 

ity. All of Mr. Reinhardt's ancestors lived in Lincoln County and 
were noted for their energy, integrity and thrift, for the high re- 
spectability of their character and their public spirit. The 
eariier ones, like all their German neighbors residing in that 
region, were devoted adherents of the Lutheran and Reformed 
churches. 

Mr. R. S. Reinhardt was bom at Rehobeth Furnace, Lincoln 
County, on the first day of January, 1858. In 1867, when but nine 
years of age, he had the misfortune to lose his father, and while 
his admirable mother exerted herself to secure for him all possible 
advantages, and herself trained him in the paths of a high and 
virtuous manhood, yet because of the ravages of the war and the 
loss of her husband, she could do no more than send him to the 
public schools of the neighborhood, until attaining his fourteenth 
year, he was placed for one year at the North Carolina College. 
However, under her fine influence he had made the best of his 
opportunities, and his understanding and character were de- 
veloped and he was so well advanced in education that when only 
fifteen years of age he was justified in trying to begin work as a 
man on his own account. 

He started life as a merchant in 1873, establishing a general 
merchandising business at Iron Station. 

Inheriting from his sturdy ancestors a conservative disposition 
and strict integrity, and trained in habits of economy, he applied 
himself with energy and zeal to his business and soon became 
master of the trade of his section. Courteous and kindly in his 
intercourse, and possessing the entire confidence of his neighbors, 
who esteemed him for his fair dealing, he entered on a prosperous 
career, which was enlarged when he united to merchandising the 
business of dealing in cotton. He continued his mercantile opera- 
tions at Iron Station for fifteen years, when, becoming connected 
with the Elm Grove cotton mill, he removed to Lincolnton. Dur- 
ing the year 1889 he was elected treasurer and manager of the 
Elm Grove cotton mill, which had been erected on the Catawba 
about one mile from Lincolnton some three years before. The 
mill had at that time only about three thousand spindles and was 



ROBERT SMITH REINHARDT 337 

not prosperous. Mr. Reinhardt and his brother, Mr. J. E. Rein- 
hardt, together with some other friends, bought the control of the 
property, and under the new management, with an increased 
capacity and controlled by the fine business sagacity of the Rein- 
hardts, it soon entered on a career of great prosperity. In con- 
nection with this subject it is interesting to observe that the first 
cotton mill ever erected in the South was built by Michael Schenck 
in 1815 within three miles of the site of Elm Grove, the spindles 
and machinery being made in the local coimtry shops, although 
afterward, in 1818, other machinery was brought from Providence, 
Rhode Island, and the mill continued in operation until 1863, 
when it was destroyed by fire. It is somewhat remarkable that 
the new industrial life of the South now finds one of its most 
important fields in the near vicinity of that first attempt at South- 
em enterprise. 

Since his connection with this mill began Mr. Reinhardt's efforts 
have been principally devoted to conducting the business of Elm 
Grove; but he is also president of the Piedmont cotton mill of 
Lincolnton, and is connected with three other mills. Having great 
faith in the outcome of the milling interests, with judicious fore- 
thought Mr. Reinhardt purchased and has improved much prop- 
erty in Lincolnton, which has now largely appreciated in value. 
Since moving to that town, his best thoughts and tireless energy 
have been devoted to the cotton mill industry, and he combines a 
thoroughly practical experience in cotton manufacturing with a 
high order of business ability. He is progressive and quick to 
adopt improved processes, and his efforts have been crowned with 
success and have brought him merited fame as one of the progres- 
sive men pressing forward the industrial development of the 
southern section. He is one of the four organizers of the South- 
ern Cotton Spinners' Association, which was recently merged 
into the American Cotton Manufacturing Association. He has 
been on the board of governors ever since its organization, and a 
member of the committee of arrangements for every meeting, hav- 
ing served as chairman at the last four annual meetings ; and at 
the meeting in 1904 he was elected president of the National Asso- 



33« NORTH CAROLINA 



cifttion, being now one of the best known and most highly esteemed 
of the mill men of the South. 

Mr. Reinhardt has always taken an active interest in matters 
that concern the welfare of his people, and while he has never 
nought political preferment he has manifested his interest in 
politics by liberal contributions and by having served several years 
AM clmirman of the Democratic executive committee of his county. 

lie i» a consistent member of the Presbyterian Church and is 
liberal in donations to all good works; he is Past Master of 
Lincoln Lodge, No. 137," A. F. & A. M. ; a Knight Templar and a 
TI\irly-5econd I">cgrec Mason ; Shriner, Past Chancellor of Lincoln 
Lod|;e, No. 48, Knights of P}'thias,and member of the D. O. K. K., 
atul is interested in the works of all these various organizations. A 
\\\^\\ Si> busy and so interested in the matters that claim his at- 
tetUion fimls little time to indulge in amusements, and Mr. Rein- 
httfvU** princi|>al relaxation and exercise have been riding and 
driving gvxxl horses* for which he has a fondness; a good animal 
always exciting his admiration. 

He was happily marrieil on the 13th of Februar\-, 1879, to Miss 
I^ura IVgraiu, a lady of refinement and culture. Mrs, Reinhardt 
1$ aotixx' in church wwk, and, indeed, zealous in all works of 
hciH^wlcuvX', and is a faw^rite in the social circle of which her 
clv.inr,iti^ik: lhMt>e is the ct^ntcr. Their hoiue life is happy and beacd- 
fuU Vhev hAx-^ t\\\> sons and t\\x^ daughters, while they have lost 
thrt^e ch^^'.rci\. 

Cxv^;v^v,pa;*^\g the F.fe and character of Mr. Reinhardt, ooe 
$ee^ whAT pr,res are v>pen hen^ at the South to the roerrtor>ocs. 
Tata K^tvu v^t a tAther^s <V5Urv>I and g^idsmoe, at a tenier age 
As^^,r,r:r,^ t>!e TV:5^;vvv<*^r::y of a K:>ir»ess career, be has, msaiie^ by 
to.Tt;"vV tJi\v:ns ^-: 5&.\^'y by the JtreniTih of his own cxi5£sier::t 
av;VTV^ve to r%Ar"\ *^Ti:x*>jX<', ach>e\>^i a rorrse f re hrr:>elf that 
r'^vV^ > ^*t xV^sc-nvv \ ir. t>e troct rank of the iniTSCriil arrry rf 




JOHN REX 




?N the old city cemetery at Raleigh, where the 
"rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep," is a 
slab marking the grave of a highly respected 
citizen of the community who in life was not 
considered a great man — indeed, one who may 
not now be called great — yet whose memory 
will outlive that of many of his more pretentious contempo- 
raries. This was John Rex, founder of Rex Hospital 
in his adopted city of Raleigh. The inscription on this slab 
states that he was a native of Pennsylvania, and one of the earliest 
settlers in Raleigh, who departed this life on the 29th day of 
January, a.d. 1839, aged seventy-four years; that he sustained 
through life the character of an honest and industrious man ; and, 
at his death, devoted the fruits of his industry and economy to pur- 
poses of benevolence and charity. When this is read the simple 
story of his life is before us ; yet a few more particulars may be 
gathered, and these we shall now give. 

John Rex was a tanner by trade. His establishment was at a 
place called Rex*s Spring, well within the present city limits and 
on a square bounded by Lane, Jones, Salisbury and McDowell 
streets. In his Tucker Hall address on "Early Times in Raleigh," 
on August 24, 1867, Governor Swain said : 

"John Rex was one of the earliest citizens of Raleigh. My acquaintance 
with him was slight. In appearance he was said to bear striking re- 



340 NORTH CAROLINA 

semblance to that of John Quincy Adams. He was a grave, sedate, quiet, 
retiring, modest man, not unlike in character his worthy contemporary, 
William Peck. By long years of industry, economy and thrift in the man- 
agement of the first tannery established in Raleigh at Rex's Spring, near 
the railway station, he accumulated a handsome estate; and, like Mr. 
Peace, atoned for his failure to build up a family, by a liberal provision 
for the children of misfortune and want. He manumitted all his slaves at 
the close of life, and bequeathed the remainder of his estate to the endow- 
ment of a hospital, the construction of which is said to be in early pros- 
pect. The Rex Hospital and Peace Institute, the latter far advanced to- 
ward completion, will constitute the appropriate and enduring monuments 
of these public benefactors." 

Mr. Rex was never married, and at the time of his death had few 
near relations. To a kinsman and namesake, John Rex, he be- 
queathed fifty acres of land called the Broad Axe Tavern tract, in 
Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. Not only were Mr. Rex's 
slaves freed by his will, but it was also provided that they should be 
sent to Africa and there settled in some free state under the aus- 
pices of the American Colonization Society — expenses of transpor- 
tation and settlement to be borne by the Rex estate. It was also pro- 
vided that any negro who so desired might be sold in America in- 
stead of being freed and transported to Africa. 

The American Colonization Society was a Southern institution 
of Virginia origin, having been created by the Legislature of that 
State in December, 1816. It was organized in Washington City by 
a number of Southern gentlemen, the first president being Bush- 
rod Washington, the favorite nephew and principal legatee of Gen- 
eral Washington, who remained at its head for many years, and it 
was ardently supported by Henry Clay and other Southern states- 
men, who hoped through its instrumentality to prepare a way for 
the removal of many negroes to Africa and gradually to arrange 
for the complete emancipation of the negro slaves of the South. 

Mr. Rex died in 1829, and it was many years before his benevo- 
lent purpose to provide a hospital for Raleigh was carried into 
eflfect The trustees of the bequest decided to wait until the 
fund had grown to sufficient dimensions before using it. They 
managed it skillfully, and by 1861 it amounted to nearly $40,000. 



JOHN REX 341 



The investment was largely in bank stocks and other securities, 
which had not only been remunerative, but in times of peace were 
secure, for the North Carolina banks were admirably managed and 
the legislation of the State in regard to them was so wise that 
the State banks were among the most substantial in the Union. 
During the war, however, the banks received Confederate money 
and State money in the course of their business, and as a result 
of the fall of the Confederacy and the enforced repudiation of 
State obligations, the whole banking system of North Carolina 
went down in disaster. In 1866 scarcely $5000 worth of property 
remained to the fund. Again the trustees addressed themselves to 
the duty of increasing it by accumulation, and so admirably did 
they manage it that by 1893 it had g^own to about $27,000. It was 
then decided to carry Mr. Rex's purposes into effect. 

At that time another hospital was in operation in the city of 
Raleigh. It had been established by St. John's Guild, an organiza- 
tion created by Rev. Mr. Rich, the pastor of the Church of the 
Good Shepherd, who by the aid of his congregation and with many 
of the members of Christ Church, with one or two other benevolent 
citizens, formed the corporation for the purpose of maintaining 
a city hospital. Dr. P. E. Hines was the chief surgeon, being as- 
sisted by some of the other physicians of the city. Established in 
1884, for a decade St. John's Hospital was supported by voluntary 
subscriptions, and was a most beneficient charity. When, in 1893, 
the trustees of the Rex Hospital fund determined to open a hos- 
pital in comformity with Mr. Rex's bequest, it was thought that the 
community could not well sustain both institutions, and the St. 
John's Guild considered it best to discontinue their hospital, and 
it conveyed its building and property to the Rex Hospital, receiv- 
ing as the price comparatively a small amount, just sufficient to 
pay all the indebtedness of St. John's Guild. 

In the Fall of 1893 R^x Hospital was opened, the city of Raleigh 
then appropriating $2000 annually for its maintenance, and this 
appropriation has been continued to the present time. The insti- 
tution has been of inestimable advantage to the community. 

M, DeL. Haywood. 





ROBERT HENRY RICKS 

MONG the many prominent citizens of the 
I State who have risen to a high plane of useful- 
ness by their own exertions is Robert Henry 
Ricks of Rocky Mount. He is an admirable il- 
lustration of the feasibility of attaining wealth 
and influential position in North Carolina by 
steadfast application directed by capacity and native intelli- 
gence. 

The family of which he is a member has long been settled in 
the tide-water region of Virginia and North Carolina, one of his 
progenitors, Isaac Ricks, having been a resident of Nansemond 
County, Virginia, as far back as 1669, and from there the family 
later crossed the line and located in Eastern North Carolina. They 
were always farmers, men of respectable character, standing well 
in their community, leading pure and easy lives, contented with 
their fortunate lot and enjoying reasonable prosperity. 

Mr. David Ricks, the father of the subject of this sketch, was 
a farmer living in Nash County, and he married Miss Martha 
Vick of that vicinity. He was a man of strong character, with 
great will power and remarkable for his tenacity of purpose ; and 
their son, who was born on the 4th of April, 1839, inherited much 
of these traits from his father. 

Fond of an active life, raised in a county where the young men 
were much addicted to hunting and out-of-door sport, he entered 




J / u^ - 



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. Was 




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ROBERT HENRY RICKS 343 

with zest into such amusement, and being gifted with a robust 
constitution and fine health, he excelled in all sports in which he 
engaged. The school facilities of his vicinity were limited, and 
his education was obtained at the local public and private schools 
of the neighborhood, which kept only ten weeks a year ; and, in- 
deed, after he reached the age of sixteen he ceased going to school 
at all, and was employed on his father's farm until 1859 when, 
being twenty years of age, he engaged as a farm hand with 
Mr. Joel Wells of the same county. 

Two years later the war broke out and Mr. Ricks enlisted as a 
private in the Confederate army, serving in Manly's Battery and 
in other batteries of light artillery. This army service at this 
time of life was of great benefit to him, as it proved to be also to 
thousands of others. It tended to develop the sterling qualities of 
manhood ; fostered courageous action ; inured one to danger and 
hardship ; begat a spirit of self-reliance, cultivated the powers of 
observation, and practiced one in habits of application and a 
methodical discharge of duties. 

Emerging from the war, the trained soldier with fine resolution 
settled down to the routine of farm life, determined to achieve 
success. By 1874 he had so far improved his condition that he 
felt able to marry, and on the first day of December of that year 
he married Miss Tempie E. Thorne, and from that time onward 
his business has yearly increased. As circumstances permitted he 
has branched out in business, and has successfully engaged in 
manufacturing and in banking, thus aiding in the industrial de- 
velopment of his vicinity. He is a successful and large farmer, and 
was the pioneer of bright tobacco culture in Eastern North Caro- 
lina. 

About the year 1889 he became a director of the Rocky Mount 
cotton mills, and so evident was his sagacious management of the 
aflFairs of that great corporation that in 1899 he was elected its 
president, a position that he still retains. In the meantime, in 
1894, he became director and vice-president of the Bank of Rocky 
Mount and of the Mayo cotton mills, and in 1902 vice-president of 
the large Washington cotton mills of Virginia. Indeed, step by 



344 NORTH CAROLINA 

step he has advanced so surely and with such good results that 
he is now recognized as one of the most prosperous, most ener- 
getic and most useful citizens of that portion of the State. 

Always a Democrat, Mr. Ricks has been constant in his efforts 
to advance the interests of that party, and has been zealous to 
establish on a secure basis the supremacy of the white man in 
Eastern Carolina. Being intent on his business affairs, he has not, 
however, sought political preferment. Still he has served his 
community as county commissioner, and under the administration 
of his friend and neighbor. Governor Carr, he served as a member 
of the board of directors of the Penitentiary, but declined later 
to accept the same employment when elected by the Legislature. 
He was a member of the House of Representatives from Nash 
County in the Assembly of 1903, and was recognized as one of 
the most influential members of that body. 

Mr. Ricks is not a member of any church, but is affiliated with 
the Primitive Baptists, and he attributes his first impulse to strive 
for the prizes of life to the influence exerted on him by his mother, 
a woman of strong mentality, who, while training him morally, 
also was potent in giving direction to his life. Indeed, he ascribes 
his success, first, to the influence of his mother and his home, and 
then to contact with men in the army, developing self-reliance and 
resourcefulness, and to the ambition engendered by association 
with worthy citizens. He is a member of the A. F. and A. Masons, 
and has always been a constant reader of good books, preferring, 
however, histories to other literature. In business he has been 
fortunate, since his application, industry and sagacity have so 
uniformly brought him success ; and he suggests to young men 
that no tnie success can be attained without constant energy and 
integrity. S. A, Ashe. 




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FRANK SHEPPARD ROYSTER 

^S Job had his comforters in the hour of his be- 
reavement — Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the 
Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite — so had 
the South in the time of its desolation — certain 
well-meaning philanthropists from the North. 
They came every man from his own place, 
but no man of them lifted up his voice and wept, none rent 
his mantle, none put on sackcloth, none sat down with us in 
the dust and ashes of our hopes. Instead, from the superior 
altitude of their pharisaic complacency, they advised, lectured and 
scolded us. Naturally this advice was not taken, so they wrote 
letters to their home papers telling of the indolence and practical 
inefficiency of the denizens of the benighted region that they were 
visiting, urged their adventurous confreres to come down, oust 
these incompetents from their inheritance and take possession of 
the land. Some came — to their sorrow. Too late they realized the 
extreme difficulty of reconciling antagonistic points of view, and 
either adopted that of their new neighbors or returned home 
poorer but wiser men. 

It is true that here and there among the middle-aged, or older, 
men of the South were to be found those who could not, or would 
not, adapt themselves to changed conditions. Among the younger 
men there were few, however, who did not welcome labor of any 
kind and who did not do it efficiently. Even the schoolboys of the 



346 NORTH CAROLINA 

period were straining at the leash in their eagerness to go out into 
the world and conquer for themselves a name or a fortune. The 
goal of their ambition was not college honors, but remunerative 
work. Boys such as these did not spring from the loins of incompe- 
tents, and well have they proven this since. The great industrial 
progress of the South for the past thirty years has been very largely 
their handiwork, and with them still guiding, directing and leading 
it, this once impoverished section is to become erelong one of 
the industrial centers of the world. Thus they have testified to 
the moral and intellectual stamina of the race from which they 
sprang. 

Among the leaders in the industrial rehabilitation of the South 
is Frank Sheppard Royster; the subject of this sketch. He came 
of the sturdy stock of gentlemen farmers, who, before the Civil 
War, made Granville County so attractive with its free life and 
abounding hospitality. His father. Captain Marcus D. Royster, 
was a successful merchant and farmer in that county. He was 
a man of strong mind, took an active interest in public affairs and 
exerted considerable influence over them. He was, too, one of the 
presiding justices of the county court for a number of years. 
His mother, Frances Webb, daughter of John Webb, who lived 
and died on Tar River, near Oxford, was a woman of exemplary 
Christian character, a devout member of the Presbyterian Church. 
Though she died when he was thirteen years of age, Mr. Royster 
is indebted to her training and example for the success that has 
attended him throughout his life. She was of that Webb family 
from which, during the past hundred years, have sprung so many 
first-class merchants, physicians, lawyers and public men. These 
even to this day may be found here and there throughout six or 
more Southern States, maintaining the traditions of their family 
activity, intelligence and enterprise. 

F. S. Royster was bom December 24, 1849. His first school- 
days were spent at the Oak Hill Academy, near his father's home. 
This was taught by Jesse P. Bagby. At the age of twelve he was 
sent to the Bethel Academy, Person County, under the care of 
Reverend T. J. Homer, who afterward removed to Tally Ho, Gran- 



FRANK SHEPPARD ROYSTER 347 

ville county. He remained at the Homer school until the close 
of the Civil War, when he returned home to take a position in 
his father's store at Oak Hill. There he remained until October, 
1870, when he commenced his business career as a clerk for O. C. 
Farrar in Tarboro, North Carolina. Mr. Farrar was a man of a 
strong, rugged nature, indomitable energy and great natural 
ability. Perceiving the business aptitude and sterling honesty of 
young Royster, he soon made him his confidential clerk, and later 
partner in the concern. The firm of O. C. Farrar and Co., thus 
constituted, did an enormous business, remembering that it was 
located in a town of 1500 inhabitants. The larger part of this was 
in furnishing supplies to farmers, taking as security liens and 
mortgages. Under the strain and stress and arduous labor of 
such a business, Mr. Royster's health failed, and in 1876 he re- 
tired from the firm. In that year he associated himself with 
Mr. C. C. Lanier of Tarboro in a general brokerage and com- 
mission business, under the style of Lanier and Royster. 
Mr. Lanier was a careful, painstaking, accurate business man, and 
the enterprise flourished from its inception. In 1882 these gentle- 
men, desiring a larger field for operations, took Mr. Edmund 
Strudwick, then of Hillsboro, North Carolina, now of Richmond, 
Virginia, into partnership and established a cotton commission 
house at Norfolk, Virginia, under the firm name of Royster and Co. 
Mr. Lanier remained in charge of the office in Tarboro, while 
Mr. Royster removed to Norfolk. In April, 1883, however, the firm 
was dissolved by the death of Mr. Lanier. It was then reorganized 
under the name of Royster and Strudwick, Mr. Royster returning 
to Tarboro, while Mr. Strudwick remained in Norfolk. Mr. 
Strudwick was one of the ablest and most promising of the young 
business men of the period, and his subsequent career has amply 
fulfilled that promise. A sketch of his life appears elsewhere in 
these volumes. This firm prospered also. In 1891, Mr. Royster 
having become interested in other enterprises, sold his interest 
therein to Mr. Strudwick. 

Few persons of the general public appreciate the important part 
that commercial fertilizers have played in the agricultural develop- 



348 NORTH CAROLINA 

ment of the South in the past thirty years. Without their use large 
areas of productive lands would long since have become barren 
wastes. Von Leibig, the father of agricultural chemistry in 1840, 
showed the world that the growth of crops was a taking from the 
soil chemical elements which were its life. These must be restored 
from time to time, else the land would become practically worth- 
less. The process of fertilizing is then nothing less than supplying 
the land with necessary food, without which it would die — ^a slow 
death, it is true, but one that is absolutely inevitable where the soil 
is exhaustible. The commercial fertilizer is simply a food in a 
digestible form for these hungry, starving, worn-out lands, and 
thus preventing the wholesale destruction of capital, has proved 
itself a boon to the country at large as well as to the farmers. 

In 1885 Mr. Royster, realizing the great future of the manufac- 
ture of fertilizers, erected a small plant in Tarboro. The total 
output of this plant the first year was 250 tons. The enterprise 
proved successful. He could not supply the demand for his prod- 
uct, and in 1891 he determined to devote his whole time to that 
business. In 1897 so extensive had it become he transferred his 
headquarters to Norfolk. The F. S. Royster Guano Company 
was incorporated, F. S. Royster, President, and Charles F. Bur- 
roughs, vice-president, and a large and complete fertilizer fac- 
tory with a yearly capacity of 75,000 tons was erected on the 
Southern branch of the Elizabeth River. Since, there has been 
a constant increase in the business of the company. It now covers 
the States of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia 
and Alabama, distributing the product of six plants, one at each 
of the following places : Norfolk, Tarboro, North Carolina ; Co- 
lumbia and Spartanburg, South Carolina ; Macon and Columbus, 
Georgia, the whole valued at over three millions of dollars, with a 
capacity of 200,000 tons and sales verging close upon the capacity. 

This, in short, is the record of a very remarkable commercial 
success — a success wholly deserved. It has been Mr. Royster's 
fortune to be associated throughout his career with men of more 
than ordinary ability and enterprise — O. C. Farrar, C. C. Lanier, 
Edmund Strudwick and Charles F. Burroughs. This in itself 



FRANK SHEPPARD ROYSTER 349 

is high testimony to his own worth, but it does not account for his 
remarkable success. He knows his business in detail and in its 
general features thoroughly. He knows what is demanded by 
the farmers in the territory which his concern reaches, and he 
strives earnestly, intelligently and honestly to meet that demand, 
and those who buy from him know that they are getting honest 
goods at a fair price. In all this it seems to me lies the secret of his 
success. 

He has steadfastly refused to enter any combination of fertilizer 
manufacturers, and so, with the financial strength of his company 
and its annually increasing business, he is able to occupy an inde- 
pendent position and to meet all competition. 

For many years he has been an elder in the Presbyterian Church, 
an officijil relation to the church of his mother that has never been 
nominal. On the contrary he has given liberally of his time and of 
his means to its service. Nor is his Christianity nominal. It is 
to him a very real thing, influencing him in all the relations of 
life, and constituting to him the prime rule of action. I can sug- 
gest only the benevolence of his character, for in that he sounds 
no trumpets before him that he may be seen of men. 

November 5, 1874, he married Miss Mary Stamps, of Milton, 
North Carolina, a lady of fine culture and great intellectual charm, 
and they have four children living, two sons and two daughters ; 
William Stamps, the eldest, is treasurer of the F. S. Royster 
Guano Company. Mrs. Royster is a daughter of the late 
Doctor William Stamps of Milton, and a younger sister of the 
wife of the late Judge George Howard of Tarboro. 

Mr. Royster is still in active business with powers unabated, 
and in the natural course of events may look forward to years of 
usefulness. Many a man who makes more noise in the world 
could be better spared than he. If to make two blades of grass 
grow where one grew before is to constitute one a public bene- 
factor, how much more is he who makes whole fields to bloom 
where otherwise there would be desolation? 

Frank Nash, 





THOMAS RUFFIN 

[HOMAS RUFFIN, one of the most eminent 
characters in the annals of North Carolina, was 
bom on November 17, 1787, at Newington, the 
residence of his mother's father, in the county 
of King and Queen, Virginia. His father was 
Sterling RufBn, son of Robert Ruffin, of May- 
field, in Dinwiddie, and later of Sweet Hall in King William, a 
member of the House of Burgesses, serving with Peter Jefferson, 
the father of Thomas Jefferson, William Byrd, Benjamin Harri- 
son, William Randolph, Augustine Washington, Henry Lee, and 
others whose names are still prominent in Virginia, while the fol- 
lowing names are familiar also in North Carolina : John Ruffin, 
Armistead Burwell, Paul Carrington and Abram Venable. 
Mr. Sterling Ruffin was a planter residing in Essex County, who 
early in life had married Alice Roane, a daughter of Colonel 
Thomas Roane, whose family was highly distinguished in Vir- 
ginia by the public services of its members ; and his mother was 
first cousin of Chief Justice Spencer Roane and of Thomas Richie, 
the distinguished editor, and of Doctor William Brockenborough, 
the president of the bank of Virginia, and United States Senator 
William Henry Roane. 

After being prepared at the Classical Academy in Warrenton, 
North Carolina, then taught by the celebrated Marcus George, 
where among others as his schoolmates were Robert Broadnax 




•■> ^ 







• :wM \S RrM'lX 

' ** ; \'- Kl'l-iMV, unc of t':c. most eir.i- 

.•>-ters ivi the a:in:tl< i4 Nor'h C'ar.)l;na, \ 
k ' ni ('11 Xi»»v'i.i)cr 17. !;'S7, at Xcwin^toii, 
' --i'iciict^ «•:' "i.^ niotl-.! r's f:'-];i'r. in tl^.c 
• j' t\iiir . • I tjii'Mi, \'.^^':. I ilis failur 
•-. S^'^'■'••. i.i.fVni, son «if !*• ... n I<iitiiii, of ) 
' •; '.:..>: of Swril }i Jl in Km"^ W iliia' 
' .' " i 1 '.uri.',v>.ses, scrviuLT w :.i Tele r JciTv : - 
: - Ji.:Yrr><tn, William ]».i'l, iW'rijamin 11 

»lj)h, Ac'uustine \\'a>]iiii;^^ion, IK-my Ia'O. 
..].rs arv .still prominent in \'irc:inia. while tbt 
- arc f.tiiiiiar al.^o in North C'iT-v,»lina : J>.4in V ' 
. ..TwvU. Paul Carrini^ton and Alnam \'or 
Kiitnn was a ;)l:mler residin.u,^ iri Mss^x C^oimtx. 
iia-l irirr • '1 .Alicx^ Iv-anc. a dan^hrcr of (' ■ 
.i;c\ w I -• family was hiLrhl}' ^i'- t',iL;iii^h'.'fi in 
;•••'.! 1 -frvices of its mcir.hrrs: and liis nv'lhcr • 
• ' '•'. * !.".-t ce Sprnccr ]\o:<ne and of Th ■•mas V 
- ■ • -. and of Doot'>r \\'illia;n r.fivkopSoi 
.* 1: (^f \'i'^hiia, and L'niled Statc\ S 



-:• 1 at t1 '■ rias«=ica] Acad'/ir.y in W'a- 
•» t :-\.'it !>}' iho cel'i>rit('d Mar'-'is • 
.- schiO(.lnialt's were Rn'^^ri i 



t 




0'K^(n^^^^*-^(^^--^f^ 



THOMAS RUFFIN 351 

of Rockingham County, Cadwalader Jones, then of Halifax, later 
of Orange, and Weldon N. Edwards of Warren, who continued 
through life his intimate friends, the subject of this sketch entered 
the College of Princeton, New Jersey, and graduated with honors 
in 1805. He studied law with Mr. J. A. Robertson, of Petersburg, 
and continued in his office until 1807. In that year his father re- 
moved to North Carolina, settling in Rockingham County, and the 
son also coming to this State completed his legal studies under 
the direction of Judge A. D. Murphey, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1808. The next year he located in Hillsboro. 

Just east of that historic town, touching indeed its boundary, 
was a rounded mound, scarcely high or abrupt enough to be called 
a hill, whose sides and top were covered by an open grove of mag- 
nificent oaks, hickories and maples. Through this in 1809 ran 
a footpath to Ayrmount, the home of the Kirklands, a mile away. 
In this grove, the Summer of the same year, and on a tree trunk 
fallen by the wayside, Thomas Ruffin, the ambitious young law- 
yer, with his future already to himself secure, but unsuspected 
by others, addressed Annie M. Kirkland, then scarcely more than 
a child — ^not yet sixteen years of age — and was accepted by her; 
and they were married December 7, 1809. Miss Kirkland was a 
daughter of William Kirkland, a prominent merchant of Hillsboro. 

For the next twenty years Judge Ruffin. made his home at Hills- 
boro, representing that town in the House of Commons in 181 3, 
181 5 and 1 8 16, when he was elected as judge to succeed Judge 
Duncan Cameron, but he remained on the bench at that time only 
two years. He had become surety for Judge Murphey, whose 
financial embarrassments involved many of his friends in pecuni- 
ary distress. Judge Ruffin was very punctilious about money 
matters, and having suffered this heavy loss he felt it incumbent 
on him to retire from the bench and seek to restore his fortune 
by his practice at the bar. Probably no other lawyer in the State 
at any time made greater professional efforts than he did at this 
juncture. He extended his practice into the courts of the adjoin- 
ing districts, and habitually made two courts in one week, and for 
forty-three weeks in the year he had his engagements in court, and 



352 NORTH CAROLINA 

, despite all conditions of weather, traveling in a stick gig, he rarely 
failed to meet any of them. Throughout all these years of strug- 
gle and of striving, of disappointment and disgust, his wife was 
ever his good angel, soothing the asperities of his temper, restrain- 
ing his ardent, sometimes intense, sensibilities, stimulating his 
hope and ambition and sharing his disappointments and trials. 
Meantime she was caring for, guiding and controlling their grow- 
ing family. It is said that she was the only influence that came 
into the life of this great but rugged personality to which he de- 
ferred — the kind of deference that is beautiful always, but strik- 
ingly so in such a character. Six years of this hard, unremitting 
toil, however, brought its reward, and being relieved of embarrass- 
ment, upon the resignation of Judge Badger in 1825, he again ac- 
cepted an appointment of Judge of the Superior Court. 

As an advocate Judge Ruffin was very successful and very 
strong. In his addresses he was earnest and impassioned, and 
sometimes he would bend his slender, lithe form until he could 
strike the floor in front of the jury with his knuckles, and he was 
eminently successful as a jury lawyer, while his thoroughness in 
the learning of his profession gave him great influence with the 
Court. He had no rival in the Supreme Court except the dis- 
tinguished Archibald Henderson and Judge Gaston, and in the 
lower courts he had command of all the important cases. Indeed 
it may be said that he was the first practitioner in the State when 
he retired from the bar and accepted a place on the bench in 1825. 

In the Autumn of 1828, however, because of his fine business 
qualifications, he was prevailed on to take charge of the old bank 
of North Carolina ; and the next year Honorable John Branch, be- 
ing then appointed Secretary of the Navy, resigned his seat in the 
United States Senate, and Judge Ruffin was urged to become a 
candidate for that position, to which he certainly would have been 
elected ; but, like Judge Gaston, he declined, declaring that he had 
rather go down to posterity as a lawyer than as a politician. 
Thereupon the Legislature elected him a judge of the Supreme 
Court, and four years later, upon the death of Chief Justice Hen- 
derson, he succeeded to that high office. In this, his chosen field. 



THOMAS RUFFIN 353 

he won imperishable fame. His decisions illumined the annals of 
jurisprudence. As great as he was as a common law lawyer, he 
was even more distinguished for his equity decisions. His reputa- 
tion extended beyond the bounds of North Carolina and his opin- 
ions were quoted not merely in other States but with approbation 
also in Westminster Hall. They were authority relied 'on by 
eminent writers of text-books no less than by the justices of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. Few judges in the Union 
have been of the same class as he in the annals of judicial litera- 
ture. If any have had a greater influence upon the development 
of the law in this country, it was because their decisions dealt with 
questions broader in their scope and more varied in their aspects 
and not because they were greater judges. 

His style was elevated and his language well selected, clear and 
precise, well suited to judicial opinions. For twenty-five years 
he adorned the bench and his opinions run through thirty-five 
volumes of the reports and formed the bulk of our judicial litera- 
ture for a generation. They are of unsurpassed excellence, un- 
rivaled in the jurisprudence of any other State or country; and 
they constitute a memorial of North Carolina thought, sentiment 
and juridical learning that posterity will ever value as the chief est 
pride of our people. 

Chief Justice Clark has written of him in the History of the 
Supreme Court: 

''The hunter in the Indian jungle discovers by unmistakable signs when 
the king of the forest has passed by. So the lawyer who turns over the 
leaves of the North Carolina Reports, when he comes upon an opinion of 
Thomas Ruffin, instantly perceives that a lion has been there. He 
reached the rare distinction of being equally great both in the common law 
and as an equity lawyer. Pearson probably equalled him as a common 
law lawyer, but fell far short of him in the g^rasp and application of the 
g^eat principles of equity." 

Judge Clark continues: 

"It is his singular fortune to have resigned twice from both the Superior 
Court and Supreme Court bench. It is worthy of note, too, that in 1848 
all three of the Supreme Court judges (Ruffin, Nash and Battle), the gov- 
ernor (Graham), and one of the United States senators (Mangum) were 



354 NORTH CAROLINA 

from the single county of Orange. Already from 1845 to 1848 two of the 
Supreme Court (Ruffin and Nash), the governor (Graham), and one United 
States senator (Mangum) had been elected from that county; while at 
the Legislature of 1841 both United States senators (Graham and Man- 
gum) were elected from the same county of Orange, in which the chief 
justice Jhen resided, and from 1852 to 1858 two of the Supreme Court 
judges were again from Orange. 

"Take him all in all, we have not seen his like again. By the consensus 
of the profession he is the greatest judge who ever sat upon the bench in 
North Carolina, and those few who deny him this honor will admit that 
he has had no superior. In political opinions he was the follower of Jef- 
ferson, but this did not prevent his reverence for Chief Justice Marshall, 
who was his personal friend, as was also Chancellor Kent. Mr. Frank 
Nash in the course of a discriminating article says: 'Judge Ruffin's men- 
tal constitution was more like that of the great Chief Justice Marshall 
than of any judge of whom the writer has knowledge, but the defects of 
Ruffin's temperament, assuming that he had been placed on so broad a 
stage, would have prevented him from becoming so great a judge. Both 
were endowed by nature with what, for lack of better term, we call a legal 
mind; both had great courage and strength of will; both were ambitious 
in and for their profession; both had a great capacity and fondness for 
labor, both had great vigor of understanding, and both loved the law as 
a science and were thoroughly imbued with its principles. Marshall, how- 
ever, had a calm evenness of temper, a sweetness of disposition, a thor- 
ough control over his prejudices that Ruffin never had, nor could ever ac- 
quire, so the order of his temperament made him, who otherwise might 
have been a Marshall, more of a Thurlow. So great, however, were the 
endowments and acquirements of Judge Ruffin that one can but regret that 
he had not been placed upon the bench of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, side by side with Marshall. What noble discussions of fundamental 
questions from opposing points of view we should have then have had.* '* 

And of him Judge R. T. Bennett says: 

"I have read every opinion delivered by the late Chief Justice Ruffin, as 
Associate-Justice and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Caro- 
lina, and when I completed these readings, I said in my deepest thought, 
'Chief Justice Ruffin is the greatest judge who ever administered justice 
in an English-speaking community.* " 

When in the zenith of his fame, in 1852, he resigned from the 
bench, proposing to retire from all professional work. In 1830 
he had removed to his plantation on Haw River in Alamance 



THOMAS RUFFIN 35S 

County, while operating another on Dan River in Rockingham 
County, and he had become known as one of the most progressive 
and successful farmers of the State, and that employment was 
very agreeable to his disposition. The pursuits of the farm gave 
him pleasant recreation, as well as large profits, and his home was 
a seat of culture and refinement and bounteous hospitality. In 
1854 the Agricultural Society of North Carolina elected him its 
president, and for six years he continued in that position, and by 
force of his example and by his precepts he contributed largely 
to the improvement of agricultural methods in the State. And 
not only so, but he availed himself of his position to urge improve- 
ment in all lines that would be beneficial to North Carolina. There 
had always been a great stream of North Carolinians seeking 
homes in new regions, and in his address before the State Agricul- 
tural Society in October, 1855, he said: 

"I cannot close, however, without asking you once more to cleave to 
North Carolina. Stay in her, fertilize her, till her, cherish her rising 
manufactures, extend her railways, encourage and endow her schools 
and colleges, sustain her institutions, develop her resources, promote 
knowledge, virtue and religion throughout her borders, stimulate State 
pride and exalt her renown." 

Such indeed had been his own course in reference to the State, 
and no one could urge her people onward and forward so well as 
this eminent citizen who had reflected so much honor on the State 
and who had set such an example of usefulness and development. 

On the death of Chief Justice Nash, in December, 1858, however, 
having been elected his successor by the almost unanimous vote 
of the General Assembly, he again took his seat as a justice of 
the Supreme Court, but sat only one or two terms, returning to 
private life in the Fall of 1859. 

After his retirement from the bench he was appointed a magis- 
trate for his county, and for many years he presided over the 
county courts of Alamance County and attended to all the busi- 
ness of his community. Nor did he abandon his interest in the 
University, of which he was a trustee for nearly fifty years, being 
at last retired in 1868 by the Republicans to make way for some 



356 NORTH CAROLINA 

of those who destroyed the usefulness of that institution. He 
worthily received the honorary degree of LL.D. from the Uni- 
versity and also from his Alma Mater. 

The religious affiliations of Judge Ruffin were with the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church, of which for more than forty years he 
was a communicant, and he was one of the most active members 
of the church in the State and more than once he represented the 
diocese in the General Convention of the church in the United 
States. 

Judge Ruffin was from his early years an adherent of the Demo- 
cratic Party, and in 1824 was a candidate on the electoral ticket 
of William H. Crawford for President, Mr. Crawford being the 
nominee of the caucus of the Democratic members of Congress, 
that being before the era of national conventions, and thus the 
regular ticket ; but on that occasion North Carolina gave her votes 
to Andrew Jackson, and the election was thrown in the House 
of Representatives, where Henry Clay gave his preponderating 
influence to John Quincy Adams, making that break with 
Jackson that led to the formation of the Whig Party. 
Judge Ruffin continued to adhere to the Democratic Party and 
was a supporter of Jackson's administration. He not only 
held like political views with Thomas Jefferson, but in other 
respects resembled him. 

In the campaign of i860 he supported Breckenridge as the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, and when toward the end 
of January, 1861, the Legislature of North Carolina made an ef- 
fort to secure a peaceful solution of sectional differences by sending 
commissioners to represent the State at Montgomery and at the 
Peace Conference called by Virginia to meet at Washington on 
February 4th, Judge Ruffin was appointed a delegate to the Peace 
Conference at Washington. He accepted the employment with the 
purpose of preventing a rupture of the Union if possible. In that 
body he urged compromise, concession and conciliation. Nor did 
he confine his efforts merely to the members of the Congress. 
General Scott, then at the head of the Federal army, was a man 
of potent influence, and he had been a fellow law student with 



THOMAS RUFFIN 357 

Judge Ruffin at Petersburg. At this critical period Judge Ruffin 
gladly renewed their former acquaintance and urged upon him 
that there should be an amicable arrangement of differences, and 
he also sought to influence others who bore relations with the in* 
coming administration. General Scott in his Autobiography men- 
tions that if the sentiments of Judge Ruffin had prevailed the coun- 
try would have escaped the sad inflictions of the war ; and Presi- 
dent Buchanan makes the same statement in his "defense" of his 
administration. 

But the pleadings of this illustrious patriot were unheeded by 
the victorious partizans who were about to possess themselves 
of the Federal Government. In that Congress North Carolina and 
Virginia were unable to approve of the conclusion reached by a 
majority of the delegates, still as weak as the report was it was not 
acceptable to those in control of the Federal Congress. The party 
friends of Mr. Lincoln had no purpose to conciliate or to remove 
the causes of apprehension which had led to the action of the 
Southern States. They preferred war with all of its horrors and 
sufferings rather than live up to the provisions of the Constitution 
of the United States. The concessions and sacrifices offered by 
the South were disdainfully rejected by these rabid partizans. 
With a heavy heart Judge Ruffin returned to North Carolina and 
retired to the quietude of his home. It happened that the writer, 
then a student of the law under Mr. William Ruffin, was present 
at the time and daily listened to Judge Ruffin's conversation on 
the portentous events of that momentous period. There also came 
his distinguished kinsman, Mr. Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, and 
his son, who later married Judge Ruffin's daughter Jane. It 
seemed to these gentlemen that the movement at the South was 
forced by the people rather than led by the public men, who ap- 
peared inclined to be more conservative than the masses; and 
hopes were still entertained that war might be averted until the 
whole situation was changed by President Lincoln's call to arms. 
Then the younger men of the household and of the family at once 
responded in defense of the South and hastened to occupy, with 
others, the forts on the seaboard. 



358 NORTH CAROLINA 

The conservative and union sentiments of the venerable ex- 
chief justice were well known, but he himself realized the exe- 
gencies of , the occasion. A public meeting was held in Hillsboro 
in April, 1861, that the citizens of the town might express their 
sentiments on the alarming state of public affairs. Judge Ruffin, 
though residing in Alamance until after the war, was present. In 
the course of the meeting he called the veteran Democratic politi- 
cian. General Allison, up to the bar and, facing the audience, stood 
by his side with one arm about him, and said: "My good old 
friend, I ask you what ought to be done now ?" General Allison's 
reply was inaudible, but as he was known to be a Union man, it was 
guessed. Judge Ruffin, leaving the old general standing, ad- 
vanced a step towar^ the audience, and his whole frame in a 
quaver of emotion, extended his arms, bringing them down in 
vehement gesticulation at each repetition of the word, as he 
shouted, "I say Fight! Fight! Fight!" It was the scream of the 
eagle as he swoops upon his prey. The war feeling already 
aroused became the dominant passion in every man's breast. 

In May, 1861, after the war had begun, a convention was called 
to meet on the 20th of that month, and Judge Ruffin was elected 
a delegate from Alamance County. In the Convention he sought 
to avoid a declaration of a constitutional right on the part of the 
State to secede, preferring an ordinance merely declaring the 
union between North Carolina and the other States dissolved to 
the one proposed by Mr. Craige. which repealed the Ordinance 
of T789, by which the State became a member of the Union; but 
in this he may have been influenced by considerations of tender- 
ness toward those who had violently opposed the doctrine of a 
constitutional right to secede, as well as by doubts of that right 
under the provisions of the Constitution. However, on being over- 
ruled by a majority of the Convention, he acquiesced in the views 
of his associates and voted for the Ordinance of Secession pro- 
posed by the ultra-States' Rights men and signed it, when passed. 

The Convention continued in session for a year, taking several 
recesses, and Judge Ruffin contributed from the stores of his ex- 
perience to the promotion of the success of the Southern cause. 



THOMAS RUFFIN 359 

He advocated those measures that were early adopted to put the 
State in a position of defense, making large appropriations to 
obtain military supplies and to equip soldiers for the field. His 
action was ever patriotic and based on the wisdom of a thoughtful 
statesman. 

At the end of the war he found that his farm had been desolated 
in consequence of the army having been encamped upon it, and the 
system of labor being abolished, he felt unequal to the task of seek- 
ing to resuscitate his plantation and continue its cultivation. The 
calamities that had befallen him at his age were too great for him 
to successfully combat. He, therefore, disposed of his estate and 
again took up his residence at Hillsboro, where, in the enjoyment 
of the highest respect and veneration of the State, he passed his 
declining years in the midst of friends and surrounded by his 
children and grandchildren. 

He lived through the period of Reconstruction and saw the 
baleful consequences of the sudden and violent abolition of slavery 
and the subversion of the Constitution and system of laws which 
for more than half a century he had aided in perfecting, and the 
blighting and degrading effect of subjecting the State to the do- 
minion of ignorant negroes and their allies; and at length, on 
January 15, 1870, in the eighty-third year of his age, after an ill- 
ness of but four days, he passed away. No man in any community 
ever attained a higher eminence for virtue, for learning or for 
integrity of character than this exemplary citizen of our State. 

Mr. Nash in summing up his career said of Judge Ruffin : 

"He was great as a lawyer, great as a judge, great as a financier, great 
as a farmer — a rugged, indomitable soul in a frame of iron, made to con- 
quer, and conquering every difficulty on every side." 

"A man resolved and steady to his trust, 
Inflexible to ill and obstinately just." 

S. A, Ashe, 




THOMAS RUFFIN, JR. 




LHOMAS RUFFIN, the fourth son of Chief Jus- 
tice Ruffin and his wife, Annie Kirkland, also 
an eminent jurist, was born in Hillsboro in 1824. 
He was prepared for college by a celebrated 
teacher of his day, familiarly known as "old 
Sam Smith," who instructed many men that 
afterward attained distinction, and who always regarded him with 
affectionate veneration. After a thorough preparatory education, 
at the age of sixteen he entered the University of North Carolina, 
where he graduated with distinction in 1844. He was gifted with 
a logical mind and, being a man of fine attainments, he looked for- 
ward to a professional career. His disposition was genial and 
he was sociable by nature and fond of fun, and without bad habits 
or any inclination to dissipation. He was fortunate in being in- 
structed in the elementary principles of the law, and in the prac- 
tice, by .his distinguished father and his elder brother, William, 
who was unexcelled as a teacher of jurisprudence. Having ob- 
tained his license to practice, he located in Rockingham County ; 
and a few years later, in 1848, he formed a partnership with 
John H. Dillard, in whom he found a congenial companion, and 
the friendship then began lasted throughout life. 

Popular and attentive to their business, they soon established 
an extensive and lucrative practice and won many friends in their 
county. Following in the footsteps of his father, the subject of 



THOMAS RUFFIN, Jr. 361 

this sketch attached himself to the Democratic Party, and in 1850 
he was elected as a Democrat a representative from Rockingham 
County to the Legislature, and served with great acceptability to 
his constituents, but he had no liking for public Ufe and never 
afterward sought any political preferment. He was ambitious to 
excel in a professional career, and in 1854 was elected Solicitor of 
his district. In performing the important duties of this office he 
attained widespread celebrity for his fearless discharge of duty 
and as being a master of the criminal law. He had married early 
in life Miss Mary Cain, a lovely lady of his native community, 
and his father being then a resident of Alamance County, he 
moved to Graham, continuing, however, his partnership relations 
with Mr. Dillard in the Rockingham business. At that period 
Mr. Ruffin held rank among the foremost of the younger lawyers 
of the State. With a fine person and a high order of intelligence, 
he united strong characteristics and high professional attainments. 
His home at Graham was a center of a charming circle and the 
life of his household was most happy and enviable. 

While he entered but little into politics, he was much interested 
in the vital questions that convulsed the South in i860, and with 
great earnestness he advocated the election of Breckenridge, the 
nominee of the regular Democratic Convention. Although he was 
not an advocate of secession in the earlier stages of the trouble, 
he realized that it became every Southern man to stand shoulder 
to shoulder when war had become inevitable. When news was 
received of the first gun being fired at Fort Sumter, Mr. Ruffin im- 
mediately organized a company in Alamance County, and on 
April 1 6th hastened with it to Fort Macon, and together with 
others seized that fort and held it for the State of North Caro- 
lina. Upon the organization of military forces by the State he 
was on May 3, t86i, duly commissioned Captain of his company, 
and he continued to serve with it when it was organized as a part 
of the Third Regiment, later known as the Thirteenth Regiment 
of North Carolina Troops. Its first colonel was William D. 
Pender, who was succeeded in the Fall of 1861 by Colonel A. M. 
Scales. In October, 1861, Judge Dick, of the Superior Court, 



362 ^ NORTH CAROLINA 

died, and Governor Ellis tendered the appointment to Captain 
Ruffin, who accepted it, and he held the remaining terms of the 
first court. But he felt drawn to the military service and resign- 
ing returned to his company in the field. 

On April 26, 1862, upon the reorganization of the volunteer 
regiments Captain Ruffin was elected Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Thirteenth, which was under General Colston and on duty near 
Williamsburg on the Peninsula. It was there that the regiment 
had its first engagement, Colonel Ruffin being in command of the 
left wing. It was a hand-to-hand fight, which lasted but a few min- 
utes, some of the Thirteenth being bayoneted ; but if short it was 
hot. The companies engaged under the direction of Colonel Ruffin 
behaved with the greatest gallantry and utmost coolness. "Not 
a man moved except to the front." Colonel Ruffin served with 
distinction along with the Thirteenth throughout the battles be- 
fore Richmond and in the battles at Second Manassas, South 
Mountain and Sharpsburg, the regiment being then in Garland's 
Brigade, and he was in command of it on the return from Mary- 
land. At South Mountain, the regiment, under Colonel Ruffin, 
covered itself with glory. Garland's Brigade alone defended the 
pass against a division led by General Butterfield. Brigade after 
brigade assaulted our line, but each time they were driven back 
with heavy loss. Never was there a more stubborn contest. "Ow- 
ing to the fact that Colonel Ruffin was very careful of the lives 
of his men, cautioning them against unnecessary exposure, the 
casualties of the Thirteenth were fewer than might have been ex- 
pected, but it was one of the most heroic actions of the war." In 
that battle Colonel Ruffin was severely wounded, and in March 
following he resigned his commission in the army. It was about 
that time that he was recommended by the officers of the Twelfth 
Regiment to be appointed Colonel of that regiment. He, however, 
declined to accept that position, but was soon afterward appointed 
Presiding Judge of the court of Kirby Smith's corps in the West- 
em army, which he continued to hold until the end of the war. On 
the field he had exhibited a fearless courage and unusual coolness 
in positions of peril and difficulty, and he was distinguished for 



THOMAS RUFFIN, Jr. 363 

his sympathy with the soldiers and his care and kindness for 
them. 

As presiding judge he discharged his duties with considera- 
tion, and with a spirit that met the approbation of the Confederate 
authorities. 

After the war he returned to his home and sought to battle 
with the adversities that surrounded the home life of the South- 
ern people. He was by no means a political agitator ; on the con- 
trary, his breadth of view was that of a statesman, and his dis- 
position was to foster in the hearts of the people a complacent ac- 
quiescence in the unfortunate termination of the struggle for 
Southern independence. He recognized the facts and was not un- 
mindful of the logic of events ; but the spirit of the Northern people 
was too intolerant to win his approbation, and he took his place 
among his neighbors and friends in their great effort to secure for 
the people of the State the control of their local affairs. In 1868 
he steadfastly opposed the Reconstruction measures and the pro- 
ceedings of the Federal authorities under them. 

While never a prominent leader in public affairs, he was always 
a faithful and steady friend to and an advocate of all measures 
tending to the amelioration of social conditions, and he sought to 
elevate public sentiment and to add by his example and counsel to 
the march of virtuous, enlightened and material progress. De- 
voting himself with patience to his professional work, he became 
well known as one of the strongest and most resourceful lawyers 
of the State. As an advocate it has been said that he was truly 
eloquent. While his language was not remarkable for its elegance, 
it was pure and forcible and his argument was convincing and 
aroused the fervid emotions of his audience. He prepared his 
cases with great labor and fortified them strongly with well-ar- 
ranged evidence and selected his authorities with careful dis- 
crimination. In forensic debate he was a formidable adversary, 
fertile in intellectual resources, well equipped and persistent and 
energetic in maintaining his position, and ready with quick per- 
ception to take immediate advantage of any mistake on the part 
of opposing counsel. 



364 NORTH CAROLINA 

Judge Dick mentions in particular a speech that greatly im- 
pressed him: 

"The incidents and outside facts relating to his client that awakened his 
sympathies and called forth his intellectual powers were that she was poor, 
a woman, a widow, a stranger, without money and far from friends and her 
home. There may have been greater speeches at the bar than he delivered ; 
but for clearness of statement, for force of logic, for keenness of invec- 
tive, for nobility of sentiment, and for tenderness of pathos, I have never 
heard the speech equaled in any forum/* 

He again became associated in partnership with Judge Dillard 
and conducted a joint business with him until the latter was ele- 
vated to the Supreme Court bench in 1878, and after that he con- 
tinued to practice alone. Year by year he grew more and more 
largely in the public estimation and came to be regarded as the 
first lawyer of the State. At the time of the sale of the Western 
North Carolina Railroad in 1880, he was employed with 
Honorable George Davis to advise the Legislature and to put the 
contract in proper shape. This work, because of its delicate nature 
and the many provisions the contract necessarily contained to 
guard the interest of the State, was highly important, and the 
skill displayed by these distinguished attorneys in its preparation 
gained for them unmerited applause, which was not diminished 
when they avowed that on their part it was the work of patriotism, 
and that they would receive no compensation for their labor. 

Upon the resignation of Judge Dillard in 188 1 the profession at 
once turned to Judge Ruffin as his most worthy successor, and 
Governor Jarvis tendered him the appointment to the vacancy, 
which he accepted and for a few years adorned the bench. His 
health, however, was now impaired, and the exacting service of 
the Supreme Court bench did not facilitate a recovery, and on 
September 23, 1883, he retired from the bench and resumed the 
practice of law at Hillsboro in connection with Major John W. 
Graham. 

Judge Ruffin had passed his life as an advocate and came to the 
Supreme bench without any training in a judicial career. As a 
lawyer in full practice, the habit of his mind had become that of 



THOMAS RUFFIN, Jr. 365 

the advocate, which in some respects differs from a judicial in- 
vestigation of the principles underlying legal cases and the prep- 
aration of judicial opinions. He had had no experience in juridi- 
cal composition. He therefore came to the bench under circum- 
stances somewhat adverse to an immediate manifestation of his 
superior excellence. That he was an industrious and impartial 
and learned and able judge is evidenced by his work upon the 
bench ; and his opinions also show that his views of the law were 
broadly comprehensive and enlightened, while in his methods of 
thought he was judiciously conservative and cautiously progres- 
sive. His greatness as a lawyer frequently led to his being com- 
pared favorably with his distinguished father, the great chief jus- 
tice; but he was on the bench too short a time to develop his 
capabilities as a writer of jurisprudence, and ^vhile in thought and 
in learning he occupied the same high level as his father, he had not 
the opportunity to attain the same training as a writer of incom- 
parable judicial opinions. Of him it has been said that he "pos- 
sessed dauntless physical courage, but his high moral courage was 
far more admirable. He had due regard for public sentiment when 
he believed it to be right, but he never quailed before the clamor 
and prejudices of political bigotry or popular frenzy. He dis- 
countenanced all forms of social disturbance and lawless violence, 
and by words and acts bravely combatted all kinds of public or 
private injustice and oppression. He was the friend and defender 
of the poor, the weak, the helpless and unfortunate ; and he aided 
even the erring in their eflforts at reformation by kind words and 
acts of sympathy and encouragement." 

Judge Dick, in the course of his address on the life and char- 
acter of Judge Ruffin, says : 

"We may reasonably ask ourselves what were the object and purposes of 
his creation: what the rewards of his toils, his sufferings and his noble 
endeavors? The fame which he acquired as a brilliant advocate may live 
in tradition for many years and then be obscured by the mists of time. In 
a half a century the reports in which are printed the memorials of his 
genius and wisdom will be retired to the dust of law libraries. But he had 
a more blessed faith. He lived for a nobler purpose. He believed that 
death was only the natural process of transmutation to a higher and 



366 NORTH CAROLINA 

nobler life. He was cheered with the sublime Truth revealed by his Re- 
deemer and Saviour." 

In this blessed hope the end came to the fearless soldier who, 
amid the perils of the most desperate battlefields, manifested a 
coolness and an intrepidity in entire harmony with his courageous 
nature; a citizen no less distinguished in civil life than in military 
action, eminent for his forensic ability and who by his virtues, his 
character and his learning adorned both the bar and the bench of 
his native State. 

His health remained precarious after leaving the bench in 1883, 
and although he still engaged in the practice, he did not pursue 
his labors so actively as in former years. At length on May 23, 
1889, he passed away, greatly lamented by the people of the State. 

S. A. Ashe. 






WILLIAM SKINNER 

OTH in peace and war the Skinner family of 
Eastern North Carolina has borne an honor- 
able record. At the time of the Revolution its 
most noted member was Brigadier-General 
William Skinner, of the county of Perquimans, 
one of the most active patriots in the Albe- 
marle section. He was the son of Richard Skinner, who died 
in 1752. To avoid confusion, we may here mention that there 
were at least two members of this family living in colonial times 
who bore the name Richard Skinner. One of these died in 1746. 
The town of Hertford, in the county of Perquimans, was 
erected by Chapter 6 of the Private Laws of 1758, which was 
amended by Chapter 22 of the Private Laws of 1767, and by 
Chapter 2 of the Private Laws of 1773. By the two amendatory 
acts last mentioned, William Skinner was elected one of the com- 
missioners or "directors" of said town. He also served in the 
Assembly of North Carolina during the colonial period. 

In the Revolution Mr. Skinner's first service appears to have 
been as a member of the Provincial Congress of North Caro- 
lina which met at Hillsboro in August, 1775; and that body 
(which continued its sittings till the following month) elected 
him lieutenant-colonel of North Carolina militia for Perquimans 
County on September 9th. He was a member of the Provincial 
Congress at Halifax in April, 1776; and of a similar body which 



368 NORTH CAROLINA 

held its sessions at the same place in November and December, 
1776. The last named Provincial Congress elected him a Justice 
of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions for the county of 
Perquimans on December 23, 1776. On the same day, December 
23rd, Congress passed a resolution, requesting Colonel Skinner 
to take into his possession the records of the Inferior Court of 
Pleas and Quarter Sessions for the county of Perquimans, and 
also authorized him to act as clerk (vice Miles Harvey, deceased) 
until a clerk could be regularly elected by the justices of said 
court. 

On December 20, 1777, Colonel Skinner was elected brigadier- 
general of the North Carolina militia for the district of Edenton ; 
and, at the same time he was elected treasurer of the northern 
counties of the Colony. These two offices he held at the 
same time. He was re-elected treasurer for several terms. He 
was also commissioner to settle the accounts of North Carolina 
with the general Government ; and, on April 25, 1778, was voted 
5,000 pounds by the Assembly as compensation for that service. 
The reader must not be led to think that this five thousand 
pounds was over-generous compensation, for it was paid in the 
paper currency of that day. General Skinner himself in a peti- 
tion (or "remonstrance") addressed to the Assembly on January 
28, 1779, complains of the great inconvenience by him in "con- 
veying great cart-loads of money through the country," so we 
may safely assume that North Carolina was adequately supplied 
with currency of its own manufacture. 

Having the good sense to realize that his want of knowledge 
in military matters might jeopardize the lives of soldiers serving 
under him. General Skinner determined to resign his commission,, 
and accordingly did so on May 10, 1779, when bodies of troops 
were being organized to serve beyond the limits of the State. 
Addressing the General Assembly, which was in session at Smith- 
field, in Johnson County, he said : 



"As my experience in military matters is very small, my continuing in 
that office might, perhaps, be a public injury, as well as fatal to those 



WILLIAM SKINNER 369 

whose lives might in a manner depend on my conduct. For these rea- 
sons I take the liberty at this time of resigning that appointment which 
I heretofore with reluctance accepted." 

Two days after his resignation as brigadier-general, Mr. Skin- 
ner was once more elected treasurer. 

When a law was enacted creating the offices of district treas- 
urer, General Skinner became treasurer of the district of 
Edenton. 

It is greatly to be regretted that so little is known of the per- 
sonal history of General Skinner. He died in the winter of 
1797-98. He lies buried in the Yeopim section of Perquimans 
County, four or five miles from the town of Hertford, and a 
marble slab marks his grave. He was twice married and left five 
children. By his first wife he had three daughters: Penelope 
Skinner, who married Lemuel Creecy; Elizabeth Skinner, who 
married Josiah Cotton; and Lavinia Skinner, who married Mr. 
Harvey. The two children of General Skinner's second wife 
were William and Caroline Skinner. 

When the first official census of the United States was compiled 
in 1790, General Skinner owned more slaves than any other citizen 
of Perquimans County. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 






EDWARD STANLY 

fDWARD STANLY, the subject of this sketch, 
was born in New-Bern in 1808. He was a son 
of John Stanly, an ardent FederaHst and a 
noted figure in North Carohna political history. 
Edward Stanly was educated at the North and 
was graduated from Norwich University in 
1829. He studied law and commenced the practice of the pro- 
fession in Beaufort County, North Carolina. Soon after he mar- 
ried a daughter of Dr. Hugh Jones, of Hyde County. 

His success in his profession was immediate, but his ambitions 
were political rather than professional, and his mind was soon 
turned to politics, though he did not enter political life actively 
for some time. From his father he inherited an intense hatred 
of the Democratic Party, and consequently he was, from the birth 
of the Whig Party, an ardent believer in and supporter of its 
doctrines. This intense hatred of the Democratic Party, combined 
with his passionate and fiery nature, led to many difficulties with 
his political opponents. He, like other members of his family, 
possessed an uncontrolled temper which often injured him and 
made for him many bitter enemies. But like most similar natures, 
he was possessed of a wonderful ability to make warm friends. 
Personally he was attractive, with a great amount of magnetism, 
which affected even those who were not personally acquainted 
with him. 



EDWARD STANLY 371 

In 1837 he was elected to Congress and served for three terms. 
While there he distinguished himself by his ability as a debater 
and by his eloquence as a speaker. His repartee was exceedingly 
clever, but so sharp as to excite anger. His "Cock Robin" retort 
to Mr. Preston was particularly memorable. At times he was 
very bitter in his denunciation of opponents, and in an attack upon 
the Tyler administration he excelled himself, and won great ap- 
plause from his Whig associates in the House. He also dis- 
tinguished himself by several personal encounters. Henry A. 
Wise on one occasion was so aroused by a sharp speech of Stanly 
that he walked over to the latter's seat and threatened him. 
Stanly refused to apologize and a fight followed. A committee 
investigated the matter and utterly exonerated Stanly, John 
Quincy Adams taking occasion to make a very complimentary 
speech in reference to Stanly's conduct in the affair. On another 
occasion a quarrel with Samuel W. Inge, of Alabama, led to a 
duel between them. Neither one was injured. Thomas L. Cling- 
man attacked him in the House and a fight followed. But by the 
end of his term he was recognized as one of the leaders of his 
party in the House. Mr. Stanly attracted so much attention by 
his Congressional career that when Harrison was elected presi- 
dent in 1840 he was considered for the navy portfolio. The men- 
tion of the probability of his appointment was most favorably re- 
ceived all over the country, the press, regardless of politics, being 
particularly complimentary. The honor, however, did not fall 
to him, but to another North Carolinian, Judge George E. Badger. 

In 1844 he was a delegate to the National Whig Convention 
in Baltimore. The same year he represented Beaufort County 
in the House of Commons and had conferred upon him the im- 
usual honor of being chosen Speaker at his first session. This 
was, of course, due to the reputation he had made in Congress. 
He presided with dignity, impartiality and ability and was elected 
again at the following session. In 1847 he had been made at- 
torney-general, but resigned in 1848 to go to the General As- 
sembly and was succeeded by B. F. Moore. He was elected to 
the Commons for the third time in 1848, but failed to be chosen 



372 NORTH CAROLINA 

Speaker. On the floor he was a leader, and by throwing his in- 
fluence against the proposed railroad from Charlotte to Danville de- 
feated what he called "The Danville Sale," agreeing instead to 
charter the North Carolina Railroad, as proposed by W. S. Ashe. 

In 1849 he was again nominated for Congress and defeated 
W. K. Lane by a substantial majority. In 1851 he defeated 
Thomas Rufiin, of Wayne, making his campaign on the question 
of secession, which at the time was agitating the country. There 
was no discussion in North Carolina as to the advisability of the 
State's severing her connection with the Union, the question being 
purely an abstract one. Alfred Dockery, who was also a Whig 
candidate for Congress, declared that if he should be elected, he 
would vote men and money to whip South Carolina back into the 
Union, in the event of her secession, adding that he would do the 
same if North Carolina was the State in question. Stanly ex- 
pressed somewhat the same sentiments, and both were elected by 
large majorities. William W. Holden, the editor of the Stand- 
ard, tried vainly to create the impression that Stanly was an ab- 
olitionist, and after the election declared that he was elected by 
the anti-slavery Quakers in Wayne and the adjoining counties. 
In 1853, in consequence of the growing discontent in the State 
with the attitude of the North regarding slavery, he was defeated 
by Thomas Ruffin for reelection. In the Fall of the same year he 
removed with his family to California. 

In his new home he attained great prominence as a lawyer, 
both from his ability and on account of his past record. He soon 
allied himself with the Republican Party, and in 1857 was nom- 
inated for governor in spite of the fact that he still owned slaves 
and was a believer in the institution of slavery. He made no 
secret of his belief and on the stump advocated non-interference 
with slavery. The Democrats nominated John B. Weller, who 
had just retired from the United States Senate. Weller was suc- 
cessful, receiving a majority of over 32,000 votes. 

Mr. Stanly saw with alarm the gulf which was yawning be- 
tween the North and the South, but he never quite realized that the 
threat of the South to .secede would be put into effect. Even 



EDWARD STANLY 373 

after secession had begun, estimating public sentiment by what 
it had been nearly ten years before when he left the State, he 
was confident that North Carolina would remain in the Union. He 
felt sure that the majority of the people in the State were opposed 
to secession and favorable to the Union, or at least that they were 
acting through a misunderstanding. Consequently, he felt that if 
the real facts, as he believed them to be, in regard to the purpose 
of the North could be put fairly before them by one whom they 
felt was a friend and one to be trusted, they would at once renew 
their allegiance to the United States. He accordingly notified Pres- 
ident Lincoln of his willingness to undertake such a commission 
for the Federal Government. The President seemed to have 
considered the secession movement as merely a slaveholders* re- 
bellion and without much strength, and just at that time was con- 
sidering a plan for the restoration of the Southern States by the 
establishment of military governments, about which those citizens 
who were loyal to the Union might rally and thus weaken the 
power of the State administrations. The two States where the 
plan seemed most likely to succeed, according to belief then pre- 
vailing in the North, were Tennessee and North Carolina. He 
accordingly appointed Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, and Ed- 
ward Stanly military governors of their respective States with 
the rank of brigadier-general. The appointment of Stanly, for 
some reason, never went to the Senate for confirmation, but he had 
arrived in Washington in May, 1862, and at once assumed the 
duties of his new office, reaching New- Bern, which had been 
chosen as his headquarters, on May 26th. 

By his commission Stanly was empowered to perform all the 
duties of governor, and to appoint officers, institute courts, and 
suspend the writ of habeas corpus, during the pleasure of the 
president, or until a civil government should be organized. 
Secretary Stanton wrote him: 

"The great purpose of your appointment is to reestablish the 
authority of the Federal Government in the State of North Carolina, 
and to provide the means of maintaining peace and security to the 
loyal inhabitants of that State until they shall be able to establish a 
civil government." 



374 NORTH CAROLINA 

General Burnside, who was m command of the Federal forces 
in North Carolina, was directed to cooperate with Stanly and to 
furnish any military assistance that might be necessary. 

So far as his devotion to the Union was concerned, Mr. Stanly 
was a most suitable person to '* foster Union sentiment" in North 
Carolina, as the Honorable John S. Ely, of New York, wrote him. 
But his high temper and his inability to see but one side of a 
question made him ill-suited for a conciliatory mission such as 
he was engaged in. The fact that he was a native of North Caro- 
lina only made his task more difficult. 

No sooner had he reached North Carolina than, in seeking to 
conciliate the people and to execute the laws of the State, he made 
himself an object of dislike and intense suspicion to the element 
in Congress and at the North to whom the chief purpose of the 
war was the abolition of slavery. An enthusiastic gentleman 
from New England, a Mr. Colyer, had shortly before established 
a school for negro children in New-Bern. Mr. Stanly informed 
him that he had been sent there to restore the old order of things, 
and while he was in full sympathy with charity to the destitute, 
both black and white, the laws of North Carolina forbade any 
such undertaking as that in which Mr. Colyer was engaged, and 
that as governor he could not give his approval, as it would injure 
the Union cause if, at the beginning of his administration, he 
should encourage a violation of the law. He gave permission for re- 
ligious instruction to be given the negroes. In regard to fugi- 
tive slaves, also, Stanly took like ground. Slaves were constantly 
leaving their masters and coming into the Union lines, and in 
many instances they were taken away by the soldiers and in- 
formed that they were free. Whenever the owners would take 
the oath of allegiance to the United States, Stanly had the slaves 
restored to them. He also threatened with confiscation the own- 
ers of vessels who carried slaves away from New-Bern. 

H. H. Helper, who held some Government position in New- 
Bern, presumed to advise Stanly as to the policy that he should 
pursue as military governor, and Stanly at once requested him 
to leave New-Bern on the ground that his speeches to the soldiers 



EDWARD STANLY 375 

and negroes were having a bad effect. Helper was joined by 
Colyer, and the two went North and furnished thp newspapers 
with a highly colored account of Stanly's actions. In conse- 
quence the House of Representatives passed a resolution re- 
questing the President to furnish information in regard to the 
powers conferred upon Stanly by his appointment as military 
governor, whether he had interfered to prevent the education 
of children, black or white, and if so, by what authority? If by 
the authority of the Federal Government, for what purpose were 
such instructions given? The Senate passed similar resolutions. 
Secretary Stanton referred the matter to Stanly, who replied, out- 
lining his policy and asking for instructions. He acknowledged 
that he found the negro question perplexing. He had restored 
slaves to loyal masters, for almost all the inhabitants of New- 
Bern had gone away and he wished to reassure them that if they 
should return they would be well treated, believing that unless he 
could convince them that it was a war of restoration there would 
be no peace for years to come. He said that he had found that 
Union men of irreproachable lives sincerely believed that the 
President proposed the entire destruction and total desolation of 
the South, with universal emancipation and ruin. He thought 
that his action in regard to the negro school had been wise and 
had resulted in good to the Union, but that it had caused trouble 
in the North, and for that reason he would like to have some in- 
structions as to his duties and the policy that he should pursue. 
. The following extract will give some idea of the difficulties with 
which he was confronted almost daily: 

"When slaves are taken violently from loyal owners by armed men 
and negroes, what protection can be given for the future? When per- 
sons connected with the army cause slaves to leave their masters, can 
the latter, if loyal, have permission and protection to prevail on them 
to return? Will authority be given to prevent the removal of slave prop- 
erty by vessel without the consent of the owners? If the military gov- 
ernor should interfere with actions that are in violation of long 
established laws of the State, and persons connected with the army 
should make inflammatory appeals to a crowd composed of several hun- 
dred negroes, exhorting them to violence and bloodshed, what action 



376 NORTH CAROLINA 

should be taken to prevent its recurrence? When slaves of loyal owners 
are employed by the United States authorities, can any steps be taken 
to secure part of their earnings for their owners?" 

In addition to these difficulties Stanly was beginning to dis- 
cover the diflference of opinion that had arisen between himself 
and those with whom he had been intimately associated in the 
past, and that Union sentiment was at a minimum in North Caro- 
lina. Even in New-Bern, occupied as it was by Federal troops, 
very little appeared. This change of sentiment at first seemed 
inexplicable and incomprehensible. But at last he began to see 
deeper into the feeling of the people, particularly after a very 
strong letter from his kinsman. Judge Badger, outlining the posi- 
tion of the former Union men in North Carolina. 

Mr. Badger, in a letter to Mr. Ely, but intended for Mr. Stanly, 
said: 

"There is no Union feeling in North Carolina, as you suppose, and is 
probably supposed by the generality of Northern men. There was in 
this State a very strong Union feeling — a strong love for the Union as 
established by our forefathers — but as soon as Mr. Lincoln's proclama- 
tion of April, 1861, appeared, offering us the alternative of joining an 
armed invasion of our Southern sister States for their subjugation, or 
resisting the authorities of the United States, our position was taken 
without a moment's hesitation. From that moment, however we may 
have differed in other things, there has not been, and there is not, any 
difference; hence our people with one heart sprang to arms." 

In the hope of arousing some of the old leeling, he visited some 
of the Eastern towns where he was well known and which were 
now occupied by the Federal forces. He made a number of 
speeches and interviewed the people, but he accomplished little 
for the Union cause, for he was generally regarded with hatred, 
suspicion, and contempt as a traitor to his State, and this kept 
from him the support of all men of character and influence. 

The policy of the State Government and of the Confederate 
officers was to ignore Stanly's pretensions to the office of governor 
and to communicate officially only with General Burnside. In 
the Fall of 1862 Stanly wrote to Governor Vance and asked for 
an interview with him or with any citizens of the State that he 
might select. He said that he felt sure that North Carolina was 



EDWARD STANLY 377 

in the quarrel only through a misunderstanding, and he wished 
to confer in regard to measures that might lead to an honorable 
peace; that he was authorized to negotiate an exchange of po- 
litical prisoners and wished this interview with its object should 
be perfectly open. Governor Vance declined to treat with him in 
any way, as he was without authority from the Confederate gov- 
ernment to treat for peace, and separate State action was not to 
be thought of. A correspondence with General D. H. Hill and 
General S. G. French did not lead to any more hope of recon- 
ciliation, but, if possible, rendered it more unlikely, since Stanly 
provoked indignation by the violence of his language. He was 
greatly handicapped in his peaceful efforts by the operations of 
the Federal troops in the eastern part of the State. His argument 
that they were "a glorious army of noble patriots" lost its signi- 
ficance in view of the constant plundering and burning, and his 
protests against this were unavailing. General Burnside had for- 
bidden all unnecessary injury to the property or persons of the 
inhabitants, but when General Foster assumed command no at- 
tention was paid to this order. Stanly's last official act was a 
protest against the conduct of the Federal troops in Hyde County, 
where the so-called "loyalty" of the population insured no im- 
munity from outrage and violence at the hands of the Federal 
troops. 

In December Stanly ordered an election to be held for a mem- 
ber of Congress from the second district. Jennings Pigott, a 
native of the State who had been a resident of Washington City 
for many years, and had only returned to North Carolina as pri- 
vate secretary to Stanly, was chosen. A committee appointed by 
the House of Representatives to investigate his claim to a seat 
decided against him, and he was not seated. 

In the meantime Stanly had become convinced of the hopeless- 
ness of his mission. More than that, he was utterly out of sym- 
pathy with the policy of the administration in regard to the slaves. 
He protested against the enlisting and drilling of them on the 
ground that they were, in general, unfit for soldiers in the existing 
war, and because it created a danger of a servile war. Finally 



378 NORTH CAROLINA 

on January 15, 1863, he sent his resignation to the President, 
giving at the same time the reason for his action. He stated 
that he had assured the people of the State that the administra- 
tion was only trying to restore the Union and would secure the 
rights of the people. But since the emancipation proclamation 
any further assurance of the kind was impossible. Regarding 
the proclamation, he said : 

"It is enough to say I fear it will do infinite mischief. It crushes all 
hope of making peace by any conciliatory measures. It will fill the 
hearts of Union men with despair, and strengthen the hands of the 
detestable traitors whose mad ambition has spread desolation and sor- 
row over our country. To the negroes themselves it will bring the 
most direful calamities." 

He reviewed his course as military governor and said concern- 
ing this : 

"That I have offended some is probable; but they were those whose 
schemes of plunder I defeated — ^whose oppressions of the innocent and 
helpless I resisted — those purposes seemed to have been to join or follow 
the troops, and to encourage and participate in the most shameful pillag- 
ing and robbery that ever disgraced an army in any civilized land." 

His resignation was accepted in March and he returned to 
California. No successor was appointed. It is not improbable 
that the position seemed to the President a very useless one. In 
1864 Mr. Stanly wrote the President that he had been asked to 
return to the State, as it was thought in New Bern that his pres- 
ence would be beneficial to the Union cause. He said that when 
he could be of assistance in any other capacity than that of gov- 
ernor, he would be glad to come back. He was never needed and 
so never came. 

Gradually he got completely out of sympathy with the Repub- 
lican Party on account of the radical policy of Congress. In 1867 
he opposed the Republicans in California and canvassed the 
State, speaking against the election of the Republican candidate 
for governor. 

He died in San Francisco, July 12, 1872. 

/. G. de Roulhac Hamilton. 





JOHN STARKEY 

;LTH0UGH the settlement of the Cape Fear 
had begun in 1725, and in 1729 the southern- 
most part of Carteret Precinct had been cut oflf 
and called New Hanover, yet the intervening 
territory between Beaufort and Brunswick re- 
mained largely primeval forest. On Burring- 
ton's return as Royal governor, he sought to establish a colony 
on New River, and the Johnstons later also had interests there. 
Indeed the county seat of Onslow Precinct was first named 
Johnstonville, but many years afterward it was wiped out by a 
cyclone, and when rebuilt it was called Jacksonville, probably after 
General Jackson. On New River among the early settlers was 
John Starkey, who in 1734 was appointed one of the justices of 
the peace. It is said that he was a regularly ordained minister of 
the Church of England, a disciple of Burnet rather than of Laud. 
On Sundays he generally read the services of the church to his 
family and neighbors, who assembled at his house for worship. 
He first appeared as a public man in the Legislature of 1739, and 
at once took a prominent place among the leaders of that body. In 
1746, when the Committee on Proposition and Grievances was 
formed to consider matters calling for redress, he was appointed 
on that committee, and he was fearless and persistent in seeking 
to maintain the privileges of the Assembly and the rights of the 
people. To him belongs the honor of having brought forward 



38o NORTH CAROLINA 

the first bill to establish a free school in North Carolina. His bill 
passed the Legislature April 5, 1749, but the governor, although 
he had long before urged the adoption of measures establishing 
public schools, was forced under his instructions to refrain from 
giving it effect. 

On the death of Treasurer Eleazar Allen, he was appointed by 
the House of Commons Treasurer for the southern counties, 
Thomas Barker being then the Treasurer of the northern coun- 
ties ; but the upper House dissented and a struggle ensued. The 
Council claimed the right to nominate the treasurers, while the 
House of Commons insisted that it was their exclusive privilege 
to make the appointment. At the first session, because of this dis- 
agreement, his appointment fell ; but at the next session, the House 
adhering to its prerogatives, the Council assented and the matter 
was temporarily adjusted, to come up, however, ag^in on the 
death of Starkey in 1765. That he was well qualified for this posi- 
tion sufficiently appears by the general esteem in which he was 
held, and the carefulness and prudence and attention to details 
that characterized his course in life. It is said that every species 
of domestic manufacture was carried on at his premises. That 
there tailors, shoemakers, saddlers, all plied their trades ; and he 
became the guardian of many minor children and administrator of 
many estates. When an issue of paper money was made for public 
purposes, even before he became treasurer, he was one of the 
commissioners charged with the duty of preparing the currency 
and issuing it. While he antagonized Governor Johnston in some 
of his measures, there was no personal hostilities between them, 
and on the death of Mr. Samuel Johnston, the surveyor-general, 
and a brother of Governor Gabriel Johnston, Mr. Starkey acted 
as guardian for his children, one of whom was the distinguished 
Samuel Johnston of the Revolution; and as these children were 
all beautifully educated and were ornaments of society, that fact 
alone is testimony of the superior excellence of their guardian. 

Toward the close of Governor Johnston's administration, the 
northern counties having withdrawn from the Assembly, there 
were but few matters of disagreement between the administration 



JOHN STARKEY 381 



and the Legislature, which was acting in accord with him on the 
two great subjects then agitating the province, the equalization of 
representation and the location of a seat of government. But 
when Governor Dobbs succeeded to the administration various 
other questions came up and Starkey took strong ground against 
him. Governor Dobbs accorded to him great influence, which he 
ascribed "to his capacity and diligence and in some measure his 
garb and seeming humility in wearing shoestrings, a plain coat, 
and having a bald head ;" by which it is* to be understood that the 
treasurer dressed like a plain man and not like a colonial gentle- 
man with knee breeches and powdered wig. The governor also 
regarded him as one of the most designing men in the province, 
saying that he was "a professed, violent Republican ; in every in- 
stance taking from his Majesty's prerogatives and encroaching 
upon the rights of the Council and adding to the power of the As- 
sembly in order to make himself popular. That being treasurer 
and having in charge the payment of its members, he could sway 
all the unstable and impecunious members to follow him like 
chickens, and he swayed the House against the most sensible mem- 
bers." He held the position of colonel of his county as well as 
justice of the peace, and being continuously a member of the As- 
sembly, he did exercise a strong influence. Having offended 
Governor Dobbs by influencing the Assembly not to allow a proper 
salary to a storekeeper at Fort Johnston because the appointment 
of that officer was not accorded to the Assembly, and for other 
such contumacious acts, the Governor deprived him of his com- 
mission as colonel and as justice of the peace; but this declara- 
tion of personal hostility in no wise lessened the zealous activity 
of Treasurer Starkey in promoting the liberties of the people and 
the rights of the Assembly. 

In 1754 it appears that in an Aid Bill then granted, Mr. Barker 
and Starkey were appointed the treasurers for a time unlimited, 
and Starkey felt himself entirely independent of the governor and 
Council. As years passed and the disagreements became more 
pronounced, the governor ascribed to Starkey and those with 
whom he co-operated advanced Republican principles and de- 



382 NORTH CAROLINA 

clared that Republicanism was more rife in North Carolina than 
in any other province. The leaders of Republicanism he declared 
were Speaker Swann, John Ashe, George Moore and Mr. Starkey, 
who he said formed a junto, whose purpose was to absorb the ad- 
ministrative power at the expense of the Crown. This junto seems 
to have been a great nightmare with the governor, and if their pur- 
poses and principles were as represented, it would seem that long 
anterior to the Revolution the leaders in North Carolina were im- 
bued with sentiments that were worthy of those illustrious char- 
acters who rendered the Revolutionary period so glorious in the 
annals of America. 

After a successful career, one of great usefulness by co-operat- 
ing with others in training the people of the State to be resolute 
and determined in maintaining their rights and in having a just 
conception of their rights and privileges, Mr. Starkey died in the 
Spring of 1765, leaving a son, Edward Starkey, who often repre- 
sented his county in the Assembly, and other descendants who were 
much esteemed. Among his descendants in a succeeding genera- 
tion was Daniel L. Russell, who was elected Governor of the 
State in 1896. 

S. A, Ashe. 






iCAxTlAAiL 











.-/. 




1 I 



io 



^ Uj^; 





HENRY JEROME STOCKARD 

JENRY JEROME STOCKARD, son of 
James Gibbs Stockard and Mary (Johnson) 
Stockard, comes from good old Revolutionary 
stock. His father's family is of German, his 
mother's of Scotch-Irish, descent. His earliest 
American ancestor was his great-great-gjand- 
father, James Stockard, a Revolutionary soldier, who married 
Ellen Trousdale. Some of the Trousdales, too, fought as patriots 
in the Revolution. Mr. Stockard's grandfather, John Stockard, 
was a captain in the War of 1812, and, later, served his State as 
representative from Orange County for sixteen terms. Also from 
the maternal side sprang men of ability and notable success — sol- 
diers, teachers and statesmen. An uncle of Mr. Stockard's 
mother, Robert Morrison, was recognized as one of the ablest 
financiers in the Northwest ; her brother. Doctor William Johnson, 
at one time editor of The Spirit of the Age, was distinguished as 
author and lecturer. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Chatham County, North 
Carolina, on September 15, 1858. His father, a well-known farmer 
and lumber dealer, highly respected for his sterling character, died 
when the boy was twelve years old. Thus to the mother, a woman 
of fine natural endowments, fell the duty of training the future 
poet, and much that is best in his character and achievement he at- 
tributes to her example and devotion. She was the source of that 



384 NORTH CAROLINA 

purity and loftiness, of that ennobling and spiritual quality in 
which the poetry of her son excels. No doubt his boyhood on the 
farm and his early sense of the responsibilities of life also helped 
to give him that habit of contemplation and that serenity of mind 
which are the foundation of all his work. 

After his academic studies at the Graham High School, young 
Stockard took special courses at Chapel Hill. Here, encouraged 
by that splendid educator, Doctor Thomas Hume, of whose soul- 
waking enthusiasm, erudition, and unusual talents the writer can 
testify from personal knowledge, the genius of the poet rapidly 
developed. 

Thus equipped and honored with the degree of A.M. by Elon 
College, he began his career as a teacher. After teaching some 
while in the schools of Alamance he was appointed principal of 
the Graham High School, and became in succession County Super- 
intendent, then Assistant Professor of English at the State Uni- 
versity, and later Professor at Fredericksburg College, Virginia. 
He is at present Professor of Latin in Peace Institute, Raleigh. 

Mr. Stockard has been a contributor to the leading magazines 
for years. Of his poetic work I shall speak later. Some of his 
poems will be found in Stedman's Anthology, in "Representative 
Sonnets by American Poets," and in the "Songs of the South." 
He will soon publish "A Study of Southern Poetry" — a text-book 
for the use of colleges, and some critical studies of "In Memoriam" 
and other classics. Also another book of verses is in preparation. 

In politics Mr. Stockard is a Democrat. He belongs to the 
Knights of Pvthias and is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 
His conversation, rich with a great and varied culture, his sym- 
pathy, his loyalty, his sincerity, his capacity for friendship, and 
above all, his helpfulness to others combine to make a personality 
as charming as it is inspiring. His philosophy of life may be 
summed up in one sentence : "The better is the enemy of the best." 

He has been twice married: first, in 1878, to Miss Sallie J. 
Holleman, a noble, Christian woman, and after her death, 
to Miss Margaret Lulu Tate, in 1890. The latter — with whom the 
writer is personally acquainted — lovely in person and manner, ar- 



HENRY JEROME STOCKARD 385 

1 

tistic and intellectual, is at one with her gifted husband in all 
things. To her sympathy and co-operation is due in no small 
measure that chorus of great words which makes Stockard the 
voice of North Carolina. 

It is no common privilege this — to appraise poetry like that of 
Stockard's. After an unintermitting study of English verse, after 
this long conning of masterpieces, day and night, for fifteen years, 
I do not hesitate to say that his little book with its modest title, 
"Fugitive Lines" — this little book that has made so little noise in 
the large world — was in many respects one of the most important 
literary events of our time. It will ultimately, I feel sure, be uni- 
versally so regarded. 

As a maker of sonnets, Stockard has no living superior. 
Fraught with a tenderness "too deep for tears," sad with the sad- 
ness of the unsatisfied, throbbing with the anguish of the unat- 
tained, his poetry pulses with "The still sad music of humanity." 
There is in it the appealing pathos of "lost Eden's loved," the dumb 
aspirations of unconscious nature and all the hope and melancholy 
of conscious man. His best is bound to rank with the best in lit- 
erature. In grandeur and in sublimity few have lived that can 
approach him, and many there be, applauded of the multitude, 
that are not fit to touch the hem of his garment. 

Like his own eagle, that lord of loneliness, he has a passion for 
the infinite; and soaring into the white ether of eternity, remote 
from the reasons of time, he confronts life as a whole, gazing deep 
into the glory which is God. His poetry is in the highest sense 
cosmic. To apply one of his own lines, it is "tuned to the move- 
ments of the journeying stars." 

He has not — to compare him with his foremost contemporaries 
— the sensuous music, the color and the motion of that belated 
Greek, Swinburne, nor the vivid vizualization, the titanic power 
and passionate energy of Markham, that glorifier of the common- 
place, whose mighty lines lean down from high places to shake 
hands with you ; he has not the chiseled delicacies and the subtle 
languors of LeGallienne nor the limpid beauty and the intimate 
spirituality of Stephen Phillips ; he has not the easy cadence and 



386 NORTH CAROLINA 

the elegance of Woodberry, nor the charm and unfailing fancy 
of van Dyke ; he has not the dignified diction and the rolling res- 
onance of William Watson, nor the lofty stateliness and the mystic 
imaginations of Moody ; he has not the instantaneous insight and 
the startling phrase of Roberts nor the beautiful abandon of 
Bliss Carman: he is distinguished for none of this. But more 
than any of these, he has the sense of vastness, of that spaciousness 
beyond the soar of wings. In this respect no poet in our literature 
surpasses him — not even the great Milton himself. 

Evermore his soul goes marching over mountains ; yet often his 
eyes also look upon valleys of beautiful surprise. I approach his 
work, therefore, with a feeling akin to worship, with awe and with 
reverence. I shall quote where I can, satisfied that nothing I can 
say would justify my enthusiasms as much as will his own incom- 
parable lines. 

Though he has not shown the sustained epic flight of the great 
poets, yet who, even of these, has soared higher than this sonnet : 

IMAGINATION. 
"Back through the chaos of the primal past, 

Upon unfailing wings she takes her flight, 

Or sounds the future's universal night 
'Mid worlds to elements resolved at last. 
The gates of death unclose and down the vast 

Cloud-builded stairs she faces shapes that fright. 

Or wanders through Elysium's fields of light — 
For she would fain all pang, all bliss forecast! 

But she shall never on life's bourne — ah me! 
If ever on that distant unknown shore! 

Preen her adventurous pinions to explore 
The date of Him before whose veiled face 

The universe, with its eternity, 
Is but a mote, a moment poised in space!" 

Now read this sonnet, culled from Harper's Magazine, a sonnet 
as fine as that of Blanco White on Night : 

MOLLUSKS. 
"Down where the bed of ocean sinks profound, 
Lodged in the clefts and caverns of the deep, 



HENRY JEROME STOCKARD 387 

Where silence and eternal darkness keep, 

These dumb primordial living forms abound. 

What know they of this life in the vast round 

Of earth and air? How wild the pulses leap 

At love's sweet dream — what storms of sorrow sweep, 

What hopes allure us and what terrors hound? 

And scattered on these slopes and plains, below 

This atmospheric sea, one with the worm 

And beetle, for a momentary term; 

What know we more of those ethereal spheres 

What rapture may be there, what poignant woe, 

What towering passions and what high careers?" 

Stockard's poetry is a twilight full of splendid moments. A 
far-scouting roamer of unimagined solitudes, no other has so well 
suggested the measure of immensity. Let me illustrate by these 
lines from his "Closing Century": 

•*Yet what is time itself? 'Tis but a swing 
Of the vast pendulum of eternity." 

I could quote much more of equal sublimity, but there are other 
phases of the poet's genius of which I desire to speak. Stockard 
has the poet's fury for perfection, and it is because the ideal is his 
only real that he is so consummate an artist. Yet ever before him, 
as before all that aspire to immaculate truth, is the realization of 
the beauty beyond expression, and lines nobler than these have 
never voiced the divine despair of man : 

THE UNATTAINED 

"The marble, bosomed in the mountain hoar, 

Holds in its heart, waiting some hand most skilled. 
Forms featured fairer yet than that which thrilled 

And moved beneath Pygmalion's touch of yore. 

The instrument's keys await a grander score 
Than that whose faintest echoes, haply, chilled 
Mozart with rapture, and an instant stilled 

His breath, then died away forevermore. 

There is a scene no painter ever feigned. 
Of Eden's restful fields — lost visions loved! 
Dead shores where tempests hoarse. Titanic roll — 



388 NORTH CAROLINA 

A song unsung more sweet than that which chained 
The heart of Hades' King — ^than ever moved 
The subtlest chord of Shakespeare's lofty soul!" 

To Homer and Shakespeare our poet has reared imperishable 
memorials. In his "Homer" is all "The surge and thunder of the 
Odyssey," so vainly essayed in the sonnet of Andrew Lang. 

The following poem stalks through the mind like a god trail- 
ing a cloud of awe. I know nothing finer in all poetry : 

SHAKESPEARE 
"He heard the Voice that spake and unafraid, 

Beheld at dawning of primeval light 

The systems flame to being, move in flight 
Unmeasured, unimagined and unstayed. 
He stood at nature's evening and surveyed 

Dissolved worlds — saw uncreated night 

About the universe's depth and height 
Slowly and silently forever laid. 
Down the pale avenues of death he trod 

And trembling gazed on scenes of hate that chilled 
His blood, and for a breath his pulses stilled, — 

Then clouds from sun-bright shores a moment rolled 
And blinded glimpsed he One with thunder shod, 

Crowned with the stars, and with the morning stoled !" 

Stockard has that rare mastery of music never absent from 
great poetry. His tones are not subtle like the sinuous melodies of 
Poe, nor are they hush-compelling like the orchestral symphonies 
of Lanier; but often, like Milton's, they seem smitten from the 
harp of the storm. What grandeur of utterance in the sonnet be- 
ginning : 

"Great Day of Wrath whereof no mortal knows, 
Nor Angel, nor Archangel of high Heaven." 

Then subsiding to a calmer mood he conjures with a wand of 
lotus, low and sleepy sounds, until amid -^Eolian murmurs we can 
hear the laugh of silence in a land of leaves. But soon again the 
young thunder, cradled in the heart of the calm, wakes from his 
sleep ; and, shaking his cloudy locks, leaps to a clime of elemental 
wars. 



HENRY JEROME STOCKARD 389 

Both of these moods find glorious expression here : 

AFTER READING A TREASURY OF SONNETS 
"Vague visions fill my brain to-night, — ^high deeds 
Round Ilium's shadowy wall ; old Memnon grey 
With vacant gaze looks toward the rising day, 

And breathes with mystic lips of ancient creeds. 

Through Morven's haunted halls my fancy leads. 
And Loda's spirit bends o'er me, — ^far away 
On unblest shores, through cities of Cathay, 

By perilous passes where the eaglet feeds. 

Confusing sounds awake,^-celestial strings, 
The clash of cymbals, tramp of armed bands, 
Songs fugitive, from Pelion's height outblown: 

Round Anthemusia's slumberous island sings 
Brave Orpheus to his comrades, of home lands 

Dim visioned, long across the seas unknown." 

Can anything be more musical than the following? 

SOME VERSES CAROL 
"Some verses carol blithely as a bird 

And hint of violet and asphodel; 

While others slowly strike a funeral bell. 
Or call like clarionets till, spirit-stirred. 
We hear the mustering tramp in every word. 

In some, the ocean pounds with sledges fell. 

Or Neptune posts with blare of trumpet shell 
By shores that visionary seas engird. 
As soft as flutes, they croon the lullabies 

Of cradle years; play clear as citherns; wail 
Like harps i^olian in the grieving wind; 
Some are the deep-drawn human moan by pale 
And silent faces 'neath lack-lustre skies. 
Peering through panes on darkness unconfined!" 

In the next sonnet is a variety of tone and a potency of sugges- 
tion beyond that of any with which I am acquainted. 

MY LIBRARY 
"At times these walls enchanted fade, it seems. 
And lost, I wander through the Long Ago— 
In Eden where the lotus still doth grow. 
And many a reedy river seaward gleams. 



390 NORTH CAROLINA 

Now Pindar's deep-stringed shell blends with my dreams, 

And now the elfin horns of Oberon blow: 

Or flutes Theocritus by the wimpling flow 
Of immemorial amaranth — margined streams. 
Gray Dante leads me down the cloud-built stair, 

And parts with shadowy hands the mists that veil 
Scarred deeps distraught by crying winds forlorn: 
By Milton stayed, chaotic steeps I dare, 

And, with his immaterial presence pale, 
Stand on the heights flushed in creation's morn!" 

Like Milton, our poet dares to come into the open to voice a 
noble indignation — dares to wage merciless campaign against the 
tyrannies of the time. Now fronting "Wrong as with a thousand 
spears," he assails "castled Error, mailed in guile:" now, stand- 
ing lonely on Truth's lighted tower, he challenges the lurking min- 
ions of the million-tented lie. 

As fine as the best of Watson's "Purple East" is that grand 
war-cry : 

"Nations of earth with one firm purpose rise 
And visit with vengeance fell the Ottoman race." 

Already I have spoken of Stockard's melancholy, which, like a 
recurring monotone, rises and falls, murmuring softly of un- 
sounded deeps. He keeps tryst with cheer only in the twilight 
and sadness is never beyond call. No matter in what untroubled 
Arcady he pitches the tent of his song, he cannot forget how fleet- 
ing are the joys of life. Occasionally his musings remind me of 
the minor tones of some of the younger Dutch poets : of Kloos, with 
his passion for death ; of Helena Swarth, to whom sorrow is be- 
come a luxury, and of van Eeden, that philosopher of tears. 

He is forever haunted with the beginnings of things ; yet also he 
has that noble conception of human destiny which makes the poet 
a prophet. Behind the subjective sorrow he sees the radiant 
objectivity of the larger vision — sees 

**Into a day gilt with perpetual sun." 

All of his words are 

"Brave with the promise of unrisen days," 



HENRY JEROME STOCKARD 391 

for he cannot but feel 

" life's pangs and tears 

Parts of some large, divine-appointed Whole." 

All the various phases of life he beholds as gradual approaches 
to the oneness which is God. His poetry is a call to arms, a sum- 
moning to a higher pilgrimage. It pulses with the upward surge 
of the soul. 

Surely poet never sang finer optimism than that voiced in this 
great sonnet : 

THE PAST 
"O ye that pine for the vanished years, as pined 

Odysseus for one glimpse of Hellas more; 

That toward them lean, as toward their fading shore 
Poor exiles, unto earth's far ends consigned, 
Lean to reclaim some echo which, confined, 

Birdlike shall sing in memory's mournful door — 

Know this: life's earlier land lies on before — 
Not over widening seasons far behind! 
And we shall find it in the great To-Be. 

It lapses not away, as to our eyes 

Doth seem, but swiftly and forever nears! 
As brave Magellan who sailed the uncharted sea, 

Full circling earth, saw his home shores arise. 

So shall we come again on our lost, happy years !" 

Of Stockard's lyrics, I have space for only a few words. In 
these, as in his sonnets, he is altogether himself. Full of fine 
brooding is the poem "Come Tenderly, O Death"; and richer 
melancholy than that of "Pallida Mors" is nowhere to be found. 

Splendid is the "Review of the Dead," where before us march 

"Battalion on battalion, riders pale 
On dim, mysterious chargers." 

This has all the qualities that make for permanence : 

"The Hand that binds the star 

In its far center, and around it rolls 
Through space its worlds, with never halt nor jar, 
No less my step controls. 



392 NORTH CAROLINA 

The same unfailing Hand 

Hath led me forth from still eternity, 
'Twill guide me onward through star vistas, and 

I follow trustingly." 

"Lead me, O God," not inferior to Newman's great hymn, thrills 
with the same Christian trust. ** Bethlehem," too long to quote 
here, J. H. Boner called "an immortal poem." The following is a 
triumph: THE LOW INN 

"Pilgrim, what though prone, belated, 

You are hastening but to win 

Somewhere down the lonely valley 

The low inn. 
"It has housed full many a traveler 

Peasant, monarch, prophet, Christ, 

And the cheer that it dispenses 

Has sufficed. 
"Drink the slumber giving beaker 

And forget the hurting cold 

While the gradual shades of evening 

Are unrolled. 
"Sleep, nor fear, for you shall waken 

To the warden's call at dawn; 

And a child, in some glad morning, 

Journey on." 

Some of Stockard's serenades and lullabies are among the best 
in the language. Here is a lyric which any poet might be proud 
to have written : NOCTURNE 

"Night closing in on reaches gray 

Of marsh and dune and shingle lone, 
Whose hush brings out the far away 
Eternal moan. 
"Darkness, unbeaconed, unconfined, 
A mist along the void that sleeps; 
A lost forlorn and crying wind 

From central deeps. 
"O ship that sailed with canvas black 

Into the dolorous waste of sea. 
From its uncharted zones bring back 
My love to me." 



HENRY JEROME STOCKARD 393 

I have not yet spoken of StocKard's patriotic poems. The "Last 
Charge at Appomattox," one of the greatest of war lyrics, is the 
finest memorial of the Lost Cause. Here are two stanzas : 

"Scarred on a hundred fields before, 
Naked and starved and travel-sore, 

Each man a tiger hunted. 
They stood at bay as brave as Huns, 
Last of the Old South's splendid sons, 
Flanked by ten thousand shotted guns, 

And by ten thousand fronted. 



"But the far ages will propound 
What never sphinx had lore to sound 

Why in such fires of rancor 
The God of Love should find it meet 
For Him, with Grant as sledge, to beat 
On Lee, the anvil, at such heat 

Our nation's great sheet-anchor." 

There are many other poems in which the heart of the 
old North State is heard beating in every line; others that sym- 
bolize "the great renascent South," but these we must forego. 

Even finer than that fine fragment of Tennyson's, by which it 
seems to have been suggested, is this lyric : 

THE AMERICAN EAGLE 

"Brooded on crags, his down, the rocks, 
He holds the skies for his domain: 
Serene he preens where thunder shocks 
And rides the hurricane. 

"The scream of shells is in his shriek; 
His wings, as swords, whiz down the air; 
His claws, as bayonets, gride; his beak, 
As shrapnel-shards, doth tear. 

"Where Shasta shapes its mighty cone, 
Where Mitchell heaves into the skies, 
Silent he glares, austere, alone. 
With sun-outstaring eyes!" 



394 NORTH CAROLINA 

Set to appropriate music, what a magnificent national hymn this 
would make! It is one of the most notable songs ever written. 

Stockard is not prodigal of his genius. Now and then a song 
or a sonnet, long prisoned in the silence of his mind, flashes out 
like a splendor of surprise. 

Here, however, is the man chosen by nature to write the great 
epic of the South. Could he but be given the leisure to devote him- 
self to this work, he would more than justify the privilege. Such 
poetry as his is too sublime to be popular, and I fear it will be 
long before our poet shall enter into his heritage of fame. But 
when he is known, as known he must be, I am confident that he 
will occupy a niche not lower than that of Poe and of Lanier. 

Leonard Charles van Noppen. 





JETHRO SUMNER 




HE settlement of Granville's territory, from 
Edgecombe County to Granville inclusive, was 
chiefly made by immigrants from Virginia, 
among whom were many families of conse- 
quence whose various members attained distinc- 
tion in North Carolina. Among these were the 
Sumners. Luke Sumner often represented Chowan County in the 
Provincial Congresses and was chairman of the Committee of 
Safety of his county and rendered important service during the 
Revolutionary War. David Sumner likewise was a member of the 
Provincial Congress of August, 1775, was a member of the Com- 
mittee of Safety of Halifax, and lieutenant-colonel of militia. 
James Sumner was lieutenant in the company of Light Horse. 
Robert Sumner represented Hertford County in the Provincial 
Congress of 1776. Elizabeth Sumner married Elisha Battle, who 
was a Representative from Edgecombe in the Revolutionary Con- 
gresses, and from her are descended that family of Battles that has 
been so prominent in North Carolina. The most eminent of all 
of the Sumners, however, was Jethro Sumner, the subject of this 
sketch. All of these kinsmen were grandchildren of William 
Sumner, who was a freeholder in Virginia about the year 1688, 
and who was associated with the substantial families of the Old 
Dominion. Jethro Sumner was bom on his father's plantation, 
called Manor, about one mile from the town of Suffolk, in the year 



396 NORTH CAROLINA 

1733. When about twelve years of age he had the misfortune to 
be deprived of his father's care, but his early life seems to have 
been passed amid circumstances of affluence. 

In 1758 Governor Dinwiddle gave him a letter of recommenda- 
tion to Colonel Washington, who was then on duty in western 
Virginia, and young Sumner was appointed a lieutenant in a Vir- 
ginia regiment of which William Byrd was colonel, and which was 
attached to the forces of General Forbes on an expedition against 
Fort Du Quesne. Sumner remained in the service until his regi- 
ment was disbanded in 1761, receiving at that time three years' 
training that was of invaluable service to him in after life. That 
he made his mark as a young officer is manifest, for on November 
26, 1760, Colonel Boquet, his commander, committed to his trust 
a separate command at Fort Bedford ; and on two occasions Sum- 
ner marched with his regiment down the Holston River against 
the Cherokees, who were then being reduced to subjection after 
their horrible massacre of the garrison of Fort Loudoun, which 
was just west of the present county of Swain. When peace came 
and his regiment was disbanded, young Sumner lingered a few 
years in Virginia and then removed to North Carolina, settling 
at the court house of the new county of Bute, which was located 
near the dividing line between Warren and Franklin Counties. 
There an inn was established, kept by one Elliott, but owned by 
Sumner; and from its accounts it appears that Sumner had lo- 
cated in Bute prior to November, 1769. In 1772 Sumner was ap- 
pointed sheriff of Bute County, having already attamed a posi- 
tion of prominence in his new home. He had married, had a 
goodly estate, and was leading the life of a prosperous gentle- 
man. In 1774 a captain in the British Army, J. F. D. Smyth, who 
was making a tour through the Colonies, recorded his impressions 
of Sumner, saying that he was "a facetious man" and "one of 
violent principles." 

Sumner's first appearance in a representative capacity was at 
the Hillsboro Congress of August, 1775, he being then in full 
sympathy with the other patriots of the province. At that time 
the militia was organized, two regiments of Continentals raised, 



JETHRO SUMNER 397 

and six battalions of Minute Men, and Sumner was appointed 
major of the Minute Men of the Halifax district. In November, 

1775, Governor Dunmore of Virginia seized Norfolk, and North 
Carolina hurried troops to the aid of the Virginians. Colonel 
Howe marched his regiment there, and on the 28th day of Novem- 
ber the Committee of Safety ordered Colonel Long and Major . 
Sumner, with what Minute Men and volunteers they could raise, r 
to press forward with the utmost dispatch. The North Caro- 
linians gained great credit in that campaign ; and while the part 
that Sumner played was not particularly recorded, yet his action 
was so highly appreciated that at the next meeting of the Provin- -^ 
cial Congress, when four more Continental regiments were raised, 
Sumner was awarded the colonelcy of the first of the new regi- 
ments. Colonel Sumner's regiment was during that Summer in 
South Carolina, and perhaps participated in the defence of 
Charleston. At any event it accompanied General Lee on his expe- 
dition to take St. Augustine in Florida. On the 3d of September, 

1776, the condition of his regiment at Savannah being distressing, 
by direction of General Lee, Colonel Sumner himself returned to 
North Carolina in order to obtain for his soldiers the equipments 
of which they stood in need. In his orders to Colonel Alston he 
said : 

"You ought to be particularly careful of the discipline and to your 
utmost keep up a good understanding among the officers and soldiers. 
You are at all times to keep up strict discipline, but to reserve a mode 
of clemency, as being among young troops. Be careful in seeing no fraud 
is done them by the commissaries and their pay regularly to a month 
delivered to them by their captains." 

These directions give a keynote of Sumner's management of his / 
men. 

On the 15th of March, 1777, the North Carolina Regiments 
moved north to join Washington. General Nash was in com- 
mand of the brigade, which was a part of Lord Stirling's divi- 
sion, and the North Carolinians displayed courage at the Battle of 
Brandywine, and won still greater renown on the 4th of Octo- 



398 NORTH CAROLINA 

ber at the battle of Germantown, where Sumner's regiment lost 
heavily. The brigade endured the suiferings of Valley Forge; 
and at Monmouth, being on the left flank of the army, rendered 
particular and notable service. The North Carolina troops suf- 
fered heavily at the North, and on account of their diminished 
numbers, in May, 1778, they were consolidated into three regi- 
ments commanded respectively by Colonel Clark, Colonel Patten 
and Colonel Sumner; and on January 9, 1779, Sumner was pro- 
moted to be brigadier-general and was ordered South to aid in the 
defence of Georgia and South Carolina. His brigade had the 
post of honor in the attack on the enemy at Stono Ferry on June 
20, 1779. To insure success he ordered his men not to fire, but 
to use their bayonets only. They, however, met with such a deadly 
fire that they could not be restrained from returning it. They 
behaved with great spirit ; but because of the failure of a part of 
the plan intrusted to Moultrie, General Lincoln deemed it best 
to abandon the movement. Shortly after that battle active opera- 
tions ceased, and Sumner having fallen a victim to the malarial 
fever of the South Carolina swamps, in July returned to North 
Carolina to reestablish his health, also being engaged in forward- 
ing recruits for his depleted brigade. In November, however, he 
was again with Lincoln, rendering efficient service ; but later he 
was detached to raise four new regiments of Regulars in North 
Carolina. He thus, fortunately, was not with the army when Lin- 
coln capitulated at Charleston in May, 1780, surrendering the 
entire Continental Line and a brigade of North Carolina militia 
that had joined in the defence of Charleston. The situation at 
the South now was full of peril, and the North Carolina Assembly 
recognized it. 

To assist Governor Nash a board of war was organized : Cas- 
well was appointed major-general in command of all the militia, 
and Sumner and the other Continental officers in the State were 
seeking to form Continental battalions. On June 13th Gates was 
appointed to the command of the Southern Department, and De 
Kalb was sent South along with a Maryland brigade under Gen- 
eral Smallwood, a Delaware regiment, and a brigade of Virginia 



JETHRO SUMNER 399 

militia under General Stevens. De Kalb's camp was established 
on Deep River, and Caswell moved with the North Carolina militia 
to Cheraw. Gates on the 25th of July reached De Kalb's camp, 
and, moving forward, on the 7th of August joined Caswell and 
met with disaster at Camden on the 15th of August. 

It is worthy of note that somewhat earlier General Lillington, 
in command of a brigade of militia in South Carolina, had called 
particular attention to the value of the services of Major Hall 
Dixon, of the Continental Line, who was with him; and in the 
Battle of Camden Major Dixon had command of some militia 
who covered themselves with glory. The advantage of thus em- 
ploying experienced Continental officers at this critical juncture 
was very apparent, and Governor Nash seems to have realized 
it. He called for a second draft of militia and formed a brigade 
of 1200 men, which he placed under the command of General 
Sumner, who moved to Salisbury and then to the south of Char- 
lotte. Gates was at that period reforming his Continentals at 
Hillsboro. Towards the end of September Comwallis took posses- 
sion of Charlotte, and Sumner fell back to McGoin's Creek, where 
early in October he was joined by General Butler's brigade and 
by General Jones's Halifax brigade. Perhaps at Gates's sugges- 
tion General Smallwood, who claimed credit for valuable service 
at Camden, and who was now the officer next in rank to General 
Gates, was appointed by the Legislature major-general and 
oifered the command of the North Carolina militia, and he ac- 
cepted the appointment. General Sumner was with his command 
on the Yadkin on the loth of October when General Davidson 
reported to him the defeat of Major Ferguson, and he transmitted 
the intelligence to General Gates. A few days later, however, 
General Smallwood arrived in his camp and took command. 
Comwallis having withdrawn from the State, it seems that the 
militia returned to their homes. Sumner felt keenly and resented 
Smallwood's appointment over him. On the 2d of December 
General Greene arrived at Charlotte, and superseding Gates, took 
command. He at once directed General Sumner, as the senior 
officer of the Continental Line in the State, to use renewed activity 



^ 



400 NORTH CAROLINA 

in reestablishing the North Carolina Continentals, and Sumner, 
ably aided by the other Continental officers in the State, was en- 
gaged in organizing the new troops and equipping them. Early 
in February, on the return to the State of Lord Cornwallis in pur- 
suit of Greene, Sumner tendered his services and those of all the 
Continental officers to the Governor and urged their employment. 

On the 27th of January, 1781, the Legislature met at Halifax. 
The Board of War was then discontinued and a Council-Extraor- 
dinary was substituted for it, the members being General Caswell^ 
Alexander Martin and Allen Jones. General Caswell was 
again appointed major-general and assigned to the command of 
the militia of the State. Towards the close of February Corn- 
wallis was at Hillsboro and Greene was in the hills of Orange 
awaiting reinforcements of militia to give battle. General Greene 
now directed General Sumner to tender again the services of the 
Continental officers to discipline and command the militia, and 
/ Governor Nash utilized some of the officers in that way, and 
Sumner hoped to have the command of a brigade. 

Indeed Colonel Alexander Martin, when at the head of the 
Board of War, had so employed some Continental officers; but 
for some reason General Caswell, who was now at the head of 
the Council-Extraordinary as well as in command of the militia, 
did not utilize these experienced soldiers in the hour of the State's 
great need. There was apparently some friction between Caswell 
and Sumner. 

After Cornwallis had marched from Wilmington to Virginia 
Sumner continued to make extraordinary exertions to form new 
Continental battalions, his camp being at the site of Oxford ; and 
at one time he had orders to lead what forces he had collected 
to the aid of Baron Steuben in Virginia; but later these orders 
were countermanded and about the middle of July, having re- 
ceived a supply of arms from Baron Steuben, among them 25a 
excellent muskets with bayonets, he marched with a brigade of 
1000 men, formed into three battalions, commanded by Colonel 
Ashe and Majors Armstrong and Blount, to reinforce Greene 
in South Carolina. At that time and for several months before 



JETHRO SUMNER 401 

the entire region from Guilford Court House to the ocean was 
the scene of a fierce warfare between the Tories and the patriots. 
Major Craig was in possession of Wilmington, and the Tory 
bands were often more powerful than the State forces combating 
them. Early in June Governor Nash had asked General Simmer 
to send some of his .Continentals into that region, but his orders 
from General Greene to hasten to his aid he considered too per- 
emptory for that, and he did not comply with the request. 

General Sumner having joined Greene towards the end of 
August, General Greene prepared for a conflict with the enemy, 
which occurred on the 8th of September at Eutaw Springs. This 
was one of the bloodiest battles of the war, and the North Caro- 
linians behaved nobly and suifered severely. General Sumner, 
his officers and men, indeed won great glory. Shortly after that 
battle General Sumner himself was directed to return to North 
Carolina and send forward to General Greene all the twelve 
months' men that could be raised and secure clothing and supplies 
for Greene's army, and he continued actively employed until 
peace was declared and the army disbanded. On the 23d of 
April, 1783, furloughs were granted to the North Carolina sol- 
diers and they returned to their homes, and General Sumner re- 
tired to his plantation in Warren County, near old Bute Court 
House. It was about that time apparently that he suifered a 
severe bereavement in the loss of his wife. Only once did he 
afterwards leave his privacy. On April 13, 1784, he presided over 
the North Carolina division of the Society of the Cincinnati. 

He died March 18, 1785, leaving three children, all minors. 
One of them, Jacky Sullivan, married Thomas Blount, a brother 
of Major Reading Blount, and eventually changed her name to 
Mary Sumner Blount. He left two sons, who died without issue. 
General Howe, General Sumner and General Rutherford were the 
three most useful military men furnished by North Carolina in 
the struggle for independence. 

S, A, Ashe. 





JOHN LOUIS TAYLOR 

^HE Supreme Court of North Carolina was or- 
ganized in its present form in the year 1818, 
and the first chief-justice of that tribunal was 
John Louis Taylor. This eminent jurist was 
born of Irish parentage in the city of London 
on March i, 1769. His father dying during 
his childhood, he remained under the care of his mother until he 
reached the age of twelve, when he came to America with 
James Taylor, an elder brother. In the same ship came 
Pierce Manning (whose daughter was afterward adopted by 
Taylor) and John Devereux, an ancestor of a well-known North 
Carolina family. 

With the assistance of his brother, young Taylor entered Wil- 
liam and Mary College in the State of Virginia, but left that insti- 
tution before graduating. Later coming to North Carolina, he en- 
tered upon the study of law without any instruction ; yet, despite 
this disadvantage, he had made such progress that he was licensed 
to practice before he became of age. He was sworn in before the 
County Court of Guilford in 1788, and before the Superior Court 
of Hillsboro District on April 11, 1789. He took up his residence 
in the town of Fayetteville ; and while still a very young man he 
was elected to represent that borough In the North Carolina House 
of Commons at the sessions of 1792, 1793 and 1794. At a subse- 



JOHN LOUIS TAYLOR 403 

quent period (late in 1706 or early in 1797) Mr. Taylor removed 
to New-Bem. 

While he remained at the bar, Taylor easily ranked with the 
first lawyers of North Carolina. Talents of a high order, which 
he possessed, were improved by education and self-culture; and 
as a forceful and convincing speaker he was equalled by few. He 
was also well versed in the classics as well as in the polite litera- 
ture of more modem times. All this, added to a handsome per- 
sonality, attractive and engaging manners, and a generous nature, 
made him one of the most popular men of his time. It was in 
1798 that he was elevated to the bench of Superior Court (then 
the supreme judicial tribunal of the State), and this post he oc- 
cupied until 1818, when a still higher honor fell to his lot. In 
1810, prior to the establishment of the present Supreme Court, it 
was deemed advisable to have a tribunal to fulfill the functions 
of a Court of Appeals. The Legislature, therefore, enacted that 
the Superior Court judges should meet in a body — should sit in 
banc, to use the old English phrase — and should have power to 
select one of their number as presiding justice. By common con- 
sent the latter honor was assigned to Judge Taylor. As already 
mentioned, the present Supreme Court of North Carolina was 
established in 1818. The first members of that tribunal were 
John Louis Taylor, chief justice; and Leonard Henderson and 
John Hall, associate justices. This court was first opened on 
January i, 1819. 

Chief Justice Taylor remained at the head of the Supreme Court 
until his death more than ten years later. Judge Taylor became 
a citizen of Raleigh about the year 181 1. His home was on Hills- 
boro Street in the house now occupied by Captain Samuel A. 
Ashe. This was built by him and afterward owned by 
Judge Gaston, who conveyed it to Judge Romulus M. Saunders. 

While Andrew Jackson was a practicing lawyer in North Caro- 
lina, prior to his removal to Tennessee, a strong friendship sprang 
up between him and Judge Taylor. In after years, when Jackson 
was a candidate for the office of President of the United States, 
Taylor voted for him, though perhaps not fully in accord with his 



404 NORTH CAROLINA 

political principles. After his elevation to the office of chief jus- 
tice, Mr. Taylor paid a visit to relatives in England; and while 
there a handsome miniature of him was painted. Both the Su- 
preme Court of the State and the Masonic Grand Lodge own oil 
portraits copied from this miniature. 

In April, 1828, Georgetown University, in the city of Washing- 
ton, honored Chief Justice Taylor with the degree of Doctor of 
Laws. 

Few men have ever lived in North Carolina who were more 
prominently identified with the Masonic fraternity than was 
Judge Taylor. He was deputy grand master from December 4, 
1799, till December 12, 1802; grand master from December 12, 
1802, till December 12, 1805; and again grand master from 
November 26, 18 14, till December 7, 1817. He was not a Mason 
merely in name, but was an active worker up to the time of his 
death ; and when his earthly career came to an end, Hiram Lodge, 
No. 40, in the city of Raleigh, laid his remains to rest with Masonic 
honors. In 1805 Francois Xavier Martin, of New-Bern, compiled a 
work entitled *'Ahiman Rezon and Masonic Ritual,'' which he dedi- 
cated to Grand Master Taylor "as a tribute of esteem for his amia- 
ble virtues, respect for his learning and talents, and fraternal grati- 
tude for the zeal and fidelity with which he presides in the chair." 
In this work is published (among other matter) a Masonic ad- 
dress which Grand Master Taylor delivered before the Grand 
Lodge of North Carolina at Raleigh in 1804. In the course of 
that address Taylor said : 

"The purest system of ethics does not recommend any virtues which 
are not inculcated by the principles of Masonry. If, unfortunately, its 
lessons have failed to produce their proper effect with some men; if a 
few unhappy Brethren continue to abandon themselves to vice and in- 
temperance, notwithstanding the instruction and correctives they have re- 
ceived, such examples are sincerely deplored by all real Masons. For they 
ardently desire that every Brother should exemplify in his conduct the 
tenets of his science, and they utterly disown all those in whom a long 
course of immorality has extinguished the hope of reformation." 

In the first volume of Devereux's Equity (i6th North Caro- 
lina Supreme Court Reports), page 309, is a memoir of Chief Jus- 



JOHN LOUIS TAYLOR 405 

tice Taylor, written shortly after his death, which has this to say 
of his career on the bench : 

"How he discharged his duties during the twenty years he administered 
justice on the circuit, it is impossible that the bar or the community can 
have forgotten. He was pre-eminently a safe judge. It was difficult to 
present a question for his determination upon which his reading had not 
stored up, and his memory did not present, some analogous case in which 
it had been settled by the sages of the law. And with him it was a re- 
ligious principle to abide by the landmarks, *stare decisis.' Uniting in 
an extraordinary degree suavity of manners with firmness of purpose, a 
heart tremblingly alive to every impulse of humanity with a deep-seated 
and reverential love of justice, the best feelings with an enlightened judg- 
ment, he made the law amiable in the sight of the people, inspired re- 
spect and affection for its institutions, and gained for its sentences a 
prompt and cheerful obedience. 

Of his opinions on the Supreme Bench the same writer says: 

"While all may be read with profit and are entitled to respect, 
there are many — very many — which may be regarded as models of legal 
investigation and judicial eloquence. There is, indeed, a charm in all 
his compositions, seldom to be found elsewhere, which has induced not 
a few to regret that the Chief Justice had not devoted himself entirely 
to a literary life. He would probably have proved one of the most elegant 
writers of his day. He who could render legal truth attractive could 
not fail to have recommended moral excellence in strains that would have 
found an echo in every heart." 

Chief Justice Taylor was author of a short biographical sketch 
of Associate Justice Alfred Moore, of the United States Supreme 
Court. This was re-published many years after Taylor's death in 
the North Carolina University Magazine for October, 1844. ^^ 
the same periodical for March, i860, is a sketch of the life of Tay- 
lor himself, written by Judge William H. Battle. Another notice 
of Taylor will be found in the North Carolina Supreme Court Re- 
ports, volume T07, page 985. 

In the Green Bag Magazine for October, 1892, Chief Justice 
Qark of the Supreme Court of North Carolina gives the follow- 
ing synopsis of the legal writings, etc., of Chief Justice Taylor: 

"In 1802 he published Taylor's Reports, which now form a part of the 
first volume of 'North Carolina Reports.' In 1814 he published the first 



4o6 NORTH CAROLINA 

volume of the 'North Carolina Law Repository/ and in 1816 the second. 
volume of the same, and in 1818 Taylor's *Term Reports.' These three 
volumes are now united in one, known as *4 North Carolina Reports.* 
As originally printed, the 'Repository* contained much interesting matter 
(other than decisions of the court) which has now been omitted in the re- 
print In 1817 he was appointed by the General Assembly jointly with 
Judge Henry Potter, of the United States District Court for North Caro- 
lina, to publish a revision of the statute law of the State. This revisal» 
known as 'Potter's Revisal,' came out in 1821. In 1825 Judge Taylor 
published a continuation of this work, including the Acts of 1825. This 
is known as 'Taylor's Revisal.' He also published a treatise on executors 
and administrators. He possessed a singular aptitude for literature, and 
would have excelled in composition if his 'jealous mistress,' the law, had 
given him opportunity. His elocution was the admiration of all who 
heard him. His style of writing is preserved to us in his opinions, and 
in beauty of diction they are not surpassed, if equalled, by any of his 
successors. Chief-Justice Taylor came to his post at forty-nine years of 
age, and during the ten years he presided in the new court his opinions 
form at once his judicial record and his lasting eulogy. His charge to 
the Grand Jury of Edgecombe in 181 7 is a model of style and subject mat- 
ter. It was published by request of the Grand Jury." 

Chief Justice Taylor was twice married. His first wife was 
Julia Rowan, and by her he had an only daughter, Julia Rowan 
Taylor, who married Major Junius Sneed, and was mother of 
Associate Justice John Louis Taylor Sneed, of the Supreme Court 
of Tennessee. The second wife of Chief Justice Taylor was 
Jane Gaston. By her he had an only son and namesake, who died 
unmarried, and an only daughter who became the wife of David E. 
Sumner, and left descendants. The second Mrs. Taylor was a 
sister of Judge William Gaston, and a daughter of Doctor Alex- 
ander Gaston, who was killed in the Revolution. Sketches of both 
of these gentlemen will be found elsewhere in the present work. 

The death of Chief Justice Taylor occurred on January 29, 

1829. His remains were interred on his premises in Raleigh, but 

later removed to the State plot in Oakwood Cemetery, where they 

now repose by the side of those of Chief Justice Pearson and other 

public servants, who now, after duty well done, rest from their 

labors. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 




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GEORGE WARREN THOMPSON 




[EORGE WARREN THOMPSON was born in 
Wake County, North Carolina, in the part now 
known as Barton Creek Township, and lived all 
his useful life of nearly eighty-seven years 
within five miles of his birthplace. He was 
bom December 31, 1804, and died December 7, 
1891. His ancestors were among the first white settlers of Wake 
County, and were a sturdy family of people. His father was 
Solomon Thompson and his mother Sarah Russ Thompson. 
Through his mother he was closely related to the late J. P. H. Russ, 
legislator. Secretary of State of North Carolina, who was the 
father of William M. Russ, some time mayor of the city of Raleigh 
and clerk of the Superior Court of Wake. He was one of four- 
teen children who lived to maturity. He was educated partly in 
the schools of his neighborhood, but they being of inferior char- 
acter, he may be said to have been self-educated. He began to 
support himself by teaching school before he was of age, and 
was preparing himself for a course in the State University, but his 
father having become involved on account of a security debt, he 
voluntarily used the money he had saved in relieving his father. 
This was an early evidence of his sense of duty, which was ever 
one of his marked characteristics. After teaching for a few years 
longer, he devoted himself to farming and merchandising; and 
by thrift and economy he became by the time he reached middle 



4o8 NORTH CAROLINA 

age one of the substantial and influential men of the county — so 
much so that in 1844 he was urged by the people to become a 
candidate for the State Senate. This was before nominating 
conventions were held by either the Democratic or Whig Party, 
being the parties in which the voters of the State were then di- 
vided ; though the Whigs often called the Democrats Loco-focos. 
Candidates announced their candidacy in the most effective way 
they could, and the following paragraph is to be found in the 
Raleigh Register, a Whig paper, of May 28, 1844: 

*'We learn that several of the candidates for seats in the Legislature pre- 
sented themselves before the Grand Jury of this county last week, it being 
that of our County Court, and declared themselves as such. The gentle- 
men composing the tickets are: Charles Manly (Whig) and George W. 
Thompson (Loco) for the Senate. For the House of Commons, Henry 
W. Miller, Samuel P. Norris and Charles L. Hinton (Whigs) ; James B. 
Morgan, Gaston H. Wilder and James B. Shepard (Locos). . . ." 

At that time Charles Manly, a man of decided ability, and after- 
ward governor of the State, was, with the probable exception of 
Weston R. Gales, then editor of the Register, the most popular 
Whig in the county, and the parties were not far from evenly di- 
vided, but Mr. Thompson was elected by a safe majority. He was 
re-elected by increasing majorities in 1846 and 1848, his opponents 
being respectively Samuel P. Norris and Edward Hall, both good 
men and with influential connections in the county. At that time 
one of the qualifications of a senator was that he should own 
300 acres of land, and of a voter for the Senate that he should own 
50 acres of land. During the campaign of 1848 there was pro- 
posed an amendment to the Constitution by the legislative mode, 
to provide for "free suffrage" for the Senate and Mr. Thompson 
announced himself as' favoring it; though the amendment was not 
perfected until nearly ten years later. He was a Jeflfersonian 
Democrat, while his father had been a Federalist and was a Whig. 
It is said that when he first became a candidate, the trend of affairs 
and his study of the constitutional history of the country having 
convinced him that it was his duty to ally himself with the Pemo- 
cratic Party, he told his father and a brother that he wished them 



GEORGE WARREN THOMPSON 409 

to vote for their principles, and they did so, casting their ballots 
for his opponent. 

After his third term of service in the Senate, Mr. Thomp- 
son retired from public life and devoted himself to his in- 
creasing business. In or about 1854 the Democratic Party 
in the district nominated him for a seat in the national 
House of Representatives ; but he declined and suggested for the 
nomination the name of L. O'B. Branch, who had recently moved 
back to North Carolina from Florida and afterward became a dis- 
tinguished Confederate general and was killed at Sharpsburg. He 
would have been elected, as Mr. Branch was, but he preferred 
life at home and among his neighbors to that in Washington City. 

In 1858 the late Major William A. Bledsoe, a popular Democrat, 
led a revolt from his party, and was supported by the Whigs and 
members of the New American Party on an issue of ad valorem 
taxation. The Democratic Convention called Mr. Thompson from 
his retirement by nominating him as Major Bledsoe's opponent. 
Able and active men were nominated for the House on both sides. 
There was a very spirited campaign, and Mr. Thompson was de- 
feated by a very close vote. He could not be induced again to 
enter public life. In 1871 he was nominated by the Conservative 
Democratic Party with ex-Governor Thomas Bragg and 
Honorable Daniel M. Barringer for a seat in a Constitutional Con- 
vention, the vote upon the calling of which was to be taken on 
April 30, 1871 ; but he declined the nomination. To the last, how- 
ever, he took an interest in public affairs, and exerted a wholesome 
influence for Democracy in his section of the county. During the 
war between the States he gave a cordial support to the cause of 
the South, and all three of his sons were volunteers in the Con- 
federate army. His conduct and counsel during the war and the 
period of reconstruction after it were dignified and conservative. 
He never lost courage or hope that things would come out right 
in the end. Especially was his counsel deemed invaluable in the 
uncertain period which followed the overthrow of the Confederacy, 
when because of new conditions never before experienced, all 
public affairs and private matters were involved in the utmost con- 



4IO NORTH CAROLINA 

fusion. At that time Mr. Thompson's advice was sought by lead- 
ing men even in distant parts of the State, and his influence was 
exerted to the benefit and advantage of the people of the State. 
His integrity and prudence in business and his kindness as a neigh- 
bor caused his services to be sought before and during the war 
as executor, guardian, etc., and these fiduciary relations during 
the "chaotic times" which followed gave him much concern. Dur- 
ing the last year of the war, when the value of Confederate money 
had sunk to 25 or 50 to i, while he never refused to take the de- 
preciated currency in payment of his own debts, he took and fol- 
lowed the advice of counsel about declining to accept it in dis- 
charge of claims he held as executor or guardian. Nor did the de- 
nunciation of some extreme Confederates move him to violate 
his duty. His settlement of complicated estates, after the ma- 
chinery of the courts was running smoothly, was satisfactory to 
all concerned. 

Mr. Thompson was a great sufferer from facial neuralgia for 
many years before his death, and he could frequently be seen driv- 
ing to town, in inclement weather, twelve or fifteen miles, with a 
thick green veil over his face ; and the writer whom he honored 
with his friendship could not but admire the patience with which 
he bore his suffering. Never did a complaint or murmur escape his 
lips. 

He was a member of the Missionary Baptist Church for over 
sixty years before his death, and his consistent conduct during 
all these years was testimony of his faithfulness to his religion. 

Firm in his own faith, he was ever tolerant of the religious opin- 
ions of others. In manners, while approachable to all, he wias 
dignified and courteous, ever a gentleman of the old school. As a 
conversationalist he was, as the result of reading, experience and 
accurate observation, interesting and instructive. As a public 
speaker he was easy, self-possessed, logical and accurate and edify- 
ing in his statement of facts and principles. The arts of the dema- 
gogue he was too honest and true to practice. 

He was a member of the first Board of Trustees of Wake Forest 
College and was the last survivor but one of that board. He con- 



GEORGE WARREN THOMPSON 411 

tinued to be a member, apd always a regular attendant at its meet- 
ings until the last. 

Mr. Thompson married Miss Frances Crenshaw, daughter of 
William Crenshaw and a sister of the venerable Major John M. 
Crenshaw of Wake County. She was ever a helpmeet to him and 
survived him a few years. They had three sons and a daughter, 
who lived to maturity. Their son William Marcellus was killed 
at Malvern Hill, having gone into the army as a lieutenant of the 
Oak City Guards. Their son Henry A. died a few years after 
the war from disease contracted by exposure in the war. Their 
son A. Judson became a physician, and died a few years since in 
Moore County, respected by the community in which he lived for 
his skill in his profession and his urbanity, in which he followed 
the example of his father. The only daughter, Sarah Frances, 
is the wife of Mr. Samuel T. Morgan, who was raised her neigh- 
bor in Wake County, but is now the president of the Virginia- 
Carolina Chemical Company and resides in Richmond, Virginia. 

Among the brothers of Mr. Thompson was Michael Thompson, 
Esquire, near his own age, who lived in his immediate vicinity, 
and between them there was always a most affectionate and 
brotherly sympathy and association. Michael Thompson was one 
of the most esteemed citizens of the county, a magistrate, and 
long a member of the Special Court of the county. He was the 
father of John W. Thompson, Esquire, once clerk of the Su- 
perior Court of Wake County, and of Doctor S. W. Thompson, 
who also enjoyed the esteem of all who knew him. 

The influence of the life of George W. Thompson was potent 
for good, and for good not only in his generation ; and it is well 
that his memory should be preserved in a biog^phy of leading 
North Carolinians. He truly was worthy of imitation. 

R. H. Battle. 




LEONARD CHARLES VAN NOPPEN 




!HE people of Holland, the true Dutch, are of 
peculiar interest to us; not only because they 
are our nearest kinsmen, but also because of 
their part in the development of American in- 
stitutions. The race that produced William the 
Silent, Thomas a Kempis, Grotius, Erasmus, 
Vondel and Rembrandt stands secure in the annals of fame. To 
be of such descent is a birthright of which one may well be proud. 
The subject of this biography was bom in Zeeland, the most 
southern province of the Netherlands, January 8, 1868. His Dutch 
lineage was distinctly colored by that French Huguenot stream 
which, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, poured like a 
flood into that freedom-loving land. Only here, in that age of 
persecution, was refuge from oppression, only here was security 
and justice. Holland had become the guardian of the world's 
conscience. 

The parents of our subject, Cornelius Marinus van Noppen and 
Johanna Maria Cappon, with their three young children, Leonard^ 
Charles and John, came to America in 1874, when Leonard, the 
eldest, was six years old. After a three years' residence in Michi- 
gan, they settled on a plantation near Greensboro, North Carolina. 
The faithful and industrious father, intelligent, brilliant and 
versatile, after an unsuccessful attempt at farming, for which by 
nature and by training he was altogether unfitted, found employ- 
ment more to his liking as a contractor in Durham. Here he be- 





'^ 







\ULi;S \'AX NOPI'RN 

• '« "i ll'linj.l, *h.c tiTie r)r.tch, are ot 

-r ''•■ . ' -I to lis; n-i (.r.l\ l>'H:ii:.^e the> 

: '•:'•-! kinsir.«Mi, ' -it ■dl.-'O bcoaiisc of 

' • • 1 ^ ilie (lc\c] •, " 1 ♦ «)f Aj^K-ri/aii in- 

'l lie nicf til It ■ ■ u «"1 W'ilh.iin tlu^ 

. :.- vvts A Kc- Miins. Krasnni^, 

' I'l.^ secure in t: < •• nals ('f far.ic. To 

• ; ri.:^"ht nf ubich .>'a: v. s' \veil be ]>roii<l. 

'•' '. i.iiib\' was bi-rn \n /. .hkI tbe mest 

li'e ScV" •; !'• is, j:lTn.aT^• >'. i.'>f)8. ^ li> Dutcb 

• . ti\- ool' •!.'•.". by t'lat I-'n::- b blu«^iien(jt stream 

revoc.ith r. .^' i.'iv' lulbi <•! .''antes. |>(.iire<l bbe a 

• Iret^'i >. • .11..^^ biiid. < " ^■ Iieie, in tb.M ac^a^ of 

•as i< !" .• t'^o'ii nppie^^i •'. ' i:'\ b-Te was security 

Ib)ihr; I ':ail bec'tine li-" i.;T.' '.'. .r. »-.i tbie worbTs 



••-its r>f ( "T subject. C;.vk!;i)« > ' ^ \ .u X»>i>|>en aui! 

\'aria ( .< p«)n. witb tbv ^r ib-(- \- -• .; • :!.lren. Leon.'^nb 

. n<l b'lui. came to \inerica i" ;\ i, 'vb-n Leonard, tbe 

• as six ycrs (»l<b At*' r a ibr' <■- ; . .i: >. r<- ^'Mt nee in M^'cbi- 

.> '- settir'l Mil a jjlanlation i> ;.r i\v'^ 'i'.!^": ,, Xortb CaroHna. 

Kiit^'ful a'al iti-b'stricnis t..tber, iiit'-b'-.:' :r. bribiant and 

• ;• . aft. -I an iinsuccesstr.l attei.pt at t'.un '-r'-. b t w^nch by 

'- anl by t'^.iininir ^o uas altoQxlber ;'.-.^"\t b found cmnb>y- 

ni'»ic *A) bas bikini; as a C(^ntractor in iJurbani. Here he be- 




c^^J'---*'--^---'— <«---i--JM \rcu^ ^o^t-Ajuu.-^ 



LEONARD CHARLES VAN NOPPEN 413 

came much esteemed and was on the bright road lo prosperity 
when, in 1887, at the age of forty-seven, he was killed in an acci- 
dent. Proud of his American citizenship, he strove in every way 
to be worthy of his adopted country. Also he labored assiduously 
for the education of his children, whose aspirations he ever en- 
couraged. 

The sweet wife and affectionate mother, amiable, home-loving 
and charitable, had the grace and charm of the French tempera- 
ment. Unhappily she lived only a few months after the death of 
her husband. Leonard inherits her artistic nature and quick sensi- 
bility. 

Members of both families have for generations been prominent 
in the professions. Three are to-day clergymen in the Established 
Church of Holland, and only recently a cousin. Doctor Marinus 
van Melle, was chosen, at the age of twenty-eight. Professor of 
Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam, the youngest man 
ever to achieve that distinction. A paternal grandfather accom^ 
panied Napoleon to Moscow. Another ancestor. Admiral Jose 
de Moor, who prevented, by his defeat of Spinola, the junction 
of the united fleets with the army of Alexander of Parma, was 
an important factor in the annihilation of the Spanish Armada. 
On the maternal side the de Bois connection was for several hun- 
dred years one of the wealthiest and most influential families of 
Flanders. 

During their first years in North Carolina this interesting 
household, then located near New Garden, was brought into close 
association with the Society of Friends, of which both parents be- 
came members, while the three sons received their academic train- 
ing at what was then New Garden Boarding School. 

After the death of their father, whose labors they assisted for 
several years with becoming industry, Leonard and Charles re- 
turned to Friends' School, now become Guilford College, where 
Leonard took the degree of A.B. in 1890. Later he continued his 
studies in literature at the University of North Carolina, where 
he was graduated B.Litt. in 1892. 

At Chapel Hill he had the inspiration of the larger circle and 



414 NORTH CAROLINA 

made a splendid record as a student. Quickened by his environ- 
ment, encouraged by his teachers and kindled by the example of 
his friend, Henry J. Stockard, he gave evidence of his latent 
powers by some vivid poetical compositions. Furthermore he 
used his pen with vigor and effectiveness as the editor of 
The White and Blue, a paper established by him and others in 
opposition to the secret fraternities, which they believed had en- 
croached upon the rights of the student body. 

In 1893 he took his A.M. at Haverford College, Pennsylvania. 
Here he had the rare advantage of study under that eminent 
scholar. Doctor Francis B. Gummere. The next Fall he returned 
to Chapel Hill, where he took the law course under Doctor John 
Manning and Chief Justice Shepherd. He successfully passed 
the examination before the Supreme Court, and in 1894 received 
his license to practice. 

The literary instinct, however, soon revived, and in 1895, acting 
on a sudden inpulse, he went to Holland to study the literature 
of his forbears. 

During the two years of his first visit to Holland, he not only 
learned to speak the language fluently, but also he achieved his 
metrical version of Vondel's "Lucifer," the prototype of "Paradise 
Lost." This translation appeared in 1898 and was hailed by the 
scholars of Europe and of America as a masterpiece. Doctor 
Gerard Kalff, Professor of Dutch Literature at the University of 
Utrecht, said of it : "The spirit and character of Vondel's tragedy 
are felt, understood, and interpreted in a remarkable manner ; and 
an extraordinarily difficult task has been magnificently done." 
Doctor Jan Ten Brink, professor at Leyden, was not less en- 
thusiastic. Doctor Francis Gummere said it "filled a gap in the 
Miltonic criticism." Professor Kittredge of Harvard and 
Doctor William H. Carpenter of Columbia bore witness to its dis- 
tinction and general excellence. Doctor C. Alphonso Smith in 
Modern Language Notes praised its metrical effects and its fidel- 
ity; while Mayo W. Hazeltine devoted five columns of the New 
York Sunday Sun to a discussion of its merits, which, he con- 
cluded, were "not unworthy of the great original." Many English 



LEONARD CHARLES VAN NOPPEN 415 

reviews, furthermore, among others London Literature and The 
Athenaeum, acclaimed it as an event of unusual significance. 

Nor was there lack of interest among the literati. Ed- 
mund Gosse, Doctor Henry Van Dyke, Joel Benton, Vance Thomp- 
son, George Henry Payne, James Huneker, Walter Blackburn 
Harte, Henry J. Stockard, E. C. Stedman and Edwin Markham 
all expressed their appreciation of its poetic value. Richard Wat- 
son Gilder said it was "the most notable literary performance of 
a decade.*' To this chorus of praise also the distinguished Dutch 
poets Nicholaas Beets, Albert Verwey, Frederic van Eeden and 
A. T. A. He}ting added eloquent tributes. 

To illustrate the ease and the vigor of the style, we give one 
of the speeches of Lucifer : 

"Now swear I by my crown, upon this chance 
To venture all, to raise ray seat amid 
The firmament, the spheres, the splendor of 
The stars above. The Heaven of Heavens shall then 
My palace be, the rainbow be my throne, 
The starry vast, ray court; while, down beneath, 
The Earth shall be ray footstool and support. 
I shall, then swiftly drawn through air and light, 
High-seated on a chariot of cloud. 
With lightning stroke and thunder grind to dust 
Whate'er above, around, below, doth us 
Oppose, were it God's Marshal grand himself. 
Yea, ere we yield, these empyrean vaults, 
Proud in their towering masonry, shall burst 
With all their airy arches and dissolve 
Before our eyes: this huge and joint-racked earth, 
Like a misshapen monster, lifeless lie; 
This wondrous universe to chaos fall. 
And to its primal desolation change. 
Who dares, who dares defy great Lucifer?" 

In consequence of this work the young author was selected to 
deliver four courses of lectures on Dutch literature at Columbia 
University. Recommended by W. D. Howells, he gave also two 
courses at the Lowell Institute in Boston, and later lectured at 
Princeton, at the Brooklyn Institute, and elsewhere. 



4i6 NORTH CAROLINA 

When not engaged in lecturing at the American universities, lie 
continued his studies at Leiden and at Utrecht. And he is to-day 
regarded not only as the first authority on the sources of Milton, 
but also as the only American specialist in Dutch literature. 

Scholarship, however, has not smothered his creative instincts. 
He has written some significant poems; and is ranked with the 
best of our younger poets. 

Here is a sonnet from The Century entitled "Chillon" : 

CHILLON 
"I stand within the grandeur-girdled room 
Where Bonnivard heard the dull oozing hours 
Drip from his stagnant life; here where the powers 
Of shuddering death from shadows hewed a tomb. 
I feel the horrors crawling through the gloom, 
And Judgment frowns, and trembling Conscience cowers. 
Here broods the Night, and HelFs grim terror lowers, 
And all the air is dread with coming doom. 
The mountains o'er these dungeons of despair 
For ages kept their silent sentiiiel, 
Guarding the ghastly secret of the waves. 
Then Byron woke the spectres slumbering there: 
Once more is heard the midnight-shivering bell. 
And the dumb waters are alive with speaking graves!" 

The following sonnet appeared in Tom Watson's Magazine: 

MARTYRDOM 
"The world cries loud for blood ; for never grew 
One saving truth that blossomed, man to bless. 
That withered not in barren loneliness. 
Till watered by the sacrificial dew. 
Behold the prophets stoned — the while they blew 
A warning blast — the sad immortal guess 
Of Socrates — the thorn-crowned lowliness 
Of Christ! And that black cross our Lincoln knew! 

'Tis only through the whirlwind and the storm 

That man can ever reach his starry goal. 

Some one must bleed or else the world will die! 

Upon the flaring altar of reform 

Some heart lies quivering ever. To what soul 

That dares be true, comes not the martyr's agony?" 



LEONARD CHARLES VAN NOPPEN 417 

The San Francisco earthquake evoked 

A SUPPLICATION 
"Prostrate before the triumph of Thy Face, 
O Lord of Desolations, millions fall: 
Anguish is all their glory, and a pall 
Blots out the sun; and, humbled to their base, 
The groaning mountains cower into disgrace! 
Death walks the world, and doomed cities call 
Out of the flame and sink to silence, all, 
Granite at dawn, crushed by some mighty mace! 
The planet trembles and her quiet dead 
Feed the loud greed of the abysmal grave; 
And all our pride is shaken into dust 
Great God of Judgment, be Thou more than just 
Be merciful, and quench Thy lightnings dread; 
Revoke Thy thousand thunders, save, O save !" 

A pfopos of the Russian massacres are these daring lines : 
ANSWER, O RUSSIA! 
"Answer, O Russia! that appealing blood, 
That human wine from living chalice shed, 
Whereof made drunken, thy oppressors dread, 
Flush to make feast on yet a dearer food. 
Let from thy broken heart no Neva flood 
Leap to a silent sea. O heed, instead. 
That crimson cry, and answer red with red — 
With thunders like the throbbing heart of God! 

"Answer with death that ancient Wrong and dark! 
Dethrone one tyrant that a million thrones 
Rise regnant from his mighty ruin. Hark! 
The Judgment, and the knell of midnight hour 
Dooms! To the Morning from that mist of moans 
The Age of Freedom passes, shod with power!" 

Not without interest are these lines on Napoleon, entitled 
THE EXILE 
"Lo! on a sudden island in the dark. 
Behold, encircled by a sea of death. 
Lone in a bleak and black futurity, 
The figure of an exile, stern and proud: — 
Some king of triumphs by a star betrayed ! 
Who, chafing at his doom inglorious. 



4i8 • NORTH CAROLINA 



Long with a tiger-pacing peacelessness 

Paves the bare edges of a brine-burnt coast: — 

One that pavilioned in august renown 

Once arrogantly summoned to Assize 

Earth's aged potentates — all throned Powers 

Between the far Antipodean Poles; — 

One that in midnight Councils like the moon 

Rose but to rule, and awed the ancient men ; 

Who, monarch of the moment, could achieve 

Ages of battle by his angry brows! 

Who, wilful, in his mad ambition, wont 

To juggle with the starry dice of fate, 

Made splendid hazard and to win the world 

Threw in his soul, to tilt the even scales! — 

One like a lion in the wilds of war. 

Whose look was like the lion's when he roars; 

Who in the sessions of the peers of peace 

The Prince stood of the proudest; who, self-crowned, 

The Pontiff of a million destinies. 

Armed with a thousand armies, poising dread 

His clouded threat of many thunders, like 

Some mitred moon stood plotting the eclipse 

Of hoary empires, — then from zenith pride 

Plunged, like a comet, down the drowning night, 

Dragging to darkness all his bright dream world!" 

Mr. Van Noppen's metrical version of Venders '*Samson/' the 
source of Milton's "Samson Agonistes," soon to appear, will be 
published with critical addenda suited to the needs of the class- 
room. According to scholars, it promises to revolutionize the 
study of Milton. The "Lucifer" was inscribed to the author's 
brother Charles, whose timely aid made the effort possible; and 
this volume will be dedicated to Mr. George W. Watts of Durham, 
without whose generous assistance this exhaustive study could 
not have been continued. Basing his scheme to some extent upon 
the plot of Vondel's play, Mr. Van Noppen also has written 
"''Samson : A Drama of Revolution." From this original tragedy, 
symbolistic of the triumph of truth and of labor, we cull a few 
passages : Chorus. 

"But how fell Samson, how did Samson die? 
What mighty bolt laid low that mighty oak?" 



LEONARD CHARLES VAN NOPPEN 419 

Messenger 

"It seems some falling pillar, with no bruise 
Crazing his bosom, brought forgetfulness ; — 
Yea, like a miracle of mother hands 
Pitied his tears and hushed his weeping heart, 
And so delivered him from life of dole. 
Thus he. our foe, magnificently died, 
Despite his humbled state, died like a king! 
And from the dark his tall star-statured soul 
Crashed, like a comet, through the gates of night, 
Dragging a shining sorrow after him! 
And still he lords the scene, who long against 
That armied menace stood antagonist. 
A tower of blindness in a sea of eyes! 
King of a troop of thunders, lord of dooms, 
Hurler of sudden deat]i ! Who with one swift — 
One fierce, terrific wrench, with might tremendous, 
Buried a nation, shook a kingdom down ; 
Who in that sea of triumph like a tower 
Fell, ruin rippling from him to the rim! 
So with one blow a bannered host he slew 
And like no mortal blotted out the sun; — 
So wrought his vengeance throughly, emperor 
Of desolations, which he rules in death; 
And like a god's his Name walks down the years !" 

Chorus 
"His words were princes, but his deeds are kings!" 

A PROPHECY OF THE CHRIST 

"Now comes a silence as of brooding love 
And there is hush, as if the winds held breath, 
As if a whisper moved around the world. 
Mothering closely a most holy Name: — 
All other names forgotten in that Name! 
Then all the tongues that bode of times to come 
Unflint that frozen flame of prophecy 
And, blazing into royal rapture, make 
Annunciation of a King of Kings! 
And all the maiden Silences that pause, 
Conscious of unapparent conqueror. 
Unveil their hearts and blush into one Name ! 



420 NORTH CAROLINA 

And now the soothsayers, the sages gray 

And miracle-commanding magi: these, 

And the shrill bards of battle, clear their gaze, — 

Beholding all, mid pealing jubilee, 

'Mid singing silver and the laugh of gold. 

The advent of a Triumph through the air. 

So, seeing, tremble, seeing, are amazed, 

Awed into voicelessness, previsioning 

One coming from the Country of the Soul, 

Godly of mien, grave, noble and benign. 

Throned upon music: One whose lifted orbs 

Are shining prophecies! Upon whose brow. 

Haloed with brightness, like a rainbow broods 

Beautiful benediction I And He seems 

Exceeding lovely, altogether fair. 

Most joyous-virginal, exhaling youth 

Immortal: One undimmed by dying years. 

With Face too fair to die! A Presence mild, 

Pure as the dew on lilies, white as dawn, 

Arrayed in resurrections like the sun! — 

A King of Mercies burning through the dark, 

Bowered in buds that break in roses, blooms 

Like wonderful, like world-devoted wounds I 

And round His head, a mystic aureole; 

And in His eyes the after-glow of dreams: — 

Such dreams as angels dream that sleep in God 

And waken, praising — wonder in their song!*' 

This is from a passage devoted to 

THE MILLENNIUM 

"And He shall build the Right upon a Rock, 
Wrestle with ancient Wrong and overthrow 
The triumphs of Untruth, shall banish cloud, 
Found chanting temples open to the Light 
And shall restore, like peace that follows storm, 
Beautiful Sabbath, tracing on the sky 
The Rainbow as His arch memorial! 
And He shall guide the erring heart and be 
The shining pilot of the utter lost. 
And surely to the Sun of Suns shall lead 
The long night-marches of humanity! 
Yea. through the midnight like a spirit-moon, 
Over earth's dim-communing multitudes, 



LEONARD CHARLES VAN NOPPEN 421 

Brightly shall walk the darkness, leading up 
All tides of meditation into God! 
Then after time's dark anguish, after all 
The darts of death are showered, He shall rise 
Rejoicing, crowned with sudden resurrections, 
A mighty Morning, robed with rising suns; — 
Who, shepherding salvations to the dawn, 
Joyfully sings, and lifts his gladness high. 
Leading like lambs His white millenniums!" 

It IS needless to comment upon such work. It speaks for itself. 

While in Holland Mr. Van Noppen rendered valuable assistance 
to the Boer cause. Often consulted by the various leaders to de- 
vise means and methods to prolong the campaign, he carried the 
propaganda into America. He made the English version of 
President Stein's Independence Proclamation which, transmitted 
to the English Government, severed the relations of the Orange 
Free State with the British Empire and was received as a declara- 
tion of war. Afterward, in Paris, he met Kruger and Leyds, and 
on his return to Holland assisted the Boer Press Bureau at 
Dordrecht. 

At Jamestown, New York, September 28, 1902, Mr. Van Noppen 
was married to Adah Maude Stanton Becker, a connection of the 
family that gave two generals to the War of 181 2, and later Lin- 
coln's Secretary of War. He lives at present at Westerleigh, 
Staten Island. He has a warm and grateful memory of His friends 
in North Carolina, and his new friendships do not weaken the 
grasp on his heart of those sacred old associations. 

- Thomas Hume. 






HENDERSON WALKER 

[ENDERSON WALKER, President of the Pro- 
Wncial Council of North Carolina and later 
Governor of the colony, was bom in the year 
1660. He appears to have come into the colony 
about 1682, just after he became of age. By 
profession he was a lawyer. **In 1695," says 
iawkSj ''the records of the court show that he fell under the dis- 
pleasure of the judges for some act of contempt, and he was pro- 
hibited from appearing professionally before them. He probably 
purged himself of the contempt very soon, as in October of the 
same year he was sworn in as Attorney-General." Walker soon 
became a member of the Council, and on March 17, 1699, was 
commissioned (together with Daniel Akehurst) to act in con- 
junction with representatives from Virginia in running the boun- 
dary between the two colonies. For years this boundary was a 
subject of dispute, and it was not settled definitely until a long 
time thereafter. 

For several years Mr. Walker was one of the justices of the 
General Court of the province. The original minute-book of this 
tribunal is now in the office of the Secretary of State, at Raleigh. 
Upon the death of Governor John Harvey, on July 3, 1699^ 
Walker was chosen his successor, and presided over the govern- 
ment of the colony until his death. 

At first governors were appointed for the county of Albemarle^ 



HENDERSON WALKER 423 

but about 1689 Philip Ludwell was appointed Governor of "that 
part of Carolina that lies north and east of Cape Fear," and he 
appointed a lieutenant-governor for North Carolina. Thomas 
Harvey was Deputy-Governor of North Carolina under Governor 
Archdale from 1694 and until his death, and then Henderson 
Walker, as President of the Council, succeeded to the admin- 
istration ; and during the decade the colony was under their rule 
there was contentment, quiet, progress and development. They 
were among the principal inhabitants, and promoted the interests 
of the people. 

In his History of North Carolina (Vol. 2, p. 502), Doctor 
Hawks sums up the character of Governor Walker and the merits 
of his administration in the following language: 

"The character of Henderson Walker deservedly stood high. Without 
much brilliancy, he possessed a sound mind, and was not unskilled in his 
profession. Naturally amiable, he was conscientiously religious; and few 
of those occupying elevated positions in his day did more than he did to 
obtain and perpetuate in Albemarle the benefits of Christianity. ... It 
was during the administration of Walker that a very important change was 
made in the judiciary. Up to this time, the General Court — ^the highest 
tribunal in the province — had been held by the acting governor, the dep- 
uties of the Lords Proprietors, and two assistants. In addition to the 
fact that the judges were much too numerous (two more would have been 
enough for a jury), there was the greater evil arising from the circum- 
stance that there was never any security to the people that a majority of 
the court would know anything about the law, for they were not trained 
to the profession. ... To remedy this evil, the Proprietors (notwith- 
standing Chalmers says they took no notice of Albemarle for seven years) 
appear to have issued a commission appointing five justices of the Supreme 
Court, two of whom were named of the quorum, and the presence of one, 
of which two was necessary to constitute a court.*' 

To the above observations Doctor Hawks adds the remark : 

"Walker's rule was exceedingly mild and judicious, if we may judge 
from the testimony of contemporaries, and the favorable report he left 
behind him." 

In a list of American governors, with the manner of the election 
of each, made about the year 1700, we find this entry : 



424 NORTH CAROLINA 

"Henderson Walker, Governor of North Carolina, chosen by the Coun- 
cil only, in ye room of Thomas Harvey, deceased." 

In his religious tenets Governor Walker was an adherent of the 
Church of England, and was elected one of the vestrymen of 
Chowan Precinct in 1701. The vestry of which he was a member 
gave a contract in November, 1701, for putting up a church 
building. Thus was founded St. Paul's Parish, at Edenton, 
though the present house of worship there is of more recent 
construction. In a letter dated October 21, 1703, and addressed 
to the Bishop of London, Governor Walker gives some interesting 
information concerning the condition of affairs in Albemarle, and 
incidentally mentions some important points in the history of 
the colony. He says: **We have been settled near fifty years 
in this place," which would make the original settlement some- 
what earlier than 1660; and, 'T may justly say most part of 
twenty-one years, in my own knowledge, without priest or altar; 
and before that time, according to all that appears to me, much 
worse. George Fox some years ago came into these parts, and, by 
strange infatuations, did infuse the Quakers' principles into some 
small number of the people, which did and hath continued to grow 
every since very numerous, by reason of their yearly sending in 
men to encourage and exhort them to their wicked principles." 

From this statement it appears that there were no Quakers 
to speak of among the first settlers, but that the Quaker element 
had its rise about the time of Fox's visit, in 1672, some twelve 
years after the settlement. 

Governor Walker continues, and says that "some time about 
four years ago" (1699) Doctor Bray sent to Albemarle Mr. Daniel 
Brett, a minister appointed to this place, who was the first minister 
of the Church of England to come to Albemarle. "We did about 
this time two years, with a great deal of care and management, 
get an Assembly, and we passed an act for building of churches 
and establishing a maintenance for a minister among us ; and in 
pursuance thereto we have built one church, and there are two 
more agoing forward." But up to that time that act had not been 
ratified by the Lords Proprietors, and Governor Walker urged 



HENDERSON WALKER 425 

the bishop to have it ratified and "to send some worthy good man 
among us to regain the flock and so perfect us in our duty to 
God." 

Governor Walker married Ann Lillington, a daughter of 
Major Alexander Lillington. After Walker's death this lady 
became the wife of Edward Moseley, one of North Carolina's 
most noted colonists. 

Governor Walker died April 14, 1704, and was first buried 
five miles below Edenton, but recently his remains have been 
removed to the burial ground of St. Paul's Church, in Edenton. 
Of this parish, as has been noted, he was a vestryman. His epi- 
taph refers to him as one "during whose administration the prov- 
ince enjoved that tranquillity which it is to be wished it may 
never want." 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 






WILLIAM HENRY WATKINS 

^HE writer hesitates to trust himself with pen 
in the portrayal of the character of the Southern 
boy who, reared in the love of the Union and in 
loyal respect for its flag, was required by loy- 
alty to his State to renounce such allegiance 
and to pledge his life and his all in the titanic 
struggle against that flag for the defense of his home, his altar and 
his fireside. The ordeal confronting the Southern boy in 1861, 
in the glow of the first blush of his blooming manhood and in the 
early pride of his conscious strength, was then and will ever be 
one of pathetic interest and tender, touching memory. To g'ive 
freely of his blood — to give cheerfully four of the choicest years 
of his life — and to give gladly his- inheritance, his hard earnings 
and his all, in that fratricidal conflict of fire and blood and death 
in the war between the States — without reward or the hope of it — 
must ever and forever form a picture around which shall gather 
and cluster and linger the halo of our warmest admiration and ten- 
derest aflfections. It was the supreme test of every fiber of man- 
hood. Under the awful test the flower of Southern manhood 
reached full bloom. 

There were heroes in those days. Many passed with Jackson, 
Hill, Pender, Pettigrew, Ramseur and other matchless com- 
manders across the river and now "rest under the shade of the 
trees." Others survived to witness and repair the wreck of for- 
tune — the blight of home and the carnage of death on every hand. 




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WILLIAM HENRY WATKINS 427 

It is of one of these we write, and his unstained name is 
William Henry Watkins. The name is Welsh. The earliest 
known ancestor was James Watkins, who came from Wales to 
this country more than two centuries ago. Four other ancestors 
on the paternal side were Captain Carraway Watkins, of Mary- 
land; Lieutenant Watkins, of Massachusetts; William Watkins, 
of Virginia, and Captain Cassaday Watkins, who served with dis- 
tinction in the war of the Revolution. The last named won more 
distinction than any other member of the family in that war and 
was afterward a member of the Cincinnati Society. 

The name of the father of william Henry was Culpepper Wat- 
kins, who was a farmer and lived in the county of Stanly, North 
Carolina, on January 5, 1839, where and when the subject of this 
sketch was bom. The name of his mother was Ann Marshall 
Tomlinson, whose ancestry has been traced back to Captain John 
Dejamette, who fought under General Marion of South Caro- 
lina. The Dejamettes were Huguenots, of the best blood of 
France. The line extends down through the Tomlinsons, the 
Covingtons and the Marshalls — the best families of North Caro- 
lina and Virginia. The great grandfather on the maternal side 
was James Marshall, whose mother was Mary Malone. He mar- 
ried Miss Ann Harrison, sister to William Henry Harrison, whose 
name has been preserved in all succeeding families. It is to be 
observed, too, that the Marshalls played a conspicuous part in the 
Revolution. Colonel Thomas Marshall made an enviable record 
for gallantry. 

The limits of this sketch forbid more than a passing reference 
to the heroic services rendered by the members of this family in 
the Revolutionary War and in the late war between the States. 
There never was a draft made by the country upon the courage or 
patriotism of any member of this family which went to protest. 
In the darkest hour of war their names will be foimd on the roll 
of those who stood and fought and bled and died for what they 
believed to be right. 

William Henry Watkins is worthy of the noble ancestry behind 
him. In the early days of 1861, this young man, whose days had 



428 NORTH CAROLINA 



been spent in the com and cotton fields of his father's farm, with 
no educational advantages save those afforded by the "old field 
schools'' of his neighborhood and one term at Jonesville High 
School, responded to the call of his State. Proud of and inspired 
by the record of a line of ancestors who had never faltered or 
wavered in the face of danger, and by the memory of a sainted 
mother encouraged and sustained by the confidence of a fond 
father, ambitious to bring honor to both and, withal, victory to the 
cause he had espoused, he dropped a tear in the rapture of his 
high resolve to put the scenes of childhood's affections behind 
him and to meet with knightly nerve the stem demand of every 
duty of the dark future. Enlisting at the call of his State, he 
was placed in the Fourteenth North Carolina Regiment of the army 
of Northern Virginia, in which he scored four years of suffering, 
sacrifice and hardship, sharing with his comrades the joy and the 
bitter, the defeat and the glory, of that bloodiest of all wars in 
the annals of time. 

Returning with the scattered remnant of that glorious army, he 
found the scenes of his boyhood and the face of the old common- 
wealth, in whose name and at whose bidding he had given of his 
life's wealth, stripped, torn and bleeding — prostrate and helpless, 
in ruin — in ashes — in poverty and in the depths of sorrow. De- 
feated in name but unconquered in spirit, bruised of body but un- 
daunted and unstained in soul — he, like his comrades, faced a new 
field requiring and exacting a higher courage and a stouter nerve 
than the bloody field of battle. It was the stupendous task of re- 
pairing and rebuilding home and State. The accomplishment of 
this task makes a record not less glorious than the historic pages 
on which are preserved the deathless deeds of valor of a thousand 
fields of battle. There is no man in North Carolina who has been 
more diligent or more faithful or more steadfast in his share of 
this great work than William Henry Watkins. 

With little or no capital, save his character, energy and in- 
domitable pluck, he began the active work of life as a merchant at 
Norwood in his native county in the year 1865, where he suc- 
ceeded as he did everywhere. Three years later, on March 17, 



WILLIAM HENRY WATKINS 429 

1868, he was happily married to Miss Louisa Eunice Smitherman 
of Troy, North Carolina, daughter of Mr. Jesse Smitherman, one 
of the leading and most prominent citizens of Montgomery County. 
The issue of this marriage was six children, four of whom are 
still living. Shortly thereafter he moved to Troy, North Caro- 
lina, where he met with continued success as a merchant until 
the year 1879. In the meantime, he was elected to and held the 
office of Sheriff of Montgomery County from 1874 to 1878. In 
the year 1879 he was attracted by an unusual opportunity for in- 
vestment in a manufacturing site on Deep River in the county of 
Randolph, at a place then known as Columbia and now known as 
Ramseur. After purchasing this property he moved the same year 
to this place, his present home, and now a growing and thrifty 
town, which is the terminus of a branch of the Southern Railway 
and in which is located the large mills of the Columbia Manufac- 
turing Company and the plants of the Ramseur Furniture Com- 
pany and the Watkins-Leonard Company. The Columbia Manu- 
facturing Company is now one of the most flourishing cotton mills 
of the State and its success is due to the wise management, sleep- 
less vigilance and tireless energy of Senator Watkins, who, from 
the organization of the company, has been its active secretary and 
treasurer and general manager, as well as its largest stockholder. 

He is also president of the Sanford Cotton Mills, located at 
Sanford, North Carolina; vice-president of the Ramseur Furni- 
ture Company and the Watkins-Leonard Company, and also a di- 
rector in all of them and in several banks of the State, in all of 
which he is largely interested. 

Success has rewarded him in every field of his activity. The 
town of Ramseur in 187Q was scarcely more than a country post- 
office with a small store and one mill, and was then called and 
known as Columbia. The name of the place was later changed 
to that of Ramseur. in honor of General Ramseur of Confederate 
fame, who was Mr. Watkins's commander in the late war. The 
growth of this place into a town, the expansion of the mill into 
one of the largest manufacturing plants of the county, the estab- 
lishment of other industrial and manufacturing plants, the ex- 



430 NORTH CAROLINA 



tension of a branch railroad to this place, the establishment of 
churches and schools are largely the result of his labor, his fore- 
sight, his fine judgment and his superior business tact and ability. 
His has been and is now the leading spirit and guiding g-enius in 
the upbuilding, not only of this town but of the immediate sec- 
tion of the county adjacent thereto. 

It goes without saying that in building for others he has built for 
himself and has accumulated, since the dark days of 1865, a com- 
fortable fortune. More than that and above all, he has built for 
himself a character which, in the financial, commercial, social and 
political circles of North Carolina and elsewhere, commands the 
unstinted confidence of his fellow-men. 

In politics Senator Watkins is a Democrat of the Samuel J- 
Tilden brand. While loyal and courageous in conviction, he is 
brave enough to be independent and broad enough to be tolerant. 
This is another way of saying that he accords to every fellow-man 
the right of opinion and the freedom to express it at the ballot- 
box or elsewhere. His independence, his tolerance, his fairness, 
his superb courage and inflexible honesty have given him a high 
place in the confidence and esteem of the people. This is amply 
attested by the fact that he was never defeated in his life, althoug"h 
more than once a candidate in the face of decided Republican 
majorities against him. Time and again has he been importuned 
to permit the use of his name for political honors, but of late years, 
with two exceptions, he has resolutely refused. In 1897 he re- 
luctantly accepted a place on the County Board of Education, 
which he filled for two years, and in 1904, at the urgent solicitation 
of the people, he accepted the Democratic nomination for State 
Senator in the Twenty-third Senatorial District, composed of 
the counties of Randolph and Montgomery. It is to be noted that 
in this contest, as well as in every other political contest, he al- 
ways led his ticket. It is superfluous to add that in these public 
positions he brought to the discharge of public duty the same 
vigilance, diligence, punctuality and fidelity which have marked 
every page of his private life. 

He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and 



WILLIAM HENRY WATKINS 431 

backs his faith with his purse and his works. While modest and 
unassuming in all things, he responds to the roll-call of duty in all 
movements looking to the uplifting of his community and the bet- 
terment of his fellow-men. His public spirit is written into every 
enterprise and institution of his commimity. He is a most lovable 
man. Gentle as a woman, modest as a school boy, generous and 
forgiving in thought and in speech, highminded and cleanhanded 
in his intercourse with his fellows, of knightliest nerve and kind- 
liest impulse, of sunny nature and amiable spirit, brave and true as 
steel, he loves his fellow-men, and were it within his power this 
life would be longer, fuller, larger, richer, better and sweeter. If 
the writer was called upon to express it all in one word — it would 
be kindliness — the greatest thing, after all, in the affairs of this 
life. 

This a running sketch of a man whose years have covered the 
most momentous and stupendous events of his country's history 
and witnessed the most wondrous transformations in every phase 
and department of human life, and who has worn and borne 
through them all and amid it all "the white flower of a blameless 
life." It is worth while to have lived these years and won success 
in the fierce and rapid clash of change and growth. The scars of 
the battlefield are now tender memories whose aroma adds sweet- 
ness to the fleeting hours of the evening of life. The hard and 
fierce struggles for victory in the bloodless fields of commercial 
warfare and in all the every-day lines of life and human endeavor 
have brought the comfort of rich reward to the declining years of 
a strenuous and eventful life. The sixty-seven years of this life 
have been full of toil and trial and struggle. In war and in peace, 
the full measure of duty has been met at every point and in every 
crisis. There is not a blot on a single page of its fine record. As 
a soldier he wore the white plume of a Murat in every test of cour- 
age and sacrifice and hardship. In the peaceful pursuits of private 
life, he has illustrated every virtue of the correct business man 
and emphasized every trait of the model citizen. Truly he has 
done well his part. He belongs to the flower of North Carolina's 
chivalry. 



432 



NORTH CAROLINA 



It is not a matter of wonder that Time has dealt gently with this 
sunny, sweet-spirited, lovable and strongly built man. Nor is it 
strange that as he enters the realm of the lengthening shadows, 
his thoughts should turn more fondly and constantly to the church 
of his faith and his choice, in which he is now a leader and a pillar 
of strength and at whose altar he will watch and wait for the 
serene and beautiful sunset of his busy career. 

G, S, Bradshazv, 






^ 



^zz^ 





STEPHEN BEAUREGARD WEEKS 




!N North Carolina there was an intermittent 
interest in the Staters history during the greater 
part of the last century, confined generally to 
a few individuals or small groups. The earlier 
period produced Burkitt and Readers "History 
of the Kehukee Association" (1803), William- 
son's "History of North Carolina" (1812), and Martin's "History 
of North Carolina" (1829). 

The middle period was more prolific, and furnished a group 
of able men, who made extensive additions to the literature of the 
subject. Judge Murphey, Governor Swain, Doctor Hawks, 
Colonel Wheeler, Jo Seawell Jones, Governor Graham, Judge 
Battle, Mr. George Davis, Professor Hubbard, Doctor Foote, 
Doctor Caruthers, Purifoy, Reichel, McRee and others would have 
brought about a genuine historical awakening but for the Civil 
War. As it was, they produced Jones's "Defence" and "Memo- 
rials," Footers "Sketches," Purifoy's "Sandy Creek," Reichel's 
"Moravians," Caruther's "Caldwell" and "Old North State in 
1776" (series one and two), the "Revolutionary History of North 
Carolina," McRee's "Life of Iredell," the brilliant series of papers 
in the old University Magazine, and many addresses, pamphlets 
and newspaper articles. 

The Civil War period yielded one pamphlet, "Nathaniel Macon," 
bv Weldon N. Edwards. 



434 NORTH CAROLINA 

The later period was characterized by a body of bright and 
gifted writers, including Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer, Major 
Sloan, Doctor Battle, Doctor Huifham, Doctor Kingsbury, Colonel 
Saunders, Judge Schenck, Major Moore, Doctor Bernheim, 
Colonel Waddell, Captain Ashe, Bishop Cheshire, Chief Justice 
Clark, Colonel Creecy, Major Graham, Doctor Vass, Doctor 
Taylor, Doctor Clewell and others worthy of high mention. In 
this enumeration the younger writers have been purposely omitted, 
because it is conceived that they represent a distinct class and a 
new departure in this field of literature. It is to be noted that 
none of those named were trained to historical investigation, and 
none of them except the venerable Doctor .Battle have followed 
it as a profession. The seminary method did not characterize their 
work, and there were times when it was difficult to discover 
whether the statements of some rested on authority or tradition. 
They had liberty, and sometimes used it with much freedom. 
Their culture was broad and their view was large. They were 
frequently weak on fact, but strong on interpretation. They 
understood the bearing of things, and translated dry details into 
living pictures of real life. 

Near the close of the century a new school of historical writers 
came to the front, composed of the younger men, who were 
trained in the science of historical investigation, principally at 
Johns Hopkins University, which they adopted as a profession. 
The old school sought such details as were needed for the picture 
in hand. The new school was not picturesque. It sought to 
complete the record by giving all the facts and noting the authority 
for every statement. The one was strong in its generalization 
and its interpretation, the other in its investigation and complete- 
ness of detail. It is not intended to discredit the accuracy of the 
one nor the understanding of the other, but to note the existence 
of the two, and to show the trend and emphasis of each. Among 
the leaders of the new school are Stephen B. Weeks, Charles Lee 
Smith, J. S. Bassett, E. W. Sikes, C. L. Raper, W. E. Dodd and 
M. De L. Haywood. 

Stephen Beauregard Weeks is second of these in point of time 



STEPHEN BEAUREGARD WEEKS 435 

and first in the extent of his writing. He was bom in lower 
Pasquotank County, North Carolina, February 2, 1865, of English 
and Huguenot ancestry. 

The Weeks family was of Devonshire, England, extraction, and 
appeared in North Carolina as early as 1727, when Thomas 
Weekes settled in Perquimans County, where he died in 1762, 
leaving five sons and a daughter. He was a large landowner, 
and is mentioned in the old records as '^gentleman" and "school- 
teacher." He appears to have possessed considerable education 
and to have occupied a position of influence and leadership. He 
was sheriff of the county, representative in the Assembly and 
for many years one of the justices of the county. In the fourth 
generation from Thomas Weekes, James Elliott Weeks, father 
of the subject of our sketch, was born. The same sturdy qualities 
that marked the career of his earliest known ancestor characterized 
his life. He was without political ambition, and his only office was 
in the militia. He was a Methodist, with the industrious habits 
of those excellent people, and was looked up to as a leader. He 
died when Stephen was eighteen months old, leaving him a fair 
estate for the times. 

Doctor Weeks's mother was Mary Louisa Mullen (formerly 
Moullin), and his earliest known maternal ancestor in this country 
was Abraham Moullin, of Huguenot family, who came from Vir- 
ginia and settled in Perquimans County prior to March, 1732. 
Through his mother's mother, who was a McDonald, he claims 
descent from Bryan McDonald, who was slain at Glencoe. 

Upon his mother's death, when he was three years old, he was 
cared for by an aunt, Mrs. Robertson Jackson, of Pasquotank 
County, who with her husband reared him as their own child. He 
was required to work on the farm, and was well grounded in 
habits of industry, economy and sobriety. He pays this high 
tribute to the faithfulness and aff'ection of these foster parents : 
"I knew no other home. ... I became to them as a son. They 
were most surely all that parents could have been. . . . God 
never made a nobler man than Robertson Jackson, quiet, peace- 
able, unambitious, unassuming, uneducated, but withal one of 



436 NORTH CAROLINA 

nature's noblemen, to whom all his neighbors looked up for com- 
fort, advice and help of any sort that was needed — one of the 
gentlest of men." 

Young Weeks attended the rather poor country schools of his 
neighborhood until he reached the age of fifteen years, when he 
left the farm and entered the school of T. J. and W. D. Horner, 
at Henderson, North Carolina, where he was prepared for en- 
trance to the State University, at Chapel Hill. This school justly 
ranked as one of the best preparatory schools of the State, and 
was noted for the thoroughness of its work. Both principals 
were men of fine scholarship and studious habits, and the younger 
was a graduate of the University of North Carolina. The senior, 
Reverend T. J. Horner, was a Baptist preacher, who ministered 
principally to churches in Granville County. He was a younger 
brother of the late James H. Homer, of Oxford, with whom he 
was associated in teaching for many years. He was distinguished 
for his scholarship and fine teaching ability, and was very highly 
esteemed in his community. His age and failing health and the 
bad health of his son and associate, Mr. W. D. Horner, led to a 
suspension of the school about the year 1886. He has been dead 
several years. The son yet lives in Henderson, highly esteemed 
by his neighbors. Doctor Weeks writes of the father : "His influ- 
ence was elevating and ennobling, and inspired and encouraged 
me, as did that of Herbert B. Adams, of the Johns Hopkins." 
This association of these two names is a high but just tribute to 
Mr. Homer, who gave to Doctor Weeks his first real intellectual 
impulse. 

From Henderson young Weeks went to the University of North 
Carolina, where he took the degree of A.B. in 1886. During 
two years of post-graduate work there in English language and 
literature, German and Latin, he took A.M. in 1887 and Ph.D. in 
1888. He says: "These two years were among the most valuable 
of my life in giving me ideals and ability to write, and acquaintance 
with the masters." The three following years, 1888-91, were 
spent as honorary Hopkins scholar at Johns Hopkins University 
in the study of history, English language, political science and 



STEPHEN BEAUREGARD WEEKS 437 

political economy. These latter studies were more emphasized at 
first; later, by force of what he calls **invincible attraction," he 
turned lo history, and made that his life work. From this Uni- 
versity he received the Ph.D. degree in 1891. 

At the close of his student work at the University of North 
Carolina, he was on June 12, 1888, united in marriage with 
Miss Mary Lee Martin, daughter of Reverend Joseph Bonaparte 
Martin of the North Carolina Conference, Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, from 1844 until his death in 1897. Mr. Martin 
was a grandson of General Joseph Martin, pioneer, Indian fighter, 
Indian agent, early settler of Tennessee and legislator in Virginia 
and North Carolina; he was a man of marvelous devotion to his 
work, and more pleased with its fruitage than concerned for its 
emoluments. Mrs. Weeks died May 19, 1891 ; two children were 
bom of this marriage, and one, Robertson Jackson Weeks, a youth 
of seventeen years, survives his mother. 

His second marriage was with Miss Sallie Mangum Leach, at 
Trinity College, North Carolina, June 28, 1893. She is the 
daughter of Colonel Martin W. Leach of Randolph County, North 
Carolina, and niece of General J. Madison Leach, member of 
Congress, who is yet remembered as one of the most remarkable 
and versatile political campaigners in the State. She is grand- 
daughter of Honorable Willie P. Mangum, representative and 
senator from North Carolina in the Congress of the United States, 
and president of the Ignited States Senate, 1842-45, whose career 
was highly distinguished and altogether honorable to the State. 
She is also a descendant of the Cain and Alston families. There 
have been four children of this marriage, of whom two are now 
living. 

The active career of Doctor Weeks began with his entrance upon 
the professorship of history and political science at Trinity Col- 
lege (old Trinity, Randolph County), in September, 1891. He 
continued with the college during the first year after its removal 
to Durham, and successfully organized its Department of 
History, established the Trinity College Historical Society, 
created an interest among the students in historical work, and or- 



438 NORTH CAROLINA 



ganized the college library, which has since grown into such 
splendid proportions under intelligent administration and the lib- 
eral gifts of the Messrs. Duke. He resigned in June, 1893, owing 
to differences between President Crowell and members of the 
faculty and spent the Summer lecturing in Philadelphia, and in 
historical investigations in Wisconsin. In the Fall he returned 
to Baltimore and spent the following year as a fellow by courtesy 
in Johns Hopkins University, giving a portion of his time to the 
study of Roman law and comparative jurisprudence, and the re- 
mainder to original investigations along historical lines. 

Even before this time Doctor Weeks had become interested in 
North Carolina history, and a collector of the historical materials 
of the State. His first impulse in that direction came from his 
appointment, 1884-87, by the Philanthropic Society of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, to edit its register of members. He 
writes: "By my study of the old register I became acquainted 
with the great men of the University ; they became my familiar 
friends, and I knew them as perhaps no one else has known them ; 
from these, through Wheeler's Reminiscences, I branched out into 
the general history and biography of the State and the work was 
done." He became an untiring collector of everything pertaining 
to North Carolina. It has been a hobby in which he has surpassed 
all others. He now has more than 3300 books, pamphlets and 
magazines dealing in whole or in part with that State. It is prob- 
ably the most complete collection of books on North Carolina; 
certainly, outside of newspapers and State publications, it is better 
than any owned by the State. To a collector a most interesting 
feature of this collection is one in which Doctor Weeks himself 
takes great pride and for which he makes this claim : 

"I have beyond question one of the finest collections of North Caro- 
lina autographs in existence, including the greater part of the corre- 
spondence of Calvin H. Wiley, that of Daniel R. Goodloe, the extensive 
and varied correspondence of Willie P. Mangum and a part of that of 
Willie P. Mangum, Jr. Speaking roughly, I have perhaps 3000 letters and 
autographs from men who have been prominent in North Carolina from 
the Lords Proprietors to the present day." 



STEPHEN BEAUREGARD WEEKS 439 

During his educational period of which we have spoken, 
Doctor Weeks had already given to the public the first fruits of 
his studies in the following monographs: "History of Young 
Men's Christian Association Movement in North Carolina, 
i8S7-88" (Raleigh, 1888) ; "The Press of North Carolina in the 
Eighteenth Century" (Brooklyn, 1891); "The Lost Colony of 
Roanoke; its Fate and Survival" (New York, 1891) ; "The Re- 
ligious Development in the Province of North Carolina" (Balti- 
more, 1892) ; "Church and State in North Carolina" (Baltimore, 

1893) ; "The History of Negro Suffrage in the South" (Boston, 

1894) ; "General Joseph Martin and the War of the Revolution 
in the West" (Washington, 1894). 

Of these, the two dealing with religious conditions in North 
Carolina touched upon controverted questions, and from the fact 
that they did not give entire satisfaction to any of the parties to 
such controversies it may be fairly inferred that he acted with 
independence in his study. At any rate, a student must accept 
these books as able, thoughtful and painstaking contributions to 
the subjects with which they deal, and as a distinct advance upon 
any previous work of like character. 

In July, 1894, Doctor Weeks accepted a position with the United 
States Bureau of Education, nominally as confidential clerk of 
the commissioner. In reality he became associate editor of the 
commissioner's reports, passing upon everything that went into 
them and making such editorial changes and emendations as 
seemed well. He was also a contributor of monographs to these 
reports from year to year until 1899. It was a position that gave 
him opportunity for indulging his taste for historical investiga- 
tion. Indeed, much of his official employment was along that line, 
and he issued the following additional contributions: 

"A Bibliography of the Historical Literature of North Carolina" 
(Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1895) ; "Libraries and Literature in 
North Carolina in the Eighteenth Century" (Washington, 1896) ; 
"Address on the University of North Carolina in the Civil War" 
(Richmond, 1896) ; "Southern Quakers and Slavery" (Balti- 
more, 1896) ; "Preliminary List of American Learned and Edu- 



440 NORTH CAROLINA 

cational Societies" (Washington, 1896) ; "On the Promotion of 
Historical Studies in the South" (Washington, 1897) ; "Anti- 
Slavery Sentiment in the South" (Washington, 1898) ; "Begin- 
nings of the Common School System in the South; or, Calvin 
Henderson Wiley and the Organization of Common Schools in 
North Carolina" (Washington, 1898). 

This last of his publications in book form is probably the most 
complete and exhaustive work yet undertaken by any one uf>on any 
phase of North Carolina history. Indeed one v^ill hardly read 
any of his monographs without an impression of his wonderful 
diligence and capacity in gathering and using materials. 

In April, 1896, during his connection with the Bureau of Edu- 
cation, he assisted in the organization of the Southern History 
Association, in co-operation with Doctor Colyer Meriwether, of 
South Carolina; Doctor Thomas M. Owen, of Alabama; Doctor 
K. P. Battle, of the University of North Carolina ; Doctor J. L. M. 
Curry, General M. C. Butler, Thomas Nelson Page and a number 
of other distinguished Southerners. He has been since its or- 
ganization a member of its Administrative Council and of its Pub- 
lication Committee. The Publications of the association, of which 
some ten volumes have been issued, are of high historical value 
and importance. Doctor Weeks has been a frequent contributor 
to these papers, and has also written for the Magamne of American 
History, the Yale Reznew, the "Papers and Reports of the Ameri- 
can Historical Association," the "Studies in Historical and Politi- 
cal Science of the Johns Hopkins University," the American His- 
torical Reviezv, the "Bibliographical Contributions of Harvard 
University," and the "Papers of the Southern Historical Society.'* 
He is an active member of the American Historical Association, 
honorary life member of the Southern History Association, cor- 
responding member of the Wisconsin Historical Society and the 
Maryland Historical Society. 

The Fall of 1899 witnessed another turn in the tide of 
Doctor Weeks's affairs. His health became so seriously affected 
that he was compelled to change his residence and employment. 
He obtained a transfer to the Indian service of the National Gov- 



STEPHEN BEAUREGARD WEEKS 441 

emment and was stationed at Santa Fe, New Mexico, as principal 
teacher in an Indian school. He was made assistant superintend- 
ent of the school in July, 1903, and the same month was transferred 
to Arizona, as superintendent of the San Carlos Agency School 
on the San Carlos Apache reservation, where he is surrounded by 
the Apaches, who a few years ago were going on the warpath and 
killing every man in reach. At Santa Fe he was brought in daily 
contact with Pueblos, Navajoes, West Shoshones, Utes, Pimas, 
Papagos, Ulaahs, Puyallups, Wascos, Osages and other Indians 
of the Southwest. He finds great interest in observing the work 
of civilization among them, and speaks hopefully of their progress. 
This enforced severance from his chosen work and from asso- 
ciation with scholars of like tastes and interests has been extremely 
trying to Doctor Weeks. But it has meant life to him. His health 
has been restored. Friends continue to remember him in his far- 
away home and demand the services of his pen. Wake Forest Col- 
lege recognized his services by conferring upon him the degree 
of LL.D. in 1902, and he still has his books and his work. He 
yet follows the ruling passion and is engaged in the preparation of 
an Index to the North Carolina Census Records for 1790, an In- 
dex to the State and Colonial .Records of North Carolina, a Bib- 
liography of North Carolina, a History of Education in the South- 
em States during the Civil War, and a Life of Willie P. Mangum. 
These would be a fair life's work for many men, but no one can 
foresee what the active mind, the persistent curiosity and the rest- 
less energy of this frail student of our history may yet search out 
and spread before his fellows. He offers only one word to 
searchers after success, "work." 

Thomas M. Pittman. 





MARCELLUS WHITEHEAD 

ARCELLUS WHITEHEAD was born 
January 27, 1821, in Nelson County, Virginia, 
near Lexington, the county seat, and was the 
third child of John Whitehead and Anna Ma- 
honey Whitehead, his wife. His father was of 
a colonial family of English people, who first 
settled near Jamestown, Virginia, in the early days of the colony, 
afterward moving into York and New Kent counties, Virginia, 
whence John Whitehead, great-grandfather of Marcellus, moved 
into Amherst County, Virginia, about 1760, taking up a large 
tract of land near the mountains. This John Whitehead was a sol- 
dier of the Revolution in a militia battalion raised by Colonel Wil- 
liam Cabell, Jr., which joined Lafayette's command, and was pres- 
ent at the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Boucher White- 
head, grandfather of Marcellus, married the daughter of 
William Camden, from whom descended many notable people; 
one of his daughters married a Dent, and from this stock in Ken- 
tucky descended Julia Dent, wife of General U. S. Grant. 

John Whitehead, father of Marcellus, was a man of strong 
native ability and eminent piety, being a leading member of the 
Methodist Church, and his house was always the preacher's home : 
while his mother, Annie Mahoney, was a gentle woman of many 
virtues, devoted to her husband, her home and her children, and 
it is largely due to her influence that her sons have attained dis- 




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MARCELLUS WHITEHEAD 443 

tinction in many walks of life. One of them, Thomas Whitehead, 
was honored by his constituents with a seat in the House of Rep- 
resentatives, in the 43d Congress of the United States, and was 
afterward commissioner of agriculture of the State of Virginia; 
another, Edgar Whitehead, was a leading man of affairs, and, 
like Thomas, was a captain in the Confederate army; another, 
Robert, was one of the leading lawyers of Nelson County, while 
still another. Reverend Paul Whitehead, D.D., has achieved em- 
inence in the ministry and councils of the Methodist Church, and 
at this writing is presiding elder of the Norfolk (Virginia) dis- 
trict. Marcellus, the subject of this sketch, another son, achieved 
eminence in his chosen profession of medicine. This is truly a 
remarkable family, and in patriotic service, in statesmanship, in 
law, in divinity, and in medicine, its sons have done honor to their 
Christian rearing. Marcellus Whitehead received his academic 
training in the excellent academies and high schools of his native 
section, and after being graduated with honor, from the Rich- 
mond Medical College of Richmond, Virginia, came to Salisbury 
in 1845, and among strangers, began the practice of medicine. 
Young, handsome, neat and faultless in dress, and of engaging 
manners, he quickly made friends and acquired a practice, which 
determined his location for life. Having firmly established him- 
self, he returned to Virginia for the bride of his choice, and was 
married February, 1846, in Caroline County, Virginia, to 
Miss Virginia G. Coleman, daughter of Thomas Burdage Cole- 
man, a wealthy and influential citizen of that county. Mrs. White- 
head was a woman of fine intelligence, a devoted wife and mother, 
and a consecrated member of the Baptist Church. She survived 
her husband by several years, and to her memory a large and 
beautiful stained-glass window has been dedicated in the hand- 
some new Baptist Church in Salisbury. To this union were bom 
a number of children, of whom only Doctor John Whitehead of 
' Salisbury, North Carolina, and Doctor Richard H. Whitehead of 
the University of Virginia survive. 

Doctor Marcellus Whitehead would have worthily adorned any 
profession which he might have chosen, and in his chosen pro- 



444 NORTH CAROLINA 

fession of medicine he was facile pf^nceps. Of splendid physique, 
of magnetic presence, with features cast in a noble mold, and with 
an irresistible charm of manner, he was the very spirit of light and 
comfort and hope, in sick room and hospital ward. His almost in- 
tuitive quickness of perception made him a very master of diag- 
nosis and prognosis. During the greater part of his forty years 
of professional life, there was little of the present specialization 
in the profession, and it was his lot, in a large practice, to be at 
once physician, surgeon, obstetrician, gynaecologist, aurist and 
oculist. 

So proficient was he in every branch of his profession that his 
patients came from many surrounding towns, and he was sought 
in consultation by his professional brothers of a wide territory. 
During the Civil War he was chief surgeon of the large and im- 
portant Wayside Hospital at Salisbury, to which he not only gave 
his best work, but his entire salary, and most of his income besides. 

In 1872 Doctor Whitehead was elected President of the State 
Medical Society of North Carolina, of which he had long been a 
prominent member, and at the next meeting at Statesville, North 
Carolina, in 1873, delivered a notable and eloquent address, of 
which the report in the Statesville American of that day says : 

"Doctor Whitehead, on retiring from the chair, delivered one of the 
most beautiful addresses, not only of the session, but that we ever listened 
to. The subject was the Advancement of Medical Societies, and the duty 
of the Profession Therein. He deprecated the idea of members of the 
profession dabbling in politics, as it lowered the standard of the pro- 
fession." 

On March 20, 1875, the General Assembly of North Carolina 
passed an act to establish the State Hospital for the Insane of 
Western North Carolina, and on April 20th of that same year 
Doctor Whitehead was elected a member of the commission to 
select sites and to do whatever was necessary to build the institu- 
tion. He was instrumental in selecting the beautiful site at Mor- 
ganton, and in planning for the building and government of such 
an institution as meant a breaking away from the old North CarcH 
lina ways of indifference to public buildings, which has not only 



MARCELLUS WHITEHEAD 445 

proved a boon to the unfortunate and a credit to the State, but 
has been largely followed as a model by other States since that 
time. Doctor P. L. Murphy, the accomplished and successful 
superintendent, in a letter to the writer says : 

"Personally, I am very grateful to Doctor Whitehead for the interest 
he took in me, and indeed it was by his influence that I was elected 
superintendent. I have always felt very grateful to him for his extreme 
kindness and courtesy to me when I came here, an untried man. I re- 
member how much I was cheered by him in my arduous undertaking. He 
took a prominent part in the organization of the institution, and was of 
great service to the local officers by his advice. By reason of failing 
health he resigned in 1883." 

Doctor Whitehead was a public-spirited citizen, and interested 
himself in ever>'thing that made for the good of his fellow-men. 
While never connecting himself with any church, he was a de- 
vout believer in the great verities of religion, and the Baptist 
preachers who, in passing, made his house their home were al- 
ways hospitably and reverently entertained. Eschewing active 
participation in politics, he was yet an unswerving Democrat after 
the war, as he had been a Whig in antebellum times. 

By failing health, he was gradually withdrawn from active work 
after 1883. Stricken with that fatal malady, Bright's disease, 
whose inevitable end he knew only too well, he never murmured 
nor repined, but with unbroken spirit and much of his old-time 
cheerfulness calmly awaited the coming of the Destroyer. Sur- 
rounded by his loving family, he calmly **fell on sleep" on the 
second day of January, 1885, in the sixty-fourth year of his age, 
lamented by ever}' citizen of Salisbury. Every business house in 
the place was closed during the hours of the funeral, and an im- 
mense concourse attended as he was laid away under the Winter's 
snows. 

"The earth which holds him dead, 
Bears not alive a knightlicr gentleman." 

Theo, F. Kluttz. 




JOHN WHITEHEAD 




[OHN WHITEHEAD was born in Salisbury, 
North Carolina, on December i8, 1855. His 
father, Doctor Marcellus Whitehead (a bio- 
graphical sketch of whom appears in this vol- 
ume), was not only Salisbury's most beloved 
physician, but stood deservedly in the front rank 
of his profession in the State. His mother, Virginia G. Coleman, 
of Caroline County, Virginia, was descended from one of the old- 
est and most honored families of the Old Dominion. John White- 
head received his preparatory education in the Presbyterian High 
School of Salisbury, then one of the best in the State. In 1871, 
when fifteen years of age, he entered Davidson College, and after 
a full four years' course was graduated at the age of nineteen, with 
high honor in the class of 1875, delivering the salutatory address. 
After leaving college he studied medicine for one and a half years, 
under the direction of his father, in Salisbury, and in 1877 entered 
the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, whence 
he was graduated in 1880, with second honor in a class of one hun- 
dred and fifteen graduates, winning the prize for his thesis on the 
'* Anatomy and Physiology of the Marrow of the Bones." For 
equal excellence this prize was shared by his warm personal friend 
and room-mate, Doctor George Rose, of Norfolk, Virginia. 

In high school, in college and in the University, an assidu- 
ous student, he was thoroughly equipped for his chosen profes- 



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JOHN WHITEHEAD 447 

sion, when he returned to Salisbury in 1880; and, entering into 
partnership with his distinguished father, began a practice which 
was at once successful and remunerative, and which has so con- 
tinued to this day. Always a student, fond of original investiga- 
tion, keeping well abreast of the literature of his profession, and 
of all the advancements therein. Doctor Whitehead has achieved 
a deserved success as a practitioner, such as is vouchsafed to few. 
His practice is limited only by his physical ability to answer the 
incessant and widespread calls which are made for his services, 
and, unlike too many of his professional brethren, it has been 
remunerative and profitable as well. 

Absolutely correct in his habits, neat in his dress, courteous and 
gentle in his ministrations in sick-room and hospital, as well as 
in his intercourse with his fellows, it is no wonder that he is loved 
and honored as few men have been. 

A surgeon of rare skill himself, he early appreciated the crying 
need of his community for a hospital, and after unsuccessfully 
trying the experiment of a charity hospital, he founded what is now 
the Whitehead-Stokes Sanitarium, whose capacity is constantly 
taxed by patients from many surrounding communities, who come 
to receive surgical relief at the hands of Doctor Whitehead and his 
accomplished associate, Doctor J. Ernest Stokes. This institu- 
tion has proven what Doctor Whitehead designed it should be, a 
blessing to suffering humanity. 

Following in the footsteps of his sainted mother, Doctor White- 
head is a devoted and consistent member of the Baptist Church, 
and is rarely absent from its services or its commu